Board of Directors Approved Minutes: August 5 & 9, 2003

Present: Robert J. Sternberg, PhD; Diane F. Halpern, PhD; Philip G. Zimbardo, PhD; Ronald F. Levant, EdD; Gerald P. Koocher, PhD; Norman B. Anderson, PhD; Barry S. Anton, PhD; Charles L. Brewer, PhD; Paul L. Craig, PhD; Carol D. Goodheart, EdD; Katherine C. Nordal, PhD; J. Bruce Overmier, PhD; Chris W. Loftis, MS (APAGS representative). 
Partial Attendance: Thomas J. DeMaio, PhD, and Ruth Ullmann Paige, PhD (incoming Board members)

Absent: None.

I.  Minutes of meeting

A.(1)  The Board voted to approve the minutes of the June 6-8, 2003, meeting of the Board of Directors.

II. Elections, awards, membership and human resources

A.(2)  The Board voted to recommend that Council reject the following main motion of Council new business item #26A:

The motion recommends an amendment to the first sentence of Association Rule 10-11.1 to read (proposed text is underlined):

Any member who has reached the age of 65, has retired from active professional employment, and has belonged to the APA for a total period of 25 years, or, regardless of age or length of membership, has been adjudged totally and permanently disabled, may choose to become a dues-exempt member by so advising Central Office of his or her eligibility.

The Board also voted to recommend that Council reject the following substitute motion, originated by the Membership Committee:

That Council approves amending the Bylaws and Association Rules as follows and forwards the Bylaws change to the membership for a vote (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):

APA Bylaws
XIX-6 Dues and subscriptions

XIX-6 Any Fellow, Member, or Associate member who has reached the age of sixty-five, has retired from full-time professional employment, and has been a member of the Association for at least twenty-five years shall become eligible for a dues reduction process, culminating in dues exemption. Such members shall retain all rights and privileges of membership in the Association except the privilege of receiving those publications of the Association ordinarily provided to its members as a membership benefit. In order to permit the receipt of such publications, however, an option to pay a reasonable subscription price/servicing fee for them shall be made available to dues-exempt members. (For purposes of this Subsection, membership in the American Association of Applied Psychology prior to its amalgamation with the American Psychological Association shall be counted.)

Assoociation rules
10-11 Life member status(Dues exemption)

10-11.1  Any member who has reached the age of 65, has retired from full-time professional employment, and has belonged to the APA for a total of 25 years, may choose to begin the dues-reduction process, culminating in dues exemption by so advising Central Office of his or her eligibility.  Any member who, regardless of age or length of membership, has been adjudged totally and permanently disabled, may choose to become exempt from dues by so advising Central Office of his or her eligibility.  Ordinarily, the transfer in status will become effective as of the January 1 immediately following the member's request, but in appropriate circumstances the change in status may be made effective as of the previous January 1.

210 5.2 The annual dues of Members, including Fellows, shall be determined by Council.  Dues for first year, second year, third year, and fourth-year Members shall be based on the following schedule:

  • First Year Members  set annually by the Membership Committee, usually between 25%  to 30% of regular Member dues

  • Second Year Members 50% of regular Member dues

  • Third Year Members 70% of regular Member dues

  • Fourth-Year Members 90% of regular Member dues

Dues for Associate members shall be determined by Council.  Dues for first year Associate members shall be 50% of regular Associate dues.

Dues for Members and Associate members who [have reached both 65 years of age and 25 years of membership] are eligible for the dues reduction process as stated in Association Rule 10-11, and have advised Central Office of their choice to begin the dues-reduction process, shall receive dues reduction based on the following schedule.  At any step in the process where dues are less than the current subscription price/servicing fee, the latter shall prevail.

Step 1 (first year) – 90% of regular dues
Step 2 (second year) – 70% of regular dues 
Step 3 (third year) – 50 % of regular dues 
Step 4 (fourth year) – 30 % of regular dues 
Step 5 (fifth year) – full dues exemption

When full dues exemption is attained, the subscription price/servicing fee option becomes available.

The Board noted that the item was submitted prior to the dues reduction process becoming effective and believes the dues reduction process addresses some of the issues outlined in the new business item.  Dr. Koocher, one of the movers of the item, noted that he would ask the other movers of the item if they would be willing to request that the new business item be withdrawn from Council’s agenda in February 2004.
B. In executive session, the Board voted to approve and forward to the Council of Representatives the list of initial Fellow Status nominees, on the nominated of the indicated divisions and on the recommendation of the Membership Committee. The Board thanked the Membership Committee for its work in expediting the election of George P. Taylor, PhD, as initial fellow of Division 42.

III. Ethics

No items.

IV. Board of Directors

A. The Board met with members of the Board of Directors of the Association for the Advancement
of Psychology (AAP). 

B.(7A)  The Board discussed the item “Final Report and Recommendations of the Presidential Task Force on Governance.”  The Board expressed its support for the final report.

V. Divisions and state and provencial associations

A.(8) The Board was informed that an IRS 990 was received from Division 23, Society for Consumer Psychology, thereby bringing all divisions reviewed under the “5-Year of Review of Divisions” in compliance.

VI. Organization of the APA

No items.

VII. Publications and communications

No items.

VIII. Convention affairs

B.(2A)  The Board voted to approve, in principle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada as the site for the 2009 annual convention to be held within the period of August 3-11, 2009, subject to negotiation of acceptable terms and appropriate contracts.  The Board voted to authorize the CEO, in consultation with the CFO and General Counsel, to contract with Toronto, Ontario, Canada as the site for the 2009 convention, on favorable terms that are deemed in the best interest of the Association and, if unable to negotiate such terms, to report back to the Board.
The Board requested that convention sites be included as a topic on its October 2003 retreat agenda, including consideration of holding the convention in Washington, DC, every other year.

IX. Educational affairs

No items.

X. Professional affairs

A.  The Board met with members of the Board of the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) who provided the Board with an overview of the board certification process and the development of specialization in the profession over the last decade.

XI. Scientific affairs

A.(3)  The Board discussed the item “Open Access to Publishing.”  The Board requested that staff 
monitor and keep the Board informed regarding the progress on the bill “Public Access to Science Act.” 
XII. Public interest

A.(4)  The Board voted to recommend that Council adopt the following APA Resolution on Children’s Mental Health, after citations and references have been incorporated where missing from “whereas” statements:

APA Resolution on Children's Mental Health
June 11, 2003

The Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A National Action Agenda states that the “nation is facing a public crisis in mental healthcare for infants, children and adolescents. Many children have mental health problems that interfere with normal development and functioning” (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Currently, the best epidemiological evidence indicates that between 10 and 15% of children and adolescents in the United States suffer from a mental disorder severe enough to cause some level of functional impairment (Burns et al., 1995; Shaffer et al., 1996; Roberts, Attkisson, & Rosenblatt, 1998) however, only about 1 in 5 of these children receive specialty mental health services (Burns et al.). The World Health Organization indicates that by the year 2020, childhood psychiatric disorders will rise proportionately by over 50% internationally, and will become one of the 5 most common causes of morbidity, mortality, and disability among children. The Surgeon General’s report highlights the lack of a unified infrastructure nationwide to provide mental health services to children, leading to fragmented treatment services, limited prevention and early identification, and low priorities for resources.

Given the vicissitudes of healthy child  development, the complexities of child mental disorders, and the multiple settings in which children live, grow, and function, there is need for a comprehensive policy to promote child mental health. According to the Surgeon General’s report “Mental health in childhood and adolescence is defined by the achievement of expected developmental cognitive, social, and emotional milestones and by secure attachments, satisfying social relationships, and effective coping skills.  Mentally healthy children and adolescents enjoy a positive quality of life; function well at home, in school, and in their communities; and are free of disabling symptoms of psychopathology” (Hoagwood et al., 1996).

The report further suggests the need for a community health system for children’s mental health that balances mental health promotion, disease prevention, early detection, and universal access to care. This system must include a balanced research agenda, including basic biomedical, clinical, behavioral, health services, and community-based prevention research, address the issue of stigma, and eliminate racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in access to quality mental health care services (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000).

WHEREAS psychology has been in the lead in demonstrating the importance of mental health in child development (Burns, Hoagwood, & Mrazek, 1999; Coie et al., 1993; Mrazek, & Haggerty, 1990; Marsh & Fristad, 2002; Wolchik & Sandler, 1997).

WHEREAS psychology is committed to providing the highest quality mental health care to children based on the best available evidence derived from ecologically valid research and evaluation of promotion, prevention, and treatment interventions.

WHEREAS there are various types of useful evidence of the effectiveness of interventions, including clinical consensus, program evaluations, research using randomized experimental and quasi-experimental designs, single-subject designs, and successful replicated demonstrations of effectiveness in real world settings.

WHEREAS psychology has taken a leadership role in developing mental health promotion, prevention, and treatment interventions that meet high standards of effectiveness.

WHEREAS there is inadequate access to appropriate evidence-based promotion, prevention, and treatment services for children with, or at risk for, mental disorders (Paavola, 1994; Weisz, Donenberg, Han, & Weiss, 1995).

WHEREAS stigma regarding mental health imposes risk for children, and impedes understanding of mental health issues and access to needed mental health services (Corrigan & Lundin, 2002).

WHEREAS there is a disparity of access to appropriate evidence based promotion, prevention, and treatment services based on poverty, ethnicity, race, and special needs of children (Leong, 2001; Rollock & Gordon, 2000; U.S. Department of  Health and Human Services, 2001).

WHEREAS there is inadequate financing for culturally competent, appropriate, evidence-based promotion, prevention, and treatment services (Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, 1999; Sturm et al., 2000).

WHEREAS there is a need for increased research on the translation of evidence-based practices into promotion, prevention, or treatment services that are appropriate for children, families, schools, and communities in real world settings (Burns, 1999; Burns & Friedman, 1990; Burns & Hoagwood, 2002; Clarke, 1995; Kazdin & Weisz, 1998; Schoenwald &  Hoagwood, 2001).

WHEREAS there is a need for increased research on the effectiveness of promotion, prevention, and treatment services for children, families, schools, and communities that are developed by practitioners dealing with problems and varied contexts in the community (Weisz, Donenberg, Hans, & Weiss, 1995).

WHEREAS there is an increased need for research on assessment and diagnosis of children’s mental health problems and strengths in the context of their culture, family, school and community.

WHEREAS there is a shortage of trained providers to deliver culturally competent evidence-based promotion, prevention, and treatment services for children (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999; U.S. Public Health Service, 2000).


The American Psychological Association (APA) take a significant leadership role to support and advocate that it is every child’s right to have access to culturally competent, developmentally appropriate, family oriented, evidence-based, high-quality mental health services that are in accessible settings.

APA take a leadership role in ensuring that the utilization of promotion, prevention, and treatment interventions for child mental health meet the highest standards of available evidence.
APA collaborate with other organizations, consumers, and policy makers to develop and implement a primary mental health care system for children that integrates culturally competent, evidence-based, high quality, promotion, prevention, and treatment services for children, families, schools and communities.

APA provide leadership, support, and advocacy for basic and applied research to develop culturally appropriate knowledge on the promotion of mental health and the prevention and treatment of mental health problems, to translate findings from research into effective services and to evaluate services that are developed at the community level.

APA support and advocate for developing adequate funding sources that are coordinated and efficient for supporting a primary mental health care system.

APA support, advocate, and provide leadership for education and training that builds upon culturally competent, evidence–based promotion of mental health and prevention and treatment of mental health problems for all children, and reduces economic, racial, and ethnic disparities.


Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. (1999). Making sense of Medicaid for children with serious emotional disturbance. Washington, D.C.: Author.

Burns, B. J., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer, E. M., & Erkanli, A. (1995). Children’s mental health service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 14, 147-159.

Burns, B., & Friedman, R. (1990). Examining the research base for child mental health services and policy. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 17, 87-98. 

Burns, B & Hoagwood, K. (Eds.). (2002). Community treatment for youth:  Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders. New York:  Oxford University Press.

Burns, B., Hoagwood, K., & Mrazek, P. (1999). Effective treatment for mental disorders in children and adolescents. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2(4), 199-254.

Clarke, G. N. (1995). Improving the transition from basic efficacy research to effectiveness studies: Methodological issues and procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 718-725.

Coie, J., Watt, N., West, S., Hawkins, J., Asarnow, J., Markman, J., Ramey, S., Shire, M., & Long, B. (1993). The science of prevention: A conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 4(8), 1013-22.

Corrigan, P., & Lundin, R. (2002). Don’t call me nuts:  Coping with the stigma of mental illness. Chicago:University of Chicago Recovery Press. 

Hoagwood, K. (2001). Evidence-based practice in children’s mental health services: What do we know? Why aren’t we putting it to use? Report on Emotional & Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 1(4), 84-88. 

 Kazdin, A. E., & Weisz, J. R. (1998). Identifying and developing empirically supported child and adolescent treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 19-36.

Leong, F. (Ed.). (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Mental Health Services Research, 3(4).

Marsh, D., & Fristad, M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents.  New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Mrazek, P., & Haggerty, R. (Eds.). (1990). Handbook of early childhood intervention:  Frontiers in preventive intervention research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

Paavola, J. et al. (1994). Comprehensive and coordinated psychological services for children: A call for service integration. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Task Force on Comprehensive and Coordinated Psychological Services for Children: Ages 0-10.

Roberts, R., Attkisson, C., & Rosenblatt, A. (1998). Prevalence of psychopathology among children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 715-725.

Rollock, D., & Gordon, E. (2000). Racism and mental health into the 21st century:  Perspectives and parameters. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1), 5-14.
Schoenwald, S. K., & Hoagwood, K. (2001). Effectiveness, transportability, and dissemination of interventions: What matters when? Psychiatric Services, 52, 1190-1197.

Shaffer, D., Fisher, D., Dulcan,M. K., Davies, M., Piacentini, J., Schwab Stone, M. E., Lahey, B. B., Blurdon, K., Jensen, P. S., Bird, H. R., Canino, G., & Regier, D., A. (1996). The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3: Description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA Study. Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 865-877.

Sturm, R., Ringel, J., Bao, C., Stein, B., Kapur, K., Zhang, W., & Zeng, F. (2000).  National estimates of mental health utilization and expenditures for children in 1998 (working Paper 205). Los Angeles, CA: Research Center on Managed Care for Psychiatric Disorders.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health:  A report of the Surgeon General.  Rockville, MD.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health:  Culture, race and ethnicity. (A supplement to Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General.) Rockville, MD.

United States Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General’s conference on children’s mental health: A national action agenda. Rockville, MD.

Weisz, J., Donenberg, G., Han, S., & Weiss, B. (1995). Bridging the gap between lab and clinic in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 688-701.

Wolchik, S. A., & Sandler, I. N. (1997). Handbook of children's coping with common life stressors. New York: Plenum.

B.(5)  The Board voted to recommend that Council receive the report of the Early Mental Health Interventions Working Group titled “Addressing Missed Opportunities in Early Childhood Mental Health Interventions: Current Knowledge and Policy Implications.”

C.(6)  The Board discussed the memorandum from the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI) regarding enhancing diversity within APA governance and staffing and noted it would welcome consideration of any specific recommendations forwarded by BAPPI regarding this issue.

XIII. Ethnic minority affairs

No items.

XIV. International affairs

No items.

XV. Central Office

No items.

XVI. Financial affairs 
A.(7)  The Board voted to accept the 2002 Consolidated Financial Statements as of December 31, 2002, the Report to Management, and the Report on Federal Award Programs (A-133).  The Board voted to reappoint PricewaterhouseCoopers to conduct the 2003 audit/tax work provided that an acceptable contract (i.e. adequately addressing costs, scope of work and clarification of expectations) can be negotiated by the Treasurer (representing the interests of the Finance Committee) in concert with financial services staff.