Board of Directors Approved Minutes: December 12–14, 2003

Present: Robert J. Sternberg, PhD; Diane F. Halpern, PhD; Philip G. Zimbardo, PhD; Ronald F. Levant, EdD; Gerald P. Koocher, PhD; Norman B. Anderson, PhD; Barry S. Anton, PhD; Charles L. Brewer, PhD; Paul L. Craig, PhD; Carol D. Goodheart, EdD; Katherine C. Nordal, PhD; J. Bruce Overmier, PhD; Chris Loftis, MS (APAGS representative); Thomas J. DeMaio, PhD, and Ruth Ullmann Paige, PhD, Sandra L. Shullman, PhD (incoming Board members); David W. Ballard, PsyD (incoming APAGS representative)

Absent: None.


I. MINUTES OF MEETING

A.(1) The Board voted to approve the minutes of the August 5 & 9, 2003, meeting of the Board of Directors.

II. ELECTIONS, AWARDS, MEMBERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCES

A.(2) In executive session, the Board voted to approve the following policy regarding the APA awards

selection and approval process: 1) each APA awards committee shall develop a process that reflects consideration of candidates' adherence to the APA Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct; 2) the awards committees make the determination for selection of award recipients; 3) the Board of Directors shall be provided with the name of an award recipient at least 30 days prior to the award recipient or the public being informed.

B.(3) The Board voted to approve the establishment of two annual Raymond D. Fowler Awards for Outstanding Contributions to APA: one for an APA staff member and one for an APA Member. Award Recipients will receive $1,000 honoraria. The Board also voted to approve 1) that the APA Member recipient will also receive up to $1,000 for expenses associated with travel to the APA annual convention; 2) Raymond D. Fowler, PhD, as the APA Member recipient of the 2004 Raymond D. Fowler Award for Outstanding Contributions to APA; that the President, Past President and President-elect will serve as the subcommittee to review nominations and make recommendations to the Board for future recipients of the Member award.

C.(4) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the inclusion of $83,800 in the 2004 Final Budget to fund special projects for membership recruitment and retention in 2004, with a portion of the funding devoted to the recruitment of ethnic minority students into the psychology pipeline.

D.(5) The Board voted to allocate $35,000 from the President's discretionary fund to support the 2004 presidential initiatives on Work-Family Synthesis, Retiring Psychologists and Multilingual Materials on Prejudice.

E. In executive session, the Board took action on the following appointments:

  1. Approved Chris E. Stout, PsyD, as the recipient of the 2004 APA Humanitarian Award.

  2. Approved the appointments of Daniel A. Krauss, JD, PhD; Randy K. Otto, PhD; and Mark Zelig, PhD; to the Committee on Legal Issues, for terms beginning January 1, 2004, and ending December 31, 2006.

  3. Approved the appointment of Alexandra Rutherford, PhD, to the History Oversight Committee for a term beginning January 1, 2004, and ending December 31, 2006.

  4. Approved the appointments to continuing committees for terms beginning January 1, 2004, and ending December 31, 2006 (Attachment A)

  5. Appointed Dorothy W. Cantor, PsyD, and Katherine C. Nordal, PhD, to serve as Trustees to APAIT for terms beginning January 1, 2004, and ending December 31, 2006.

III. ETHICS

A. In executive session, the Board took action on seven ethics cases.

IV. BOARD OF DIRECTORS

A.(6) The Board voted to approve the following meeting dates for 2005:

  • February 16 & 17

  • April 15–17

  • June 10–12

  • August 16 & 20

  • October 7–9

  • December 9–11

B.(7) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following motion:

Council of Representatives establishes a three-year trial of Representation and Information Exchange Sessions.

At the discretion of the President, Council will break out into one or two ninety-minute to two hour Representation and Information Exchange Sessions at each February meeting.

There will be topical groups reflecting the structure of the organization, meeting simultaneously, such as:

Education: COR members in dialogue with the chairperson of the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA) and the Executive Director for Education.

Practice: COR members in dialogue with the chairpersons of Board of Professional Affairs (BPA), Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP) and the Executive Director for Practice.

Public Interest: COR members in dialogue with the chairperson of the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI) and the Executive Director for Public Interest.

Science: COR members in dialogue with the chairperson of the Board of Scientific Affairs (BSA) and the Executive Director for Science.

Finance: COR members in dialogue with the chairperson of the Finance Committee and the Chief Financial Officer (CFO).

Priorities: COR members in dialogue with the chairperson of P&P, the President, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and/or Chief Operating Officer (COO).

Association : COR members in dialogue with the chairpersons of the relevant committees (CSFC, BOD, Board of Convention Affairs), Communications, and others as appropriate, as well as relevant APA staff.

Council members will be assigned one group per session and circulate through the groups at subsequent sessions, not repeating any group in a single three-year term.

The President will appoint one Facilitator, responsible for devising an agenda and moderating the session, and one Recorder, responsible for taking and distributing minutes, for each group at each meeting of Council.

Council notes that if a meeting has a full agenda or urgent business arises, it will be left to the discretion of the President to determine if there is sufficient time to hold a breakout session.

At the end of three years, Council will evaluate the effectiveness of the Representation and Information Exchange Sessions and determine whether they should be continued, modified, or suspended.

C.(8) The Board postponed the item “Presidential Task Force on Governance Recommendation for Emerging Compelling Issues Work Groups” to its February 2004 meeting.

D.(9) The Board voted to recommend that Council r efer the recommendations of the Task Force on Governance that deal directly with the functioning and effectiveness of Council (Section VI.c of the Final Report) to the Committee on the Structure and Function of Council for review, revision, and implementation as appropriate.

E.(10) The Board voted to recommend that Council direct staff to insert one page in the front of each Council agenda that includes the top ten priorities from the 2001-2002 APA Priorities Survey and the February 2001 Council breakout session on assessing APA priorities.

F.(11) The Board discussed the item “Fostering Resilience in Response to Terrorism: Fact Sheet for Psychologists.”

G.(26) The Board received information on the progress and preliminary findings of the Task Force on External Funding.

H.(27) The Board received as information a list of Council new business items that will be put on Council's February 2004 agenda requesting Council's consent to withdraw.

I. The Board received an update from Dorothy W. Cantor, PsyD, on the American Psychological Foundation.

J. In executive session, the Board received the 2003 Annual Report of the APA Insurance Trust.

K. In executive session, the Board took action on the following Psychology Defense Fund Cases:

Petition #2003-1: On recommendation of the Executive Management Group (EMG), the Board voted to grant $20,000 to Bill Safarjan, PhD, as part of a group of California psychologists working in state hospitals, to defray costs associated with a legal suit to enforce Section 1316.5 of the California Health and Safety Code.

Petition #2003-2: On recommendation of the EMG, the Board voted to grant $15,000 to Marie DiCowden, PhD, to support her case in an administrative hearing in Florida regarding workers' compensation coverage issues.

Petition #2003-3: On recommendation of the EMG, the Board voted against awarding a grant to Richard Blackford, PhD, noting that Dr. Blackford may reapply when it is clear what charges he faces.

L. Dr. Zimbardo provided updates on the Task Force on External Funding, the Psychology Matters Compendium and High School Science Fairs.

V. DIVISIONS AND STATE AND PROVINCIAL ASSOCIATIONS

A. In executive session, the Board accepted the 5-Year Report of Divisions 2 (Society for Teaching of Psychology), 8 (Society for Personality and Social Psychology), 14 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology), 29 (Psychotherapy), 34 (Environmental and Population Psychology), 39 (Psychoanalysis), 44 (Society for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns) and 49 (Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy) and provided guidance to staff for follow-up needed with three of the divisions.

VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE APA

A.(12) The Board voted to recommend that Council reject the following main motion of Council new business item #58J:

  1. That the C/R instructs CSFC to develop a system of assigning each member of Council to be a monitor to the following Bylaws Boards and Committees and Standing Committees that are engaged in policy formulation or policy evaluation on behalf of Council. Included are: BAPPI, BCA, BEA, BPA, BSA, CAPP, CIRP, CoA, COLI, CRSPP, P&C, AND P&P. Council members already elected to serve on a given body shall automatically be assigned to the monitor group for that given body. As monitors, members of Council will receive in advance of scheduled meetings proposed agendas of the group to which each has been assigned and following meeting the minutes of the group.

  2. That Council directs staff to create listservs so that all members of the Council assigned to a given body can easily exchange views about matters to be deliberated in those bodies.

  3. That each year, the group of C/R members serving as monitors to a given body, by a process to be developed by CSFC, shall select one of their members to be a Council liaison who shall during the year of his/her tenure attend all meetings of the body.

  4. That in recognition of their fiduciary responsibility for the Corporation, C/R liaisons shall have that right to attend any executive sessions and all meetings of the given body to whom they are signed.

  5. That at each Council meeting, the members of the Council assigned to a given body will meet as a group for a minimum of two hours with the Chair of that body during the regularly scheduled meeting of the Council.

  6. That C/R liaisons shall be charged with receiving suggestions from his/her fellow monitors about proposed agendas so that the concerns of Council can be adequately reflected in the deliberations of Boards and Committees. C/R liaisons shall also use the listserv to provide commentary to his/her fellow monitors following the end of the meetings of Board and Committees.

  7. That when a given resolution is to be debated the President shall invite contextual commentary and, if relevant, some observations about a matter's history from the Council liaison(s) to the relevant body or bodies as well as from the Chair of the body or bodies.

The referees for this motion are directed to provide their analysis and response to the Council no later than the Council meeting of August, 2001.

B.(28) The Board received as information the statements, documents and resolutions, approved by Council at its February and August 2003 meetings, that have been identified as Association policy.

VII. PUBLICATIONS AND COMMUNICATIONS

No items.

VIII. CONVENTION AFFAIRS

A.(13) The Board approved San Diego, California as the site for the 2010 annual Convention to be held from Thursday, August 12 to Sunday, August 15, 2010. L. Michael Honaker, PhD, Deputy Chief Executive Officer/Chief Operating Officer, informed the Board he would come back to them with a proposal for hiring a marketing person.

B.(14) The Board decided that the cluster track programming will be optional beginning with the 2005 convention and requested that BCA develop the implementation plan.

IX. EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS

A.(15) The Board authorized the Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Psychology to adopt the revised Procedures for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology.

B.(16) In executive session, the Board postponed the item, Developing and Evaluating Standards and Guidelines Related to Education and Training in Psychology: Context , Procedures and Criteria , to its February 2004 meeting. The Board requested that the item be put on Council's February 2004 agenda, noting the recommendation of the Board will be provided at the Council meeting.

C.(17) The Board approved the proposed changes to Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation and the Accreditation Operating Procedures .

D.(29) The Board received as information an update on the APA initiative to integrate psychology into high school science fairs.

E.(30) The Board received as information an update on the work of the Council of Credentialing Organizations in Professional Psychology.

X. PROFESSIONAL AFFAIRS

A.(17A) The Board voted to allocate $5,000 from its 2003 discretionary fund to support APA becoming a program sponsor for the Third International Congress on Licensure, Certification and Credentialing of Psychologists.

XI. SCIENTIFIC AFFAIRS

A.(18) The Board recommended that Council endorse the revised Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education.

B.(31) The Board received as information an update on APA's cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to fund the development of graduate level curricula in occupational health psychology.

C. Dr. Sternberg presented Meritorious Research Service awards to Steven J. Breckler, PhD, of the National Science Foundation; Edgar M. Johnson, PhD, of the Army Research Institute; and Peter G. Kaufman, PhD, Lisa Onken, PhD, and Delores L. Parron, PhD, of the National Institutes of Health.

XII. PUBLIC INTEREST

A.(19) The Board voted to recommend that the Council of Representatives adopt the following Resolution on HIV Prevention Strategies Involving Legal Access to Sterile Injection Equipment:

WHEREAS the primary route of HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs) is the sharing of contaminated injection equipment; and WHEREAS injection drug use and the HIV and hepatitis C epidemics are inextricably linked in American society; and

WHEREAS injection drug use is associated with one-half of hepatitis C cases and almost one-third of all AIDS cases both through direct transmission through shared needles and indirect transmission through sex with HIV-infected injecting drug users (CDC, 2002 and 2002a); and

WHEREAS one million active users of injection drugs are estimated to live in the United States (CDC, 2002b); and

WHEREAS only a fraction of people who need substance abuse treatment are able to obtain it through public agencies (CDC, 2002b); and

WHEREAS infected injection drug users (IDUs) transmit HIV through the sharing of contaminated syringes and other drug injection equipment (CDC, 2002a); and

WHEREAS injection drug users inject approximately 1000 times per year (Lurie, Jones, and Foley, 1998); and

WHEREAS ongoing injection-related risk behaviors are associated with restricted syringe access (Gostin, Lazzarini, Jones, & Flaherty, 1997; Rich, Dickinson, Liu, et al., 1998; Broadhead, van Hulst, & Heckathorn, 1999);

WHEREAS use of needle exchange programs is associated with reductions in reusing syringes, lending used syringes to others, and other indirect sharing activities (Blumenthal et al., 2000; Hagan & Thiede, 2000; Robles et al., 1998; Vlahov, Junge, Brookmeyer, et al., 1997); and

WHEREAS regular use of needle exchange programs by IDUs is associated with less drug-related HIV risk behavior and lower rates of seroconversion (Des Jarlais, Marmor, Paone, et al., 1996); and

WHEREAS IDUs who use needle exchange programs have reduced incident hepatitis C virus (Taylor et al., 2000); and

WHEREAS the incidence of HIV among IDUs who use needle exchange programs is less than one third of the incidence of HIV among IDUs who do not use NEPs (Des Jarlais, 2000); and

WHEREAS IDUs who use needle exchange programs exhibit reductions in the mean number of injections per syringe as well as reductions in the mean number of injections per day (Vlahov, Junge, Brookmeyer, et al., 1997); and

WHEREAS most needle exchange programs provide a range of adjunctive services including primary medical services, HIV/AIDS education, condom distribution, referrals to drug abuse treatment, on-site HIV testing and counseling, and screening for tuberculosis (TB) as well as hepatitis B and C; and

WHEREAS participation in needle exchange programs is associated with improved access to health care and drug treatment (Strathdee, Celentano, Shah et al., 1999); and

WHEREAS needle exchange programs have been shown to be cost-effective (Gold et al., 1997; Holtgrave and Pinkerton, 1997, Jacobs et al., 1999); and

WHEREAS needle exchange programs do not result in increased use of illicit drugs or encourage first time drug use (Robles et al., 1998; Vlahov and Junge, 1998); and

WHEREAS only about half of the approximately 100 needle exchange programs currently operational in North America are legal (CDC, 2000; Vahlov and Junge, 1998); and

WHEREAS injection drug users will use sterile syringes if they can obtain them (Junge et al., 1999; Heimer, Khoshnood, Bigg et al., 1998); and

WHEREAS guaranteed access to sterile injection equipment acquired through pharmacies has been associated with reduced rates of both needle sharing and HIV transmission (Cotten-Oldenburg, Carr, DeBoer, et al., 2001; Weinstein, 1999); and

WHEREAS a comprehensive policy providing public funding of needle exchange programs, pharmacy sales of syringes, and syringe disposal programs would be cost-effective based on lower costs of caring for newly infected persons with HIV (Holtgrave et al., 1998); and

WHEREAS access to syringe disposal programs reduces circulation of needles in the community and reduced HIV prevalence in syringes (Kaplan et al., 1994; Riley et al, 1998) and would reduce needle stick injuries to children, sanitation workers, and other community group members (Philipp, 1992); and

WHEREAS strategies such as needle exchange programs, legal access to sterile syringes at pharmacies, syringe prescription, and safer syringe disposal strategies all reduce the prevalence of unsafe injection drug use practices that lead to the transmission of HIV ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002a; National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2002; Macalino, Springer, Rahman, et al., 1998; Riley, Beilenson, Vlahov, et al., 1998; Springer, Sterk, Jones, & Friedman, 1999; Kaplan, Khoshnook, & Heimer, 1994; Sulkowski, Ray, & Thomas, 2002; Philipp, 1993); and

WHEREAS the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends that all IDUs who continue to inject drugs use a new, sterile syringe for each injection (CDC, 2002c); and

WHEREAS Congressional bans on the use of federal funds to support needle exchange programs and state laws restricting the sale and distribution of syringes (i.e., through “paraphernalia” statutes, syringe prescription statutes, and pharmacy regulations/guidelines) have the effect of limiting access to sterile syringes and thus constitute substantial obstacles to HIV prevention and public health (Gostin, 1998); and

WHEREAS the ban on federal funding of needle exchange programs is perhaps the most significant barrier to realizing their potential to prevent disease (NIH Consensus Development Conference, 2000); and

WHEREAS the availability of drug maintenance treatments for injection drug users is inadequate; and

WHEREAS many prominent national professional associations have issued public statements that call for action to reduce legal and regulatory barriers that restrict access to sterile syringes in order to help prevent the transmission of contagious diseases ( e.g., American Association of Public Health; American Medical Association, American Pharmaceutical Association, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Infectious Diseases Society of America, National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors, and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy; American Medical Association, 2002; American Public Health Association, 2002; Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2002);

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association (APA) actively support and promote HIV prevention strategies such as needle exchange programs, legal access to sterile syringes at pharmacies, syringe prescription, and syringe disposal programs to stop the spread of HIV, hepatitis C, and other contagious diseases.

MOREOVER,

Given that psychologists have many areas of relevant practice competence, including assessment, intervention, and prevention skills, that could and should inform the discourse about HIV prevention and substance abuse treatment for IDUs and their significant others; and

Given that psychologists' training in research makes them especially well-qualified to assist policy-makers in making informed judgements based on the best available science;

LET IT BE FURTHER RESOLVED THAT THE APA:

Encourage state governments, Congress, and the executive branch to promote public policies that support harm reduction strategies such as needle exchange programs, legal access to sterile syringes at pharmacies, syringe prescription, and syringe disposal programs, and

Promote increased funding for HIV prevention research that includes a wide range of harm reduction strategies for decreasing transmission of HIV; and

Support training in HIV prevention interventions, including harm reduction interventions for injection drug users, within psychology training programs at all levels; and

Promote and facilitate psychologists' acquisition of competencies in harm reduction strategies that decrease transmission of HIV infection among injection drug users, including mastery of the literature on treatment of injection drug users and familiarity with effective interventions that are employed to address this problem; and

Encourage psychologists to develop cultural sensitivity to the sub-group of individuals who use and inject drugs; and

Advocate for reimbursement of psychologists for provision of drug treatment, including provision of harm reduction interventions that decrease drug-related HIV risk behavior among IDUs; and

Support psychologists as they engage in interdisciplinary efforts involving other health, mental health, and substance abuse professionals who seek to enhance understanding and treatment of drug dependence.

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American Public Health Association (1994) Syringe and Needle Exchange and HIV Disease. Retrieved October 1, 2002, from http://www.apha.org/legislative/policy/policysearch/.

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Coffin, P.O., Linas, B.P., Factor, S.H., and Vlahov, D. (2000). New York City pharmacists' attitudes toward sale of needles/syringes to injection drug users before implementation of law expanding syringe access. Journal of Urban Health , 77(4), 781-93.

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Gossop, M., Marsden, J., Stewart, D. & Treacy, S. (2002). Reduced injection risk and sexual risk behaviors after drug misuse treatment: results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study. AIDS Care, 14 , 77-93.

Gold, M., Gafni, A., Nelligan, P., & Millson, P. (1997). Needle exchange programs: an economic evaluation of a local experience. CMAJ, 157, 255-262.

Gostin, L.O. (1998). The legal environment impeding access to sterile syringes and needles: The conflict between law enforcement and public health. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology , 18 (suppl 1),S60-70.

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Hagan, H. & Thiede, H. (2000). Changes in injection risk behavior associated with participation in the Seattle needle-exchange program. J. Urban Health, 77, 369-382.

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Heimer, R., Khoshnood, K., Biggs, D., Guydish, J., and Junge, B. (1998). Syringe use and re-use: Effects of needle exchange programs in three cities. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology , 18 (suppl 1), S37-S44.

Holtgrave, D., and Pinkerton, S.D. (1997). Updates of cost of illness and quality of life estimates for use in economic evaluations of HIV prevention programs. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology , 16, 54-62.

Holtgrave, D., Pinkerton, S. D., Jones, T. S., Lurie, P., & Vlahov, D. (1998). Cost and cost-effectiveness of increasing access to sterile syringes and needles as an HIV prevention intervention in the United States. J. of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology, 18 suppl, S133-138.

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B.(20) The Board voted to approve the reauthorization of the Ad Hoc Committee on Psychology and AIDS for an additional five years, 2004-2009.

C.(21) The Board voted to grant approval for the Public Interest Directorate, Women's Program's Office (WPO), to go forward with planning the 6 th Work, Stress and Health Conference with a total expected budget of $525,000, while WPO staff raises the necessary outside funding for the conference expenses. The Board requested that any future proposals for the conference include detailed historical and actual results as compared to current financial projections.

D.(22) The Board voted to postpone the item, “Convening the Work, Stress and Health Conferences on a Regular Basis,” to its February 2004 meeting. The Board requested that the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) work with Public Interest Directorate staff to address the Board's concerns regarding the main motion.

E.(22A) The Board voted to recommend that Council 1) receive Psychological Issues in the Increasing Commercialization of Childhood; Psychological Implications of Commercialism in Schools; and Summary of Findings and Conclusions: The Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children and 2) adopt as APA policy the Recommendations of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children .

F.(32) The Board received as information an update on the Task Force on Sexual Orientation and Military Personnel.

XIII. ETHNIC MINORITY AFFAIRS

No items.

XIV. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

No items.

XV. CENTRAL OFFICE

No items.

XVI. FINANCIAL AFFAIRS

A.(23) The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the Proposed 2004 Final Budget calling for a surplus of $642,700.

B.(23A) The Board requested that the Chief Operations Officer and CFO provide the Board in June 2004 with a proposal for the creation of an audit committee.

C.(24) The Board voted to accept the revised Long-Term Investment Policy (attachment B).

D.(25) The Board discussed the item, “Association-Wide Operational Review Update.”

E.(33) The Board received information regarding an amendment to the Responsible Spending Policy.

F.(34) The Board received as information the Finance Committee's report on the employee compensation package.