Board of Directors Approved Minutes: July 27 & 30, 2004

Present: Diane F. Halpern, PhD; Ronald F. Levant, EdD; Robert J. Sternberg, PhD; Ruth Ullmann Paige, PhD, Gerald P. Koocher, PhD; Norman B. Anderson, PhD; Barry S. Anton, PhD; Paul L. Craig, PhD; Thomas J. DeMaio, PhD; Carol D. Goodheart, EdD; Chris Loftis, PhD (APAGS representative) J. Bruce Overmier, PhD; and Sandra L. Shullman, PhD.

Partial Attendance: Yaron Rabinowitz (incoming APAGS representative). 
 
Absent: None.

I. Minutes of meeting

A.(1) The Board voted to approve the minutes of the June 11-13, 2004, meeting of the Board of Directors.

II. Elections, awards, membership and human resources

B.(2)  The Board voted to approve the following motion: 

That the Board of Directors finds that the petition for a new APA division, the Society for Human-Animal Studies, conforms to the technical requirements of the APA Bylaws and Association Rules and approves the distribution of the petition to existing divisions and the Council of Representatives for comment.

C.  In executive session, the Board voted to recommend that Council elect 119 members to initial Fellow status, on the nomination of the indicated divisions and on the recommendation of the Membership Committee and the Board of Directors.

III. Ethics

No items.

IV. Board of Directors

No items.

V. Divisions and state and provincial associations

No items.

VI. Organization of the APA

No items.

VII. Publications and communications

No items.

VIII. Convention affairs

No items.

IX. Educational affairs

A.(3)  The Board discussed the item “Response from the Continuing Professional Education Committee (CPEC) Regarding the Board’s Action on the Revision of the Sponsor Approval System Criteria” and was informed that President Halpern has responded to CPEC’s questions.

X. Professional affairs

No items.

XI. Scientific affairs

No items.

XII. Public Interest

A.(4)  The Board voted to recommend that Council adopt the following Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage:

Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage
 
Research Summary
 
Minority Stress in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals
 
 
Psychological and psychiatric experts have agreed since 1975 that homosexuality is neither a form of mental illness nor a symptom of mental illness (Conger, 1975). Nonetheless, there is growing recognition that social prejudice, discrimination, and violence against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals take a cumulative toll on the well-being of these individuals.  Researchers (e.g., DiPlacido, 1998; Meyer, 2003) use the term "minority stress" to refer to the negative effects associated with the adverse social conditions experienced by individuals who belong to a stigmatized social group (e.g., the elderly, members of racial and ethnic minority groups, the physically disabled, women, the poor or those on welfare, or individuals who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual).
 
A recent meta-analysis of population-based epidemiological studies showed that lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations have higher rates of stress-related psychiatric disorders (such as those related to anxiety, mood, and substance use) than do heterosexual populations (Meyer, 2003).  These differences are not large but are relatively consistent across studies (e.g., Cochran & Mays, 2000; Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; Gilman et al., 2001; Mays & Cochran, 2001).  Meyer also provided evidence that within lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations, those who more frequently felt stigmatized or discriminated against because of their sexual orientation, who had to conceal their homosexuality, or who were prevented from affiliating with other lesbian, gay, or bisexual individuals tended to report more frequent mental health concerns.  Research also shows that compared to heterosexual individuals and couples, gay and lesbian individuals and couples experience economic disadvantages (e.g., Badgett, 2001).  Finally, the violence associated with hate crimes puts lesbians, gay men and bisexual individuals at risk for physical harm to themselves, their families, and their property (D'Augelli, 1998; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999).  Taken together, the evidence clearly supports the position that the social stigma, prejudice, discrimination, and violence associated with not having a heterosexual sexual orientation and the hostile and stressful social environments created thereby adversely affect the psychological, physical, social, and economic well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. 
 
Same-sex couples 
 
Research indicates that many gay men and lesbians want and have committed relationships.  For example, survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship (e.g., Bradford, Ryan, & Rothblum, 1994; Falkner & Garber, 2002; Morris, Balsam, & Rothblum, 2002).  Further, data from the 2000 United States Census (United States Census Bureau, 2000) indicate that of the 5.5 million couples who were living together but not married, about 1 in 9 (594,391) had partners of the same sex.  Although the Census data are almost certainly an underestimate of the actual number of cohabiting same-sex couples, they indicated that a male householder and a male partner headed 301,026 households and that a female householder and a female partner headed 293,365 households.
 
Despite persuasive evidence that gay men and lesbians have committed relationships, three concerns about same-sex couples are often raised.  A first concern is that the relationships of gay men and lesbians are dysfunctional and unhappy.  To the contrary, studies that have compared partners from same-sex couples to partners from heterosexual couples on standardized measures of relationship quality (such as satisfaction and commitment) have found partners from same-sex and heterosexual couples to be equivalent to each other (see reviews by Peplau & Beals, 2004; Peplau & Spalding, 2000).
 
A second concern is that the relationships of gay men and lesbians are unstable.  However, research indicates that, despite the somewhat hostile social climate within which same-sex relationships develop, many lesbians and gay men have formed durable relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 18% and 28% of gay couples and between 8% and 21 % of lesbian couples have lived together 10 or more years (e.g., Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983; Bryant & Demian, 1994; Falkner & Garber, 2002; Kurdek, 2003).  Researchers (e.g., Kurdek, in press) have also speculated that the stability of same-sex couples would be enhanced if partners from same-sex couples enjoyed the same levels of social support and public recognition of their relationships as partners from heterosexual couples do.
 
A third concern is that the processes that affect the well-being and permanence of the relationships of lesbian and gay persons are different from those that affect the relationships of heterosexual persons. In fact, research has found that the factors that predict relationship satisfaction, relationship commitment, and relationship stability are remarkably similar for both same-sex cohabiting couples and heterosexual married couples (Kurdek, 2001, in press). 
 
Resolution 
 
WHEREAS APA has a long-established policy to deplore "all public and private discrimination against gay men and lesbians" and urges "the repeal of all discriminatory legislation against lesbians and gay men" (Conger, 1975, p. 633);
 
WHEREAS the APA adopted the Resolution on Legal Benefits for Same-Sex Couples in 1998 (Levant, 1998, pp. 665-666);
 
WHEREAS Discrimination and prejudice based on sexual orientation detrimentally affects psychological, physical, social, and economic well-being (Badgett, 2001; Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999; Meyer; 2003);
 
WHEREAS "Anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution" (American Anthropological Association, 2004);
 
WHEREAS Psychological research on relationships and couples provides no evidence to justify discrimination against same-sex couples (Kurdek, 2001, in press; Peplau & Beals, 2004; Peplau & Spalding, 2000);
 
WHEREAS The institution of civil marriage confers a social status  and important legal benefits, rights, and privileges ;
 
WHEREAS The United States General Accounting Office (2004) has identified over 1,000 federal statutory provisions in which marital status is a factor in determining or receiving benefits, rights, and privileges, for example, those concerning taxation, federal loans, and dependent and survivor benefits (e.g., Social Security, military, and veterans);
 
WHEREAS There are numerous state, local, and private sector laws and other provisions in which marital status is a factor in determining or receiving benefits, rights, and privileges, for example, those concerning taxation, health insurance, health care decision-making, property rights, pension and retirement benefits, and inheritance ;
 
WHEREAS Same-sex couples are denied equal access to civil marriage ;
 
WHEREAS Same-sex couples who enter into a civil union are denied equal access to all the benefits, rights, and privileges provided by federal law to married couples (United States General Accounting Office, 2004) ;
 
WHEREAS The benefits, rights, and privileges associated with domestic partnerships are not universally available , are not equal to those associated with marriage , and are rarely portable ;
 
WHEREAS people who also experience discrimination based on age, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and gender identity, religion, and socioeconomic status may especially benefit from access to marriage for same-sex couples (Division 44/Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients, 2000);

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED That the APA believes that it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage and to all its attendant benefits, rights, and privileges;
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA shall take a leadership role in opposing all discrimination in legal benefits, rights, and privileges against same-sex couples;
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA encourages psychologists to act to eliminate all discrimination against same-sex couples in their practice, research, education and training ("Ethical Principles," 2002, p. 1063);
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA shall provide scientific and educational resources that inform public discussion and public policy development regarding sexual orientation and marriage and that assist its members, divisions, and affiliated state, provincial, and territorial psychological associations. 
 
References 
 
American Anthropological Association.  (2004).  Statement on marriage and family from the American Anthropological Association.  Retrieved May 11, 2004, from http://www.aaanet.org/press/mastmt marriage.htm.

Badgett, M. V. L.  (2001).  Money, myths, and change: The economic lives of lesbians and gay men.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P.  (1983).  American couples: Money, work, sex.  New York:  William Morrow and Company, Inc.

Bradford, J., Ryan, C., & Rothblum, E. D.  (1994).  National lesbian health care survey: Implications for mental health care.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 228-242.

Bryant, A. S., & Demian. (1994). Relationship characteristics of gay and lesbian couples: Findings from a national survey. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 1, 101-117.

Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M.  (2000).  Relation between psychiatric syndromes and behaviorally defined sexual orientation in a sample of the US population.  Journal of Epidemiology, 151, 516-523.

Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M.  (2003).  Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health service use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53-61.

Conger, J. J.  (1975).  Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974:  Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives.  American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.

D'Augelli, A. R.  (1998).  Developmental implications of victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths.  In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 187-210).  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage.

DiPlacido, J.  (1998).  Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals:  A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization.  In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159).  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage.

Division 44/Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. (2000). Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. American Psychologist, 55, 1440-1451.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2002). American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.

Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R. C.  (2001).  Risks of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey.  American Journal of Public Health, 91, 933-939.

Falkner, A., & Garber, J.  (2002).  2001 gay/lesbian consumer online census.  Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, OpusComm Group, and GSociety.

Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C.  (1999).  Psychological sequelae of hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 945-951.

Kurdek, L. A.  (2001).  Differences between heterosexual non-parent couples and gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent couples.  Journal of Family Issues, 22, 727-754.

Kurdek, L. A.  (2003).  Differences between gay and lesbian cohabiting couples.  Journal of Social Personal Relationships, 20, 411-436.

Kurdek, L. A.  (in press).  Are gay and lesbian cohabiting couples really different from heterosexual married couples?  Journal of Marriage and Family.

Levant, R. F. (1999). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 1998: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 20-22, 1998, Washington, DC, and August 13 and 16, 1998, San Francisco, CA, and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December meetings of the Board of Directors. American Psychologist, 54, 605-671.

Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D.  (2001).  Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.  American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1869-1876.

Meyer, I. H.  (2003).  Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations:  Conceptual issues and research evidence.  Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.
Morris, J. F., Balsam, K. F., & Rothblum, E. D.  (2002).  Lesbian and bisexual mothers and nonmothers:  Demographics and the coming-out process.  Developmental Psychology, 16, 144-¬156.

Peplau, L. A., & Beals, K. P.  (2004).  The family lives of lesbians and gay men.  In A. L. Vangelisti (Ed.), Handbook of family communication (pp. 233-248).  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Peplau, L. A., & Spalding, L. R.  (2000).  The close relationships of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals.  In C. Hendrick & S. S. Hendrick (Eds.), Close relationships: A sourcebook (pp. 111-¬123). Thousand Oaks:  Sage.

United States Census Bureau.  (2000).  Summary File 1: 2000 Census of Population and Housing.  Washington, DC:  US Census Bureau.

United States General Accounting Office.  (2004, January 23).  Defense of Marriage Act: Update to Prior Report [GAO-04-353R].  Retrieved May 19, 2004, from http://www.gao.gov

The Board also voted to recommend that Council adopt the following Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents and Children:

Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children
 
Research Summary
 
Lesbian and Gay Parents 

 
Many lesbians and gay men are parents.  In the 2000 U. S. Census, 33% of female same-sex couple households and 22% of male same-sex couple households reported at least one child under the age of 18 living in the home.  Despite the significant presence of at least 163,879 households headed by lesbian or gay parents in U.S. society, three major concerns about lesbian and gay parents are commonly voiced (Falk, 1994; Patterson, Fulcher & Wainright, 2002).  These include concerns that lesbians and gay men are mentally ill, that lesbians are less maternal than heterosexual women, and that lesbians' and gay men's relationships with their sexual partners leave little time for their relationships with their children.  In general, research has failed to provide a basis for any of these concerns (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Tasker, 1999; Tasker & Golombok, 1997).  First, homosexuality is not a psychological disorder (Conger, 1975).  Although exposure to prejudice and discrimination based on sexual orientation may cause acute distress (Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 2003), there is no reliable evidence that homosexual orientation per se impairs psychological functioning.  Second, beliefs that lesbian and gay adults are not fit parents have no empirical foundation (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002).  Lesbian and heterosexual women have not been found to differ markedly in their approaches to child rearing (Patterson, 2000; Tasker, 1999).  Members of gay and lesbian couples with children have been found to divide the work involved in childcare evenly, and to be satisfied with their relationships with their partners (Patterson, 2000, 2004a).  The results of some studies suggest that lesbian mothers' and gay fathers' parenting skills may be superior to those of matched heterosexual parents.  There is no scientific basis for concluding that lesbian mothers or gay fathers are unfit parents on the basis of their sexual orientation (Armesto, 2002; Patterson, 2000; Tasker & Golombok, 1997).  On the contrary, results of research suggest that lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children. 
 
Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents 
 
As the social visibility and legal status of lesbian and gay parents has increased, three major concerns about the influence of lesbian and gay parents on children have been often voiced (Falk, 1994; Patterson, Fulcher & Wainright, 2002).  One is that the children of lesbian and gay parents will experience more difficulties in the area of sexual identity than children of heterosexual parents.  For instance, one such concern is that children brought up by lesbian mothers or gay fathers will show disturbances in gender identity and/or in gender role behavior.  A second category of concerns involves aspects of children's personal development other than sexual identity.  For example, some observers have expressed fears that children in the custody of gay or lesbian parents would be more vulnerable to mental breakdown, would exhibit more adjustment difficulties and behavior problems, or would be less psychologically healthy than other children.  A third category of concerns is that children of lesbian and gay parents will experience difficulty in social relationships.  For example, some observers have expressed concern that children living with lesbian mothers or gay fathers will be stigmatized, teased, or otherwise victimized by peers.  Another common fear is that children living with gay or lesbian parents will be more likely to be sexually abused by the parent or by the parent's friends or acquaintances.
 
Results of social science research have failed to confirm any of these concerns about children of lesbian and gay parents (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Tasker, 1999).  Research suggests that sexual identities (including gender identity, gender-role behavior, and sexual orientation) develop in much the same ways among children of lesbian mothers as they do among children of heterosexual parents (Patterson, 2004a).  Studies of other aspects of personal development (including personality, self-concept, and conduct) similarly reveal few differences between children of lesbian mothers and children of heterosexual parents (Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999).  However, few data regarding these concerns are available for children of gay fathers (Patterson, 2004b).  Evidence also suggests that children of lesbian and gay parents have normal social relationships with peers and adults (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999; Tasker & Golombok, 1997).  The picture that emerges from research is one of general engagement in social life with peers, parents, family members, and friends.  Fears about children of lesbian or gay parents being sexually abused by adults, ostracized by peers, or isolated in single-sex lesbian or gay communities have received no scientific support.  Overall, results of research suggest that the development, adjustment, and well-being of children with lesbian and gay parents do not differ markedly from that of children with heterosexual parents. 
 
Resolution 
 
WHEREAS APA supports policy and legislation that promote safe, secure, and nurturing environments for all children (DeLeon, 1993, 1995; Fox, 1991; Levant, 2000);
 
WHEREAS APA has a long-established policy to deplore "all public and private discrimination against gay men and lesbians" and urges "the repeal of all discriminatory legislation against lesbians and gay men" (Conger, 1975);
 
WHEREAS the APA adopted the Resolution on Child Custody and Placement in 1976 (Conger, 1977, p. 432)
 
WHEREAS Discrimination against lesbian and gay parents deprives their children of benefits, rights, and privileges enjoyed by children of heterosexual married couples;
 
WHEREAS some jurisdictions prohibit gay and lesbian individuals and same-sex couples from adopting children, notwithstanding the great need for adoptive parents (Lofton v. Secretary, 2004);
 
WHEREAS There is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation: lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children (Patterson, 2000, 2004; Perrin, 2002; Tasker, 1999);
 
WHEREAS Research has shown that the adjustment, development, and psychological well-being of children is unrelated to parental sexual orientation and that the children of lesbian and gay parents are as likely as those of heterosexual parents to flourish (Patterson, 2004; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001);
 
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED That the APA opposes any discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services;
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA believes that children reared by a same-sex couple benefit from legal ties to each parent;
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA supports the protection of parent-child relationships through the legalization of joint adoptions and second parent adoptions of children being reared by same-sex couples;
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA shall take a leadership role in opposing all discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services;
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA encourages psychologists to act to eliminate all discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services in their practice, research, education and training ("Ethical Principles," 2002, p. 1063);
 
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA shall provide scientific and educational resources that inform  public discussion and public policy development regarding discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services and that assist its members, divisions, and affiliated state, provincial, and territorial psychological associations. 
  
References 
 
Armesto, J. C.  (2002).  Developmental and contextual factors that influence gay fathers' parental competence:  A review of the literature.  Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 3, 67 - 78.

Conger, J.J.  (1975).  Proceedings of the American Psychological Association,
Incorporated, for the year 1974:  Minutes of the Annual meeting of the Council of Representatives.  American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.

Conger, J. J. (1977). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 1976: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 32, 408-438.

Fox, R.E.  (1991).  Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1990:  Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 9 and 12, 1990, Boston, MA, and February 8-9, 1991, Washington, DC.  American Psychologist, 45, 845.

DeLeon, P.H.  (1993). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1992:  Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 13 and 16, 1992, and February 26-28, 1993, Washington, DC.  American Psychologist, 48,782.

DeLeon, P.H.  (1995).  Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1994:  Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 11 and 14, 1994, Los Angeles, CA, and February 17-19, 1995, Washington, DC.  American Psychologist, 49, 627-628.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2002). American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.

Levant, R.F. (2000).  Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the Legislative Year 1999:  Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 19-21, 1999, Washington, DC, and August 19 and 22, 1999, Boston, MA, and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December 1999 Meetings of the Board of Directors.  American Psychologist, 55, 832-890.

Lofton v. Secretary of Department of Children & Family Services, 358 F.3d 804 (11th Cir. 2004).

Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D.  (2001).  Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States.  American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1869-1876.

Meyer, I. H.  (2003).  Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations:  Conceptual issues and research evidence.  Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.

Patterson, C.J.  (2000).  Family relationships of lesbians and gay men.  Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1052- 1069.

Patterson, C.J.  (2004a).  Lesbian and gay parents and their children: Summary of research findings.  In Lesbian and gay parenting:  A resource for psychologists.  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Patterson, C. J.  (2004b).  Gay fathers. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th Ed.).  New York:  John Wiley.

Patterson, C. J., Fulcher, M., & Wainright, J.  (2002).  Children of lesbian and gay parents: Research, law, and policy.  In B. L. Bottoms, M. B. Kovera, and B. D. McAuliff (Eds.), Children, Social Science and the Law (pp, 176 - 199).  New York:  Cambridge University Press.

Perrin, E. C., and the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health (2002).  Technical Report:  Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents.  Pediatrics, 109, 341 - 344.

Stacey, J. & Biblarz, T.J.  (2001).  (How) Does sexual orientation of parents matter?  American Sociological Review, 65, 159-183.

Tasker, F.  (1999).  Children in lesbian-led families - A review.  Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 153 - 166.

Tasker, F., & Golombok, S.  (1997).  Growing up in a lesbian family.  New York:  Guilford
Press.  

B.(5)  The Board voted to recommend that Council approve the following motion:

The Council of Representatives approves the funding for the establishment of a Task Force on Diversity in Course Content, Publications and Training Programs and the addition of a staff intern in the APA Research Office to develop a Report on the Status of Diversity in Course Content, Publications and Training Programs.  The five-person Task Force, comprised of individuals with expertise in this area, will provide oversight and make recommendations regarding the ongoing development of the report on the status of diversity in course content publications and training programs.  This report shall serve to inform Council and serve as a basis upon which to recommend the resources needed to enhance diversity in the discipline of psychology.  Members of the Task Force will be appointed by the APA President.

XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs

No items.

XIV. International affairs

No items.

XV. Central Office

No items.

XVI. Financial affairs 
 
No items.