Board of Directors Approved Minutes: February 16 & 17, 2005
Present: Ronald F. Levant, EdD; Gerald P. Koocher, PhD; Diane F. Halpern, PhD; Ruth Ullmann Paige, PhD; Carol D. Goodheart, EdD; Norman B. Anderson, PhD; Barry S. Anton, PhD; Paul L. Craig, PhD; Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD, Thomas J. DeMaio, PhD; Michael B. Madson, MSE (APAGS); Ronald H. Rozensky, PhD; and Sandra L. Shullman, PhD.
I. Minutes of meeting
A.(1) The Board voted to approve the minutes of the December 10-12, 2004, meeting of the Board of Directors.
II. Elections, awards, membership and human resources
In executive session, the Board took action on four Ethics cases/Membership reviews.
IV. Board of Directors
A.(2) Dr. Goodheart provided the Board with an update on the 2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-
B.(3) The Board voted to allocate $12,500 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support one meeting in 2005 of a Task Force to Explore the Ethical Aspects of Psychologists’ Involvement and the Use of Psychology in National Security-Related Investigations. Dr. Levant informed the Board that a Call for Nominations would be sent to Council for the Task Force to Explore the Ethical Aspects of Psychologists’ Involvement and the Use of Psychology in National Security-Related Investigations.
C.(4) The Board voted to allocate $10,000 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support the growth of the Psychology Matters Compendium.
D.(5) The Board voted to allocate $17,500 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support one meeting of a working group, to be staffed by the Practice and Public Interest Directorates, to develop psychological practice guidelines for working with boys and men reflecting current research, theory and practice in the fields of counseling psychology, clinical psychology, psychology of women, psychology of men, psychology of gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals and the psychology of ethnic minorities. In executive session, the Board received a list of potential nominees for the Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Boys and Men Working Group.
E.(6) The Board voted to recommend that Council allocate $16,000 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support the Elementary & Secondary School Zero Tolerance Impact Task Force. The Task Force will be staffed by the Education and Practice Directorates.
F.(6A) The Board voted to allocate $15,000 from the President-elect’s discretionary fund to support Dr. Koocher’s 2006 presidential initiatives.
The Board also approved Dr. Koocher’s proposal to explore with division representatives the development of a 2006 Mid-Winter Conference on Immigration.
G.(8A). Gerard A. Jacobs, PhD, consultant to the APA for the Asian Tsunami, met with the Board to discuss
recommendations for APA’s response to the December 26, 2004, South Asian Tsunami. The Board voted to authorize up to $150,000 to fund a number of recommendations for immediate, intermediate and long-term response. (See attachment for additional information on the APA Tsunami Relief Efforts, including the list of recommendations approved by the Board. This document was also provided to Council at its February 18-20, 2005, meeting.) The Board also asked that the CEO explore a mechanism by which members or others could donate money to help in the APA mental health-focused recovery effort. Such donated funds would be over and above the $150,000 authorized.
H(19). The Board received as information the 2004 annual report of the History Oversight Committee.
I. In executive session, the Board asked that the 2005 Board Compensation Market Analysis by Quatt
Associates be forwarded to the Committee on Structure and Function of Council and the Policy and Planning Board with a request that they make a recommendation to Council regarding the compensation for members of the APA Board of Directors.
J. In executive session, the Board The Board took action on the following Psychology Defense Fund Case:
Petition #2005-1: On recommendation of the Executive Management Group, the Board voted to grant $15,000 to Marie DiCowden, PhD, on behalf of the Biscayne Institutes of Health and Living Inc. (Biscayne), to support Biscayne's appeal challenging a decision rendered by an administrative law judge regarding worker's compensation coverage issues.
K. Dr. Paige provided the Board with an update on the Psychology Executive Roundtable (PER), including PER’s request for presentations on Evidence Based Practice and Primary Care in 2006 and to house PER’s papers at APA.
V. Divisions and state and provincial associations
A.(7) The Board voted approve the following motion:
That the Board of Directors finds the petition for a new Division of Trauma Psychology conforms to the technical requirements of the APA Bylaws and Association Rules and approves the distribution of the petition to existing divisions and the Council of Representatives for comment.
B.(8) The Board voted to allocate $1500 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support implementation of the APA Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Military Service.
VI. Organization of the APA
VII. Publications and communications
VIII. Convention affairs
IX. Educational affairs
A.(9) The Board voted to allocate $11,000 from its 2005 discretionary fund for the establishment of an 8-person study panel, to be appointed by the President, to develop a plan for the workforce analysis of psychology education and training.
B.(10) The Board voted to recommend that Council allocate $10,000 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support one 2-day meeting of an 8-person Task Force to review and revise an evolving document entitled, Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: Guidelines for School Redesign and Reform.
C.(11) The Board voted to recommend that Council allocate $7,700 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support one meeting of a 6-member Task Force to identify student learning outcomes at the lower division of the undergraduate psychology curriculum, along with models of “best practices” for teaching, learning and assessment.
X. Professional affairs
A.(12) The Board voted to allocate $13,700 from its 2005 discretionary funds to support up to an 11-member Work Group to review progress and make recommendations for further actions based on the recommendations of the APA Commission on Education and Training Leading to Licensure in Psychology. The Board requested that the Work Group include representation from the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students and Early Career Psychologists.
XI. Scientific affairs
XII. Public Interest
A.(13) The Board voted to recommend that Council adopt the following motion:
Resolution in favor of empiracally supported sex education and HIV prevention programs for adolescents
WHEREAS the proportion of newly identified HIV cases among persons under 25 has increased since 1994 (CDC, 2002b): and,
WHEREAS statistical models suggest that half or more of all HIV infections occur before age 25 (Rosenberg et al., 1994); and,
WHEREAS most of those diagnosed with AIDS at ages 21 to 24 were most likely infected during adolescence as a result of the latency between acquiring HIV and an AIDS diagnosis; and,
WHEREAS death from AIDS, as well as new cases of HIV, in adolescence disproportionately occurs among females and persons of color (CDC Survey, 2001; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001); and,
WHEREAS adolescents are at risk for HIV primarily through their sexual behavior (CDC, 2004a) and males who have sex with males continue to constitute the majority of adolescents living with and/or newly infected with HIV (CDC, 2001; 2002 &c); and,
WHEREAS approximately 64% of heterosexually acquired HIV infections reported in the United States during 1999-2002 occurred in females and the proportion of HIV-infected females was highest among persons aged 13-19 years (CDC, 2004b); and,
WHEREAS the following have been identified as risk factors for HIV: early age of sexual debut, more frequent intercourse, less consistent use of condoms, more than four sexual partners, the co-occurrence of a sexually transmitted illness (STI), and anal or vaginal intercourse with an infected partner (CDC, 2002b & c); and,
WHEREAS in many urban areas of the country a common age of first sexual intercourse among specific subgroups of adolescents is age 12 for males with the national average being age 16 (Aten, et al., 2002; Post & Bokin, 1995; Raine, Jenkins, Aarons, et al., 1999); and,
WHEREAS one in five young people have sex by age 15 (Albert et al, 2003); and,
WHEREAS several subgroups of adolescents are at an elevated risk for HIV infection, including adolescents of color, homeless adolescents, males who have sex with males (MSM), gay, bisexual and transgendered adolescents, injection drug using adolescents, victims of sexual abuse, mentally ill adolescents, and adolescents in the juvenile justice or foster care system (Futterman, Chabon, & Hoffman, 2000); and,
WHEREAS the use of condoms can substantially reduce the risk of HIV infection (CDC, 2003 p. 9; CDC, 1993; Crosby, DiClemente, Wingood, Lang, Harrington, 2003; Macaluso, et al, 1999); and,
WHEREAS most adolescents who are sexually active do not use condoms consistently (Keller et al., 1991); and,
WHEREAS young people report concerns about HIV/AIDS, but many do not perceive themselves to be personally at risk and lack accurate information about circumstances that put them at risk for HIV infection (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2000); and,
WHEREAS there is limited evidence for the efficacy of abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs with only a few published scientific studies (Thomas, 2000; Denny, Young, Rausch, Spear, 2002) that are quite limited as a result of a lack of randomization and homogeneity of samples, making behavioral change difficult to measure and the results not generalizable; and,
WHEREAS many published studies associated with abstinence-only education programs (Kirby, Korpi, Barth & Cagampang, 1997; Roosa & Christopher 1990; St. Pierre, Mark, Kaltreider, & Aikin, 1995; Christopher & Roosa, 1990) have failed to find a reduction in sexual behavior; and,
WHEREAS virginity pledges, abstinence-only programs, and abstinence until marriage programs have been shown to have the unintended consequence of increasing the probability that adolescents will have unprotected intercourse at the time of first intercourse (Bearman & Bruckner, 2001; Bearman & Bruckner, 2004); and,
WHEREAS virginity pledgers who contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were less likely to know they had an STD (Bearman & Bruckner, 2004); and,
WHEREAS abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs as a way to prevent HIV transmission have not been shown to be effective in long-term, randomized controlled studies, especially for sexually experienced adolescents (Bearman & Bruckner, 2001; Jemmott, Jemmott & Fong, 1998; Kirby, Korpi, Barth & Cagampang, 1997); and,
WHEREAS abstinence until marriage programs make no effort to address the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) adolescents and thereby discriminate against LGBT adolescents who are disproportionately affected by HIV and who are precluded by law from marrying; and,
WHEREAS abstinence until marriage programs imply that LGBT adolescents should remain unrealistically abstinent for life because they make no effort to address the unique needs of LBGT adolescents; and,
WHEREAS abstinence until marriage programs are inherently discriminatory and violate the 1975 APA antidiscrimination resolution on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered and questioning individuals (see http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/policy/statements.html#1); and,
WHEREAS most comprehensive sexuality education programs include the message that abstinence or mutual monogamy with a partner known not to be HIV infected are the safest ways to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and thus support the goals of abstinence and delaying initiation of sexual behavior (CDC, 2003); and,
WHEREAS HIV prevention programs for youth that focus on delaying initiation of sexual behavior are valuable and justified on the basis of developmental theory; and,
WHEREAS comprehensive sexuality education programs that provide information, encourage abstinence, promote condom use for those who are sexually active, encourage fewer sexual partners, educate about the importance of early identification and treatment of STDs, and teach sexual communication skills are effective with sexually experienced adolescents (Mullen et al, 2002); and,
WHEREAS comprehensive sexuality education programs that discuss the appropriate use of condoms do not accelerate sexual debut (Blake, 2003; Guttmacher, et al., 1997; USPHS, Surgeon General 2001) and yet do decrease pregnancy rates (CDC, 2004c); and,
WHEREAS empirical research shows that comprehensive sexuality education programs decreases the likelihood of unprotected sexual intercourse at the time of first intercourse (Main, et al., 1994; Kirby, 2000; Kirby, 2001) and reduces sexual risk behaviors that contribute to HIV (CDC, 1999; O’Donnell, 2002); and,
WHEREAS targeted comprehensive sexuality education programs for adolescents have been shown to decrease high risk sexual behaviors among gay, lesbian and bisexual youth (Blake, et al., 2001; Kegeles, Hayes & Coates, 1996; Remafedi, 1994; Rotheram-Borus, Rosario, Reid & Koopman 1995; Rural Center for AIDS/STD Prevention, 2002; Wright, Gonzales, Werner, Laughner, & Wallace, 1998); and,
WHEREAS targeted comprehensive sexuality education programs for substance dependent adolescents have been shown to, not just decrease high risk sexual behaviors, but to increase the number of adolescents who abstained from sex (St. Lawrence, Crosby , Brasfield & O’Bannon, 2002); and,
WHEREAS targeted comprehensive sexuality education programs for high risk adolescents in community-based institutional settings allow for access to hard-to-reach adolescents and they have been demonstrated to be effective, particularly in increasing condom use and condom acquisition (Harper & Robinson, 1999; Jemmott & Jemmott, 2000; Lightfoot & Rotheram-Borus, 2000; Peterson & DiClemente, 2000); and,
WHEREAS comprehensive sexuality education programs are effective in reducing risky behaviors and HIV transmission (Rotheram-Borus et al., 1998) and increasing condom use among those having sex for the first time (Rosenfeld, Myer, Merson, 2001; Low-Beer & Stoneburger, 2001); and,
WHEREAS comprehensive sexuality education programs are effective in preventing high risk sexual behaviors for adolescents living with HIV (Rotheram-Borus, et al., 2001); and,
WHEREAS a considerable body of evidence shows that comprehensive sexuality education programs focusing on both abstinence and condom use for those who choose to have sex have resulted in reductions in HIV-risk behavior and delays in the onset of intercourse (Collins et al., 2002; Kirby, 2001; Pedlow & Carey, 2001); and,
WHEREAS current Federal policy and practice in support of abstinence-only programming is based on little scientific evidence (Thomas, 2000) and thus may result in negative consequences for adolescents such as increased pregnancy rates or STDs; and,
WHEREAS a majority of parents support comprehensive sex education programs for their children (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2000); and
WHEREAS the Institute of Medicine (Ruiz, 2001) and numerous professional and health organizations (e.g., the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists, the American Medical Association, the American Public Health Association, the National Education Association, the National Medical Association, the National School Boards Association, the Society for Adolescent Medicine, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Advocates for Youth and Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States) support comprehensive sexuality education programs and recommend the elimination of existing congressional, federal, state and local mandates for abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs that censor information about condoms and contraception for the prevention of pregnancy and STDs including HIV; and,
WHEREAS the Department of Health and Human Services Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2002-2008 has as its first goal to prevent the spread of disease and illness, focusing in part on providing education and other materials to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors *U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Strategic Plan, FY 2003-2008, p. 2); and,
WHEREAS the Administrations’s 2005 budget proposes to double funding to $270 million for abstinence only education programs; and,
WHEREAS Federal guidelines (Devaney, et al., 2002, p. 31, 34) recommend that programs to prevent HIV/STIs among youth be based on empirical evidence derived from methodologically sound studies characterized by:
a) adequate sampling strategies to ensure minimum selection bias and maximum
b) valid and reliable measurement techniques; and,
c) the use of appropriate comparison groups; and
d) pre and post-intervention assessment that includes long-term follow-up to ensure maintenance of intervention effects.
Therefore, be it resolved that the American Psychological Association (APA) strongly supports the foregoing Federal guidelines and further recommends:
that programs to prevent HIV/STIs among youth include clear definitions of the behaviors targeted for change, address a range of sexual behaviors, be available to all adolescents (including youth of color, gay and lesbian adolescents, adolescents exploring same-sex relationships, drug users, adolescents offenders, school dropouts, runaways, mentally ill, homeless and migrant adolescents), and focus on maximizing a range of positive and lasting health outcomes; and,
that widespread implementation of particular programs occur only in those instances when the efficacy and effectiveness of the programs have been well-established through sound scientific methods; and,
that new programs, including abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs, be tested in comparison to programs with proven effectiveness; and,
and that public funding for the implementation of comprehensive sexuality education programs be given priority over public funding for the implementation of abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs until such programs are proven to be effective.
Be it further resolved that the American Psychological Association supports efforts to:
Educate policy makers about research documenting the limitations of abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs, including their failure to attend to the prevention needs of MSM adolescents who are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS; and,
Encourage and promote policy makers to base funding decisions and laws on the well-designed scientific research with outcome data measured in terms of pregnancy rates, STIs, and HIV, as well as the health needs of young people, particularly those youth that are at elevated risk for HIV; and,
Urge state governments, Congress, and the executive branch to eliminate censorship of HIV safer sex messages in federally-funded HIV prevention programs; and
Promote comprehensive sexuality education programs designed to prevent HIV; and,
Promote HIV prevention as part of all adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment and prevention programs; and,
Promote and encourage funding for research and program evaluation initiatives that are directed at youth who are at the greatest risk for HIV such as:
Adolescent males who have sex with males, which remains the highest risk category (CDC, 1995; CDC, 2002c);
Youth of color and especially young women of color aged 12-19 (CDC, 2004b);
Adolescents with an early age of onset of sexual activity (CDC, 2002b, c); Adolescents with more than four sexual partners (CDC, 2002b,c);
Runaway and homeless adolescents who engage in “survival sex.” (Stricof, et al., 1990; Shalwitz, et al., 990; Sweeney, et al, 1995; GAO, 1989; Rotheram-Borus, 1991; Rotheram-Borus et al, 1992; Yates, et al., 1988);
Youth with a history of forced or coerced sex or sexual abuse (Goodenow, Netherland, & Szalacha, 2002; Lyon, Richmond, D’Angelo, 1996; NIMH Multisite HIV Prevention Trial Group, 2001);
Youth with mental health problems (Brown et al., 1997; Donenberg & Pao, 2004);
Youth in the juvenile justice system (Teplin, Mericle, McClelland, & Abram 2003);
Transgendered adolescents (Garofalo et al., 2004);
Ethnic minority adolescents (CDC, 2002c);
HIV positive youth (Frederick, et al., 2000; Futterman, et al., 1990; Hein, 1989; Rotheram-Borus, et al., 1997); and
Promote and encourage programs that serve the needs of those whose sexual experiences, by law, occur exclusively outside of the context of traditional marriage, including men who have sex with men, gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered youth; and,
Promote training of psychologists in treating youth at risk and to document the need to add this training to all psychology training programs; and,
Promote and facilitate psychologists’ acquisition of competencies associated with HIV prevention for youth, including mastery of the literature on HIV prevention and mastery of scientific evaluation of comprehensive sexuality education programs; and,
Encourage psychologists to be especially sensitive to the social and cultural biases which may result in some groups and individuals being underserved by abstinence-only and abstinence until marriage programs, as well as those receiving comprehensive sex education; and,
Work cooperatively with caregivers, medical providers, community based organizations, schools and multidisciplinary teams to improve the effectiveness of all programs designed to prevent HIV in youth; and,
Advocate for more rigorous evaluation of abstinence-only programs; and,
Advocate for increased funding for the widespread implementation of community and school based HIV prevention programs with proven effectiveness as demonstrated by rigorous evidence-based research.
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B.(14) The Board voted to allocate $9,500 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support the Committee on Aging Roadmap to Aging Project, including one meeting for the development of a brochure for psychologists that will provide information to assist in planning one’s own Roadmap to Aging.
C.(15) The Board voted to recommend that Council receive the Report of the Task Force on Urban Psychology and allocate $2500 from its 2005 discretionary fund to print and disseminate a limited number of copies of the report.
D.(16) The Board voted to recommend that Council allocate $21,000 from its 2005 discretionary fund to support two meetings in 2005 of the Working Group on Psychoactive Medications for Children and Adolescents.
E.(17) The Board voted to recommend that Council allocate $8,800 of its 2005 discretionary fund to support the establishment and one meeting of a six-person Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. The Task Force will examine and summarize the best psychological theory, research, and clinical experience addressing the sexualization of girls via media and other cultural messages, including the prevalence of these messages and their impact on girls, and include attention to the role and impact of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The Task Force will produce a report, including recommendations for research, practice, education and training, policy, and public awareness. Task Force members will be appointed by BAPPI.
F.(18) The Board voted to recommend that Council allocate $15,000 from its 2005 discretionary fund for the establishment and two meetings of a Task Force, the charge of which shall be to develop recommendations, based upon a review of current research on gender identity and intersexuality, relative to the following: (1) How APA should address these issues, including recommendations for education, training, and further research; (2) How APA can best meet the needs of psychologists and students who identify as transgender, transsexual, or intersex, including which entities have interest/expertise in these issues, and how to develop ongoing dialogue and sensitivity training in this area; (3) Review extant APA policies with regard to these populations, and make recommendations for changes; (4) Make recommendations for collaboration with other professional organizations in this area.
G.(18A) The Board voted to recommend that Council receive the report and adopt the recommendations of the Task Force on the World Conference Against Racism Report, as follows:
That Council requests the APA President to appoint a working group to develop a resolution condemning anti-Semitic and anti-Jewish and other religious discrimination, as well as discrimination in all its forms, for adoption by Council as soon as feasible.
That Council receives the Report of the APA Delegation to the United Nations World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, which includes the UN Declaration as an Appendix, serving as an historical and archival resource, as presented.
That Council directs that any posting or distribution of the APA Delegation report include a statement accompanying the UN Declaration indicating that inclusion of the UN Declaration in our APA Delegation report is for historical and archival purposes and does not constitute endorsement or nonendorsement of the UN document by the Association.
That Council calls upon the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs and Committee on International Relations in Psychology and other APA governance groups interested in issues of antiracism, multiculturalism, diversity, religious pluralism, and discrimination, including but not limited to Divisions 12, 17, 18, 35, 36, 43, 44, 45, 49, and 52, as well as all divisions and state, provincial, and territorial psychological associations that have international committees, to consider this Task Force report and the report of APA’s Delegation and participate in developing and implementing actions relevant to their work.
That Council requests the Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP) to develop a mechanism to capture the learning and experience of each UN Team for future teams, as continuity is a critical issue. Further, Council requests CIRP to develop a plan for formal preparation of APA delegations for future UN conferences and events.
That Council requests the Committee on International Relations in Psychology to submit annual reports on the activities of APA's UN NGO Team to the Board of Directors and Council of Representatives.
That Council requests the Committee on International Relations in Psychology to explore development of or involvement of APA in an international program that could prepare and enable North American psychologists to provide mental health care to victims of armed conflict, epidemics, and disasters in other parts of the world.
That Council directs APA Central Office to continue to pursue dissemination of information regarding antiracism, multiculturalism, diversity, religious pluralism, and discrimination, including the impact of discrimination on both perpetrators and victims. Specifically, the Task Force recommends development of Monitor articles (1) updating the Association on APA's activities related to the World Conference and (2) detailing the work, processes, and outcomes of the Task Force on the World Conference Against Racism Report.
H. Dr. Shullman provided the Board with an update on the Task Force on Terrorism Report.
XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs
XIV. International Affairs
XV. Central Office
XVI. Financial affairs