Association Rules — 110. Elections and Appointments
110-1. Election Committee
110-1.1 The Election Committee shall consist of three members, including the immediate Past President, who serves as Chair, and the two other most recently retired APA Presidents.
It shall be the responsibility of the Chair of the Election Committee (or his/her designee) to contact the nominees for President-elect to determine their willingness to appear on the final ballot. It shall also be the Chair's responsibility to notify the candidates for President-elect, Treasurer, Recording Secretary and Board of Directors of the election results.
110-2. Counting Systems
110-2.1 Preferential nomination ballot. With the exception of nominations for President-elect, in any nomination specifying a preferential nominating ballot--that is, one in which there is a choice among an unlimited set of alternatives--the count shall be made by a weighted score. A number is assigned to the voter's first choice that is equal to the number of nominees to be selected, a number one less than this is assigned to the voter's second choice, and so on until the number of zero is reached or the voter's choices are exhausted. The candidate or candidates receiving the higher total weighted score are nominated.
110-2.2 Preferential election ballot. In any election specifying a preferential election ballot--a ballot on which the voter is given a limited set of alternatives and chooses among them by placing them in rank order--the Ware System of the single transferable ballot shall be used in determining the result of the election. Ballots are distributed to the first unique choice on each ballot. If no candidate is elected, the one receiving the fewest choices is defeated and the ballots assigned to him or her are redistributed to the highest remaining unique choice, if any. As soon as any candidate receives a majority of the votes cast, he or she is elected. The procedure continues until one candidate has a majority or until all candidates but one are defeated. The remaining candidate is elected whether he or she has a majority or not.
When the Hare System is used in an election for more than one vacancy, a quota is first established. A number equal to the total valid votes cast plus one is divided by one more than the number of offices to be filled. This number constitutes the quota. Counting then commences and continues as described in the preceding paragraph except that as soon as any candidate has been given a number of votes equal to the quota, he or she is declared elected. Any further ballots that would accrue to the elected candidate are distributed to the next subsequent unique choice, if any.
110-2.3 President-elect nominations. In the nomination of candidates for the office of President-elect, each APA voting member may nominate up to five candidates. The selection of the five persons who receive the largest number of nominating votes and who are willing to serve if elected shall be determined by the use of the single transferable ballot (English System). Ballots shall be counted in the following manner: (a) ballots are sorted for first choice on each ballot; (b) the candidate(s) receiving the lowest number(s) of first place votes is declared defeated, and his or her ballots are transferred to the voter's second choice. This procedure does not use a quota. The process of declaring defeated the candidate having the lowest number of votes after each count, and of transferring their ballots to the voter's next choice of those candidates not yet defeated, continues. If there is no next choice, the ballot is declared exhausted and set aside. As each potential nominee achieves sufficient votes to be nominated, that person will be approached to ascertain willingness to serve. If a candidate is unwilling, the candidate's votes will be reallocated to the remaining nominees. (c) This process of counting continues until there are five candidates having the highest number of votes and who are willing to serve if elected.
110-3.1 Election ballot: Biographical sketch. Whenever Council members receive a ballot listing candidates for offices or committees, a relevant biographical sketch of each nominee shall be included with the ballot.
110-3.2 Election ballot: Statement of reasons. Whenever Council members are to vote for a nominee on an "approve" or "disapprove" basis, the ballot shall include a statement by the nominating board giving reasons for the nomination.
110-4. Use of Mailing Labels for Campaigns
110-4.1 The use of APA mailing labels to reach the electorate in support of any candidate(s) for office in any APA or divisional election is prohibited. APA will not supply labels for campaign activities for use in intra-organizational elections.
110-5. Due Process, Challenges, Effective Dates, Terms
110-5.1 Due process. No officer, director, or Council representative shall be prevented from participating in the activities of the body to which he or she was elected without due process, as provided by our parliamentary rules.
110-5.2 Challenges of elections. Any questions relative to elections must be raised not later than the time of the election report by the Board of Directors to Council. Any question, once raised, may be deferred for subsequent determination by Council, and the person whose election has been questioned shall not take office until final approval has been voted by Council.
110-5.3 Effective date. Unless otherwise specified, results of all elections are effective when Council accepts the report of election results.
110-5.4 Terms of office. Unless otherwise specified, terms of office for all officers and board and committee members shall begin on January 1 of the year that follows their election to office.
110-5.5 Filling vacancies (Officers). If any candidate for the office of President-elect, Recording Secretary or Treasurer withdraws or becomes ineligible before the election results are tabulated or before the start of his or her term of office, the result of the election shall be counted as if his or her name had not been on the ballot.
If a Recording Secretary or Treasurer resigns or cannot serve after his or her term has begun, he/she will be replaced as follows: 1) if more than half the term remains, there is a recount of the original ballot and the vote will be recounted as if the resigning member’s name had not been on the ballot. Based on the recount, the position shall be offered to the candidates in order of most votes received. If no candidate on the original ballot is eligible or willing to serve, the Board of Directors shall appoint a replacement to fill the vacancy; 2) if less than half the term remains, the Board of Directors shall appoint a replacement to fill the vacancy.
110-5.6 Filling vacancies (Board of Directors). Seats vacated by members of the Board of Directors not serving ex officio shall be filled for the unexpired term in accordance with the preferential voting procedure in Association Rule 110-2.2. The winner shall be determined by a new count of the most recent Directors' election that redistributes to the candidates remaining on the ballot the votes of candidates not seated. Thus the determining ballots of any candidate who is seated on the Board of Directors are excluded from the recount. This procedure shall be followed in turn if any winner is ineligible or unwilling to serve.
110-5.7 Filling vacancies (Board and Committee Members Elected by Council). If a candidate for any APA board or committee elected by Council withdraws or becomes ineligible before the election results are tabulated or resigns or cannot serve after election results are certified by the Elections Committee or after his or her term has begun, the vote will be recounted as if the resigning member's name had not been on the ballot. Based on the recount, the position shall be offered to the candidates in order of most votes received. If no candidate on the original ballot is eligible or willing to serve, a special election will be held if more than half the term remains, or if less than half the term remains, then the board or committee may appoint a person to fill the vacancy. In the case of appointment or special election, the board or committee shall attempt to choose an appointee or construct a slate of nominees with the same qualifications as originally sought unless the need no longer exists.
110-5.8 Board and committee chairs. Unless otherwise specified, the chairs of each standing board and committee shall be elected by the group itself. Unless otherwise specified, chairs of all other boards or committees shall be chosen by the board or committee through which these committees report.
110-6. Results Reported
110-6.1 A tabular breakdown for both nominations and elections for Board of Directors, APA President-elect, and other contests, where possible, shall be sent on request to any member eligible to vote in the particular election. The report shall include: (a) the total number of votes cast, (b) the total number of candidates, and (c) the winning candidates and the votes each received. In addition to receiving this information, all other candidates shall also be informed of the number of votes they received.
110-7. Guidelines for the Conduct of President-Elect Nominations and Elections
Nominations and Elections
110-7.1 It is the intent of these guidelines to keep the amount of campaigning and electioneering for the office of President-elect within reasonable limits and to assist in the maintenance of a spirit of collegiality and essential fairness in such elections. These guidelines shall apply to the nomination and election process for the office of APA President-elect.
A. Eligibility, Published Statements, Campaign Restrictions
Eligibility and appropriateness of members of the Board of Directors to stand for the APA Presidency. Members of the Board of Directors are eligible to stand for and accept nominations for the APA Presidency.
Eligibility and appropriateness of standing for the APA Presidency while standing for another APA office. Individuals serving in the APA Presidency cycle shall not hold offices within the Association other than the ex officio positions that accompany that office. A person elected to the APA Presidency shall, during the term of President-elect, President, and Past President, be restricted from holding any other APA office, including divisional offices, that is not an ex officio extension of the Presidential office.
Call to membership of potential presidential nominees. An annual announcement in the December issue of the APA Monitor on Psychology will inform potential presidential nominees of the opportunity to speak at the February Council meeting and invite them to submit a brief statement (50 words or less) to accompany the President-Elect nomination ballot. The deadline for submission of such statements is close of business on January 15.
Statement on the issues facing psychology. After the slate of candidates is announced, each one will be invited to provide a statement regarding their candidacy. The candidates' statement accompanying the election ballot should be confined to discussion of issues facing psychology and the APA and should not exceed 1,000 words. The APA Monitor on Psychology will provide coverage of the candidates in a question and answer format in issues published between their nomination and the election. Each board and committee reporting to Council or the Board of Directors will be invited to develop questions, which will be reviewed by the Election Committee. Taking into consideration input from the various constituencies, six (6) final questions reflecting important issues to APA’s overall mission and strategic plan will be selected by the Election Committee and presented to each candidate. Their written responses will be edited for APA style by APA Monitor on Psychology editors and returned to the candidates for approval before appearing, in tabular format, over three subsequent issues of the APA Monitor on Psychology. The answers to each question will be limited to 100 words. Each candidate will also be given the opportunity to write a short statement, not to exceed 300 words, as a lead into their questions and answers. The Past President, as chair of the Election Committee, is responsible for enforcing these limitations.
Appropriateness of a member of the Board of Directors endorsing a particular candidate. Since the Board of Directors is the executive committee of the Association as a whole, it should be viewed as being nonpartisan, and, as a matter of protocol, Board members should not endorse candidates for the office of President-elect.
Reporting of Campaign Funds. APA Presidential Candidates are required to report any financial support greater than $200 that they received while seeking nomination or election from August 1 of the preceding year of the election through two weeks prior to the start of the president-elect election balloting period. Financial support includes direct money payments, in kind services, advertising on behalf of the candidate, etc. Cash contributions to candidates must be documented with the source of the contribution. This will include support from any individual, group, organization, society, APA Division, State Association, or caucus of APA Council. Any honorarium and expenses for travel to present or speak to a group specifically regarding the candidate’s nomination or election also must be reported. If there is a question about whether financial support is reportable, it should be reported.
Candidates will report all contribution sources and amounts on a form approved by the Election Committee. Candidates must sign verifying that the report is complete and submit it to the APA Election Office no later than September 1. Candidates may not accept contributions after this date. The data will be made available to the membership on the APA Election website.
Selling or providing APA mailing labels and email address lists. APA will not sell or provide mailing labels or email address lists for campaign purposes.
Use of listservs (electronic lists). APA Central Office will not establish or provide listservs or other electronic communities for campaign purposes. However, list members may discuss APA elections and APA candidates on established lists to which they subscribe.
B. Statement of Compliance with Guidelines
After the Election Committee announces the candidates, each one will receive a copy of these guidelines. Each candidate must agree to and sign a statement acknowledging that he or she has received the guidelines, pledge to adhere to them, and will report to the Election Committee immediately any deviations from the guidelines of which he or she becomes aware.
C. Promulgation of These Guidelines
The guidelines in their entirety shall appear in the December or January and the May issues of the APA Monitor on Psychology. Each January the Election Committee will send the guidelines to divisions, state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, coalitions, and newsletter editors.
Member complaints regarding violations of these guidelines will be addressed by the Election Committee. Upon receipt of a complaint, the Election Committee will provide the candidate with notice and an opportunity to respond to the allegations and/or to correct his or her report regarding campaign funds required by 110-7.1. A6. Recognizing that the goal of reporting requirements is to achieve transparency for the benefit of the voters, based on information it receives regarding a complaint, the Election Committee may also modify the APA election website to supplement or correct any information about candidate financial support.
110-8. President-Elect Election
110-8.1 The election of APA President-elect is conducted by the Election Committee.
110-8.2 Candidates are nominated by Fellows, Members, and Associate members with voting privileges. Nominations are made by preferential ballots, and up to five names may be listed in rank order. Nomination ballots are sent on or about February 1. The balloting period closes within 45 days. Only APA members are eligible for nomination.
110-8.3 The APA President elect shall be elected by Fellows, Members, and those Associate members who have been granted voting privileges. The election ballot shall be preferential and shall list five candidates. Final election ballots shall be sent on or about September 15. The balloting period shall close within 45 days.
Each candidate is invited to submit a statement, to be sent with the election ballot, of no more than 1,000 words, stating his or her opinion of issues facing psychology and of the role APA should play regarding these issues.
110-8.4 Results are reported to the Board of Directors. Tallied results are reported to Council no more than 30 days after the ballot closes. Election results are published in the APA Monitor on Psychology in the earliest issue possible.
110-9. Recording Secretary and Treasurer Election
110-9.1 The elections for APA Recording Secretary and Treasurer are conducted by a public audit firm; see Appendix C for a detailed statement of procedures.
110-9.2 Candidates are nominated by the Board of Directors. Nominations must be made before July 1. Only APA members are eligible for nomination.
110-9.3 Members of the immediately previous Council elect the Recording Secretary and the Treasurer. Preferential ballots are used. The election occurs on or about July 1; election closes within 30 days.
110-9.4 Results, with the final tally of votes cast, are reported to Council within 30 days.
110-10. Chief Staff Officer Confirmation
110-10.1 The Board of Directors shall appoint a search committee to identify candidates for the position of chief staff officer. After the search committee has identified a list of preferred candidates for the position, the committee shall forward the list of candidates to the Board of Directors. After the Board of Directors has completed its deliberations on the candidates and has selected the nominee for the position, the Board shall forward the nomination to the Council of Representatives for a confirmation vote.
110-10.2 Confirmation requires a two-thirds affirmative vote of those voting. Those eligible to vote will be members of the current Council of Representatives.
110-10.3 The confirmation vote will be by secret ballot sent by the Recording Secretary of the Association. Voters shall indicate on the ballot whether they approve or disapprove of the nominee. Ballots will be returned to the Recording Secretary, who will supervise the tabulation of the vote.
110-10.4 There is a 30-day balloting period for the confirmation vote. Results of the vote, with a tally of votes cast, shall be reported to Council by the Recording Secretary within 30 days following the close of balloting.
110-11. Chief Staff Officer Evaluation
110-11.1 The performance of the chief staff officer shall be subject to an annual review. The Board of Directors is charged with the development of procedures and instruments designed for that purpose. The review shall solicit evaluation from current Council members, from such other elements of the governance structure as are deemed relevant by the Board, and from appropriate Central Office staff. Upon completing its evaluation of the chief staff officer's performance, the Board will communicate the results to Council in confidence.
110-12. Chief Staff Officer Reconfirmation
110-12.1 At such time as the chief staff officer is subject to reconfirmation, the evaluation form used for the evaluation described in Association Rule 110-11 shall address the chief staff officer's performance specifically in terms of his/her reconfirmation.
110-12.2 Reconfirmation requires a two-thirds affirmative vote of those voting. Those eligible to vote for reconfirmation shall be the current Council.
110-12.3 The reconfirmation vote shall be by secret ballot sent by the Recording Secretary of the Association. Voters shall indicate on the ballot whether they approve or disapprove the reconfirmation. Ballots will be returned to the Recording Secretary, who will supervise the tabulation of the vote and will announce the results to Council.
110-12.4 There is a 30-day balloting for the confirmation vote. Results of the vote, with a tally of votes cast, shall be reported to Council within 30 days following the close of balloting.
110-13. Election of the Board of Directors
110-13.1 The election of the Board of Directors is conducted by a public audit firm; see Appendix C for a detailed statement of procedures.
110-13.2 Members are elected by and from the previous Council. Members of the Board of Directors shall not serve simultaneously on APA governance groups, other than as ex-officio or liaison; or on governing bodies of advocacy or political action organizations for psychologists or psychology that are national in scope. Nominations for the Board of Directors shall be by ballot distributed to members of the previous Council. Each Council member will be allowed to nominate twice as many candidates as there are vacancies. The APAGS Representative to Council is not eligible to run but is eligible to nominate and vote in elections for member-at-large and officers of the Board of Directors.
110-13.3 Nomination ballots are sent April 15 or the next business day; nominations close within 30 days and may list up to two persons for each vacancy.
110-13.4 The election ballot is a preferential ballot; three persons shall be nominated for each vacancy chosen in order of total nominations received. Final election ballots are sent July 1 or the next business day; election closes within 30 days.
Candidates are invited to submit a statement of no more than 500 words with their opinions of issues facing psychology and the role APA should play regarding these issues. Copies of these statements are sent with each ballot.
110-13.5 Results, with the final tally of votes cast, are reported to Council within 30 days.
110-14. Rules Governing Simultaneous Service on Boards and Committees
110-14.1 Members shall not serve simultaneously on any of the following governance groups, except as ex-officio (non-voting) members or if other exceptions are provided below.
Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest
Policy and Planning
Publications and Communications
Professional Affairs (except that one member is also a member of the Committee on Professional Practice and Standards)
Advancement of Professional Practice
Animal Research and Ethics
Associate and Baccalaureate Education
Children, Youth and Families
Disability Issues in Psychology
Early Career Psychologists
Ethnic Minority Affairs
International Relations in Psychology
Legal Issues (ad hoc)
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns
Professional Practice and Standards (except that one member is also a member of the Board of Professional Affairs)
Psychology and AIDS (ad hoc)
Structure and Function of Council
Psychological Tests and Assessment
Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Women in Psychology
Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology
Commission on Accreditation
110-15. Election of Standing Board and Committee Members
110-15.1 Elections of standing board and committee members are conducted by Central Office; nominating candidates for various offices to be filled by election of Council shall be the responsibility of the Board of Directors. The chief staff officer shall request suggestions of persons to serve on boards or committees from officers of divisions and state/provincial/territorial psychological associations, chairs of boards and committees, and the general membership. The list of persons shall be available to the various boards and committees when they are preparing nominations.
110-15.2 Candidates are nominated by the Board of Directors according to APA Bylaws, Article XI, Section 1. Only APA members may be nominated, unless otherwise specified in the APA Bylaws. In determining the slates of candidates, the Board shall receive recommendations from relevant boards and committees. If the Board is unable to fill the slate from the list of candidates and alternates provided by the board or committee, the Board shall consult with the chair of the board or committee to obtain additional nominees.
110-15.3 The Council elects members of standing boards and committees by a preferential election ballot; those voting assign a rank order to as many candidates as desired. Ballots are sent on the last working day in October. The balloting period closes within 30 days.
110-15.4 Results are reported to Council and the membership in a manner determined by the Board of Directors.
110-15.5 Standing boards or committees whose members are elected by the Council of Representatives may, for reasonable cause, petition the Board of Directors to remove a member from said body. With the exception of the individual in question, a two-thirds vote of all members must approve of the petition. For purposes of Bylaw Article XI-1, reasonable cause shall be defined as 1) absence from two consecutive meetings or 2) substantial absences from meetings, or 3) egregious misconduct so that continued service would not be in the best interest of the Association. The petition requesting removal shall inform the Board of Directors of the basis for and the evidence supporting said removal. No later than 30 days after receipt of said petition, the Board of Directors shall provide a copy of the petition to the member and the member shall have 30 days from receipt of the petition to provide to the Board of Directors a written response. Upon a two-thirds vote of all Board members, either by conference call or meeting, the Board of Directors may remove said member if it determines that there is reasonable cause for removal and that removal is in the best interest of the Association. The Board of Directors will act upon this petition expeditiously but no later than the Board meeting following the receipt of the response from the individual. The Board of Directors shall promptly inform the member and the petitioning board or committee of its action. The action of the Board of Directors shall be final. The Board of Directors shall inform the Council of Representatives of its action at the next Council meeting.
110-16. Continuing and Ad Hoc Committee Appointments
110-16.1 Continuing committees. Generally, members of continuing committees that report directly to the Board of Directors or Council are elected by Council in accordance with the same nomination and election procedures used for standing boards and committees (see Association Rule 110 15 for details). Association Rules 60 and 90 should be consulted for details covering special provisions and exceptions to the general procedures for individual continuing committees.
Selection of members for all other continuing committees is the responsibility of the standing board or committee through which they report, as listed in Association Rule 50 5, with the approval of the Board of Directors.
110-16.2 Ad hoc groups. Selections for members of ad hoc groups are the responsibility of the board or committee through which they report (see Association Rule 50 3 for details).
110-16.3 A member of a continuing or ad hoc committee may, for reasonable cause as defined in Association Rule 110-15.5, be removed by the Board of Directors using the petition process outlined for standing boards and committees in Association Rule 110-15.5. The Board of Directors shall also provide a copy of the petition to the board or committee responsible for the committee or ad hoc group when the Board of Directors is not the reporting group.
110-17. Official Panels
110-17.1 When an agency of the government, or of a philanthropic or educational group requests APA to supply names of notable psychologists for an official purpose, the APA President may name such a panel with advice of the chief staff officer. Before taking action, the chief staff officer shall, if possible, seek suggestions from officers of divisions most closely concerned with the purpose of the panel and from other knowledgeable members of the Association.