Council of Representatives Approved Minutes:August 23 & 26, 2001
I. MINUTES OF MEETING
A.(1) Council voted to approve the minutes of the February 23-25, 2001, Council of Representatives meeting.
II. ELECTIONS, AWARDS, MEMBERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCES
A.(2) Council voted to receive the report of the Task Force on Membership Retention and Recruitment.
B.(3) Council postponed to its February 2002 meeting the item "Recommendation of the Task Force on Membership Retention and Recruitment: Funding for Increased Membership Retention and Recruitment Activities."
C.(4) Council voted to approve extending the Membership Committee's meeting by one day in the fall and inviting the co-chairs of the Task Force on Membership Recruitment and Retention to attend the meeting in order to further the work of the Task Force on Membership Recruitment and Retention.
D.(5) Council voted to approve the following amendments to Association Rules 10-11, 100-6, and 210-9 (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
10-11 - LIFE MEMBERSHIP STATUS (DUES-EXEMPTION)
10-11.1 Any member who has reached the age of 65 and has belonged to the APA for a total of 25 years, may choose to [become a life-member] begin the dues-reduction process, culminating in dues exemption by so advising Central Office of his or her eligibility. Any member who, regardless of age or length of membership, has been adjudged totally and permanently disabled, may choose to become exempt from dues by so advising Central Office of his or her eligibility. Ordinarily, the transfer in status will become effective as of the January 1 immediately following the member's request, but in appropriate circumstances the change in status may be made effective as of the previous January 1.
[Life] These members will be exempt from further payment of APA dues, as well as division dues, division assessments, or other assessments established by the Council. However, [life] these members will have the option of paying a subscription price/service fee if they choose to receive the American Psychologist and the APA Monitor on Psychology. The subscription price/service fee will be determined by Council to allow for dues distribution to those APA divisions to which the dues-exempt [life] member belongs and to help defray the costs of the American Psychologist, the APA Monitor on Psychology, and for administering services.
Dues-exempt [Life] members shall pay the same price for journals as dues-paying members. However, subscriptions to the American Psychologist and the APA Monitor on Psychology are included in the subscription price/servicing fee set by Council to cover such subscriptions and to help defray the cost of administering services to dues-exempt [life] members. (see also Association Rule 100-6 LIFE MEMBERSHIP STATUS (DUES EXEMPTION). The journal credit applies only to dues-paying members.
100-6 LIFE MEMBERSHIP STATUS (DUES EXEMPTION).
100-6.1 [APA Life members] Any APA member who is exempt from paying dues shall also be exempt from further payment of division dues and assessments. However, divisions may, at their discretion, assess and collect from [life] these members a mandatory subscription price/service fee to cover the costs of providing such division publications as may be requested by [the life] these members. (see also Association Rule 10-11 - LIFE MEMBERSHIP STATUS (DUES-EXEMPTION).
210-9 – REDUCED DUES STATUS
210-9.1 Any Fellow, Member or Associate member may request reduced dues status by so indicating on the annual dues statement and submitting a written request to the Central Office.
There shall be an annual APA membership maintenance fee for reduced dues status, set by the Membership Committee. This fee applies to APA dues and assessments. The fee will ordinarily be lower than full dues, with the amount to be determined by the Membership Committee. Reduced dues status is limited to a total of five years and must be renewed annually, on the member dues statement. [Members who are experiencing financial hardship as a result of total and permanent disability may be granted reduced dues on a permanent basis.] Those members requesting reduced dues status may continue to subscribe to APA journals, purchase APA books, and register for the annual convention at the member prices or rates.
E.(6) Council voted to elect 137 Members to initial Fellow status on the nomination of the indicated divisions and on the recommendation of the Membership Committee and the Board of Directors.
F.(25C) A new business item "Pro/Con Statements" was referred to the Policy and Planning Board (P&P) and the Committee on the Structure and Function of Council (CSFC).
G.(26) Council received information on the plans to increase the annual fee APA charges for reduced dues status from $25 to $50.
H.(37) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "New Criteria for Dues-Exempt Status."
I.(38) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Elections and Nominations to the Board of Directors."
J.(39) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Elections to APA Governance by Members of the Council of Representatives, other than the Board of Directors."
K.(40) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Cost of 2001 APA Directory."
A.(27) Council received an update on the ongoing revision of the Ethics Code.
B.(28) Council received information on the Ethics Committee’s revision to the policy regarding notification of final actions.
IV. BOARD OF DIRECTORS
A.(7) Council discussed the update on the Report of the Task Force on Envisioning, Identifying and Accessing New Professional Roles.
B.(25D) A new business item "Council Briefing on Specialization" was referred to CSFC.
C.(29) Council voted to refer the item "American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) Member on the Board of Directors and Council" to the Board of Directors and requested that the Board consider a proposal to have an APAGS voting member on Council, but not on the Board of Directors.
D.(41) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Streamlining the Presentation of Information to Council Members."
V. DIVISIONS AND STATE AND PROVINCIAL ASSOCIATIONS
A.(8) Council voted to approve the following amendment to Article VI, Section 3, of the APA Bylaws (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
3. A Division shall be established whenever one percent or more of the Members of the Association petition for it and Council approves. A two-thirds vote of those present at a [the mid-winter] meeting of Council is required for the establishment of a new Division…
Council voted to forward the Bylaw amendment to the membership for a vote in November 2001 with pro/con statements.
B.(9) Council voted to endorse the development of mechanisms through the combined efforts of the Committee on Division/APA Relations and any interested APA groups that will promote the use of division expertise in APA activities.
C.(42) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Amend the APA Rule 100-2.1 for Signing Petitions to APA Council in Order to Permit Endorsements for Petitions for New Divisions."
VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE APA
A.(10) Council voted to approve the following amendments to Article V, Section 6, of the APA Bylaws and Association Rule 40-2 and 40-3 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added);
ARTICLE V – Composition of the Council of Representatives
6. The number of [r]Representatives from [a]Divisions [or] and State/Provincial Associations shall be [determined annually as follows:] 162. The 162 Representatives will be divided into 2 pools, one for State/Provincial Associations and one for Divisions. The percentage of the 162 seats for State/Provincial Associations shall correspond to the percentage of total apportionment votes allocated to State/Provincial Associations and the percentage of the 162 seats for Divisions shall correspond to the percentage of total apportionment votes allocated to Divisions.
[A Division or State or Provincial Association shall receive one Council seat for each 1% of the allocated votes, calculated as follows:]
Each Division shall be allocated one seat from the Division Pool and each State/Provincial Association shall be allocated one seat from the State/Provincial Pool. The awarding of additional seats allocated to each Pool shall be based on the percentage of allocated votes received by a Division or State/Provincial Association and calculated as follows:
[Less than 0.5%………………….0
0.5% to less than 1.5%………….1
1.5% to less than 2.5%………….2
2.5% to less than 3.5%………….3]
1.5% to less than 2.5%……….1 additional seat
2.5% to less than 3.5%……….2 additional seats
3.5% to less than 4.5%……….3 additional seats
[An Additional 48 seats shall be divided among Divisions and State or Provincial Associations in the following manner. The proportion of the 48 seats to be assigned to Divisions and the proportion to be assigned to State and Provincial Associations shall correspond to the percentage of total votes allocated to each of these two groups each year. Seats thus proportionately assigned shall be awarded to the units within each group which received less than 0.5% of the allocated votes, with one seat being awarded to each such unit, in the order in which they came closest to a 0.5% allocation. If, after all units in a group have been awarded at least one Council seat, there remain seats proportionately assigned to the group which have not been awarded, these remaining seats shall be awarded to other units in that group in the order in which the units came closest to being awarded another seat as a result of the allocated votes.]
Additional seats will be allocated to those units in a Pool entitled to additional seats in the following manner. The unit with the highest percentage in the Pool will receive the first additional seat and an additional seat will be assigned to other units entitled to one or more additional seats in descending order of their percentages. If, after all units in a Pool entitled to one or more additional seats have received one additional seat, there remain units that are entitled to two or more additional seats, and if the seats allocated to the Pool have not been exhausted, the unit in the Pool with the highest percentage will receive a second additional seat and a second additional seat will be assigned to other units entitled to two or more additional seats in descending order of their percentages. This process shall be continued until either all additional seats allocated to the Pool have been assigned or until all units in the Pool entitled to additional seats have been assigned all of the seats to which their percentages of allocated votes entitle them.
If, after all units in a Pool have been assigned the additional seats to which they are entitled by virtue of their percentages, there remain seats allocated to a Pool which have not been assigned, those remaining seats shall be assigned to the units in the Pool in the order in which the units came closest to being awarded another seat as a result of the allocated votes.
40-2.1 Any units designated in Article V, Section 1 of the APA Bylaws may, by mutual agreement, associate themselves in a coalition as a voting unit for Council representation. Coalition representative(s) shall serve for the entire legislative year during which the coalition remains in effect. Coalitions may be formed prior to the Apportionment ballot in the manner described in 40-2.2. Coalitions formed after the apportionment ballot may only be formed in compliance with rule 40-2.3. Coalitions may be dissolved by the withdrawal of any unit from the coalition.
40-2.2 Seats on Council shall be allocated only on the basis of the apportionment ballot. Any voting unit may appear only once on the apportionment ballot. Thus, if a unit decides to enter into a coalition with another unit, it cannot appear independently on the same ballot. APA must be notified yearly of the existence of a coalition. Coalitions on record with the APA Recording Secretary prior to September 1 will appear on the next apportionment ballot. Voting members may cast votes for units within a coalition. The total number of votes for all units of a coalition will determine the number of representatives that a coalition will have. Notification of dissolution must be received by the APA Recording Secretary by September 1, that is before the apportionment ballot is mailed.
40-2.3 Any unit that does not receive a sufficient percentage of the allocated votes to attain at least one seat on Council may form a coalition with any other unit or units, including those that attained one or more seats on Council, for the purpose of achieving Council representation. If a unit that did not attain a seat on Council wishes to enter into a coalition with a unit that did attain one or more seats on Council, it may do so only if the combined percentages of allocated votes for the coalition members result in the addition of no more than one Council seat to the total seats allotted to the represented unit. A statement of coalition signed by the presidents of the organizations forming the coalition shall be filed with the APA Recording Secretary at least four months prior to the start of the February meeting of Council in the year in which the representative would take office and shall include notification of who the representative(s) will be.]
[40-3.1] 40-2.1 Any unit designated in Article V, Section 1 of the APA Bylaws that fails to secure a seat in the Council of Representatives may appoint a single Liaison/Observer to the Council. Liaison/Observers must be members of the APA. Said units shall make provision for representation from the diversity of American society.
[40-3.2] 40-2.2 Liaison/Observers shall be entitled to: (a) receive all except confidential materials provided to the Council of Representatives; (b) attend all Council sessions, workshops and caucuses with the exception of the Executive Sessions of Council; (c) be seated in a portion of the Council chamber designated for their use; (d) speak to agenda items of direct concern to their constituents, if specifically invited to do so by the Presiding Officer.
[40-3.3] 40-2.3 Liaison/Observers shall not be entitled to vote on matters before the Council, and shall not be eligible to secure reimbursement from general Association revenues of the expenses incurred for their attendance at Council.
Council voted to forward the Bylaw amendments to the membership for a vote in November 2001 without pro/con statements. The Association Rule changes will become effective in mid-December if the Bylaw changes are approved by the membership.
B.(11) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of new business item #23C, "Governance Renaissance Plan: Redesign of Council."
C.(30) Council discussed the item "Minutes of the Policy and Planning Board."
D.(43) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Change in Council’s Name."
E.(44) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Council Seats for State Associations and Divisions."
F.(45) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Work Group to Study Equity between Divisions and Affiliates of the Numbers of Members and Representation on Council."
G.(46) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Better Articulation Between the Council and its Board and Committee Structure."
VII. PUBLICATIONS AND COMMUNICATIONS
A.(25F) A new business item "Support for APA Editors to Enhance Dissemination of Psychological Knowledge to the Public" was referred to the Publications and Communications Board (P&C) and the Board of Scientific Affairs.
B. In executive session, Council discussed broad policy issues regarding the American Psychologist after receiving a summary of actions taken thus far in response to the controversy arising over the editorial handling of one AP submission.
VIII. CONVENTION AFFAIRS
A.(11A) Council voted to approve the following motion regarding the restructuring of annual convention:
The Board of Convention Affairs in collaboration with representatives of six divisions, who would consult with all divisions, appointed by the APA President, will devise an evaluation plan for the cluster programming to be presented to Council in February 2002. This evaluation plan will be implemented in two phases.
Phase One Evaluation: The first phase will be completed by September 30th 2002 and will include an evaluation of the cluster programming by all of the divisions. Each division will recommend whether to continue or to terminate the cluster programming for 2003. The Board of Directors will determine at its October meeting whether the cluster programming will be continued for a second year, following the recommendations of all the divisions.
The outcome of the 2002 evaluation will be provided to each division by October 31st 2002.
Phase Two Evaluation: Should the evaluation lead to continuation of the cluster programming for 2003, a second evaluation will be implemented. The second phase of the evaluation will be completed September 2003. Each division will recommend whether to continue or to terminate the cluster programming for 2004. The Board of Directors will determine at their October 2003 meeting whether the cluster programming will be continued for a third year.
IX. EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(12) Council voted to approve amending the APA Bylaws and Association Rules to establish a 2-Year College Teacher Affiliate membership category in APA (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
Article II: Membership
15. There shall be a class of 2-Year College Teacher Affiliates who are not Members of the Association and who shall not represent themselves as such. They shall have such privileges as may be granted by Council, including special rates for subscriptions and publications. 2-Year College Teacher Affiliate status is limited to individuals who are not otherwise eligible for APA membership, although any APA member who teaches in a 2-year college is welcome to participate in 2-Year College Teacher Affiliate activities.
(Note: Current sections 15, 16 and 17 of Article II will be renumbered.)
10.15. 2-Year College Teacher Affiliate
10.15.1. Applications for 2-Year College Teacher Affiliate status may be accepted at any time by the chief staff officer, who shall have discretion in determining what form of evidence is sufficient to meet the requirements for this application.
2-Year College Teacher Affiliates may subscribe to any of the journals published by the Association or purchase other APA publications at the same reduced rates charged to members.
210-7.1 The Finance Committee shall be responsible for recommending the fees for the following categories: (a) Members; (b) late payment of dues; (c) International Affiliates; (d) High School Teacher Affiliates; [and] (e) Student Affiliates; and (f) 2-Year College Teacher Affiliates.
Council also voted approve amending the Association Rules to establish a Committee of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges (underlined material to be added):
50. Council's Board and Committee Infrastructure
50-5 LIST OF CONTINUING COMMITTEES
50-5.1 The list below presents APA continuing committees and their reporting lines.
Reporting through the Board of Educational Affairs
Continuing Professional Education
Education and Training Awards
Committee of Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Committee of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges
110. ELECTION AND APPOINTMENTS
110.14 RULES GOVERNING SIMULTANEOUS SERVICE ON BOARDS AND COMMITTEES
110-14.1 Members shall not serve simultaneously on any of the following governance groups, except as ex-officio (non-voting) members or if other exceptions are provided below.
Advancement of Professional Practice
Animal Research and Ethics
Children, Youth and Families
Continuing Professional Education
Disability Issues in Psychology
Employment and Human Resources
Ethnic Minority Affairs
Finance (except that two members are also members of the Investment Committee)
Investment Committee (except that two members are also members of the Finance Committee)
International Relations in Psychology
Legal Issues (ad hoc)
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns
Professional Practice and Standards (except that one member is also a member of the Board of Professional Affairs)
Psychology and AIDS (ad hoc)
Structure and Function of Council
Psychological Tests and Assessment
Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges
Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Women in Psychology
120. Educational Affairs
120-6 COMMITTEE OF PSYCHOLOGY TEACHERS AT COMMUNITY COLLEGES
120-6.1 There shall be an American Psychological Association Committee of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges whose mission shall be to (a) represent community college psychology teachers; (b) promote, within the 2-year college community, the highest professional standards for teaching of psychology as a scientific discipline with applications to a wide range of human concerns; (c) cultivate a professional identity with the discipline of psychology among psychology teachers at 2-year colleges; (d) develop leadership qualities among psychology teachers at 2-year colleges and increase their participation and representation in professional psychology activities and organizations; (e) establish and maintain communication with all groups involved in the teaching of psychology and with the greater psychological community; (f) encourage psychological research on teaching and learning at 2-year colleges for the purpose of giving students the best possible educational opportunities.
The voting members of the Committee shall consist of 6 members, who serve three-year terms. All voting members of the Committee must be 2-Year College Teacher Affiliates or members of the Association.
Each year, a call for nominations for the three open positions that will become vacant in the following year shall be broadly disseminated. Following the call, the Committee shall prepare a slate of candidates for the vacancies and hold an election in which all 2-Year College Teachers who are Members, Associate members or Affiliates of the Association are eligible to vote. Following the election, the results of the election shall be forwarded to the Board of Educational Affairs and the Board of Directors for final approval.
The Committee shall report to Council through the APA Board of Educational Affairs.
Council voted to forward the Bylaw amendments to the membership for a vote in November 2001 without pro/con statements. The Association Rule changes will become effective in mid-December if the Bylaw changes are approved by the membership.
B.(13) Council voted to approve 1) the recognition of Forensic Psychology as a specialty in professional psychology; 2) the recognition of Psychopharmacology as a proficiency in professional psychology; 3) the recognition of Psychological Treatment of Alcohol and Other Psychoactive Substance Disorders as a proficiency in professional psychology.
C.(31) Council received as information the summary of results of the Committee on Accreditation Consumer Satisfaction Survey.
D.(47) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Future Composition of the Committee on Accreditation."
E.(48) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Interval Review of the Committee on Accreditation Effectiveness."
F.(49) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Greater Autonomy for Committee on Accreditation."
G.(50) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Education and Training Standards."
H.(51) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Level in Consulting Psychology – Organizational Psychology."
I.(52) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Resolution on the Accreditation of the Newly Emerging Substantive Area of Clinical Psychology at the Predoctoral Level."
J.(53) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Impact of School Size on Psychological Well-Being and Educational Achievement of Students."
X. PROFESSIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(14) Council postponed to its August 2003 meeting the item "Coordination of Trauma Activity within APA."
B.(15) Council voted to approve the Criteria for Practice Guideline Development and Evaluation as APA policy.
C.(16) Council voted to approve amending Association Rule 130-3.2 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
130-3. PROFESSIONAL AWARDS
130-3.1 The Board of Professional Affairs shall announce its professional awards in a timely fashion in advance of the annual convention.
130-3.2 The APA may award annually up to three prizes of up to $2,000 each for outstanding contributions to psychology as a profession. The Board of Professional Affairs shall select as recipients for the awards those who have made outstanding contributions to the knowledge base of professional psychology, in technical applications in the applied practice of psychological knowledge, or in the use of the knowledge base or the practice base in psychology for the betterment of the general public. These contributions should be seminal or innovative in ways that are judged to have improved or changed significantly the conceptual understanding of behavior or the applied practice of such conceptual understanding of behavior, or to have accrued significant benefit to the public.
[The APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Knowledge. This category includes the discovery and development of new information, empirical or otherwise, to the body of knowledge in applied psychology. The new information would permit innovative applications in a wide variety of situations. These would be in such areas as assessment, consultation, instruction, and direct or indirect intervention. The new theories, or original integration of existing theories or knowledge, would provide direction so as to enable psychologists to better observe, define, predict, or control behavior. Also included in this category is actual research involving original development of procedures, methodologies, or technical skills that significantly improve the application of psychological knowledge in providing direct and immediate solutions to practical problem areas.
2. The APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to Applied Psychology as a Professional Practice. This category recognizes outstanding service delivery. It recognizes the psychologist who has provided leadership in changing the profession, its public image, and its public acceptance. Contribution in public and professional arenas involving legislative, political, and legal patterns of service delivery and reimbursement changes that contribute to the development of the profession are considered. Significant contributions of work done in professional or public organizations as a psychologist at the national, state and local level may be recognized.
3. The APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Public Service. Psychologists who have made outstanding contributions in serving the public through their knowledge and practical skills are recognized. Such contributions must be seen as directed to and on behalf of the public Consideration is given to psychologists whose professional involvement has resulted in a major benefit to the public as well as those who have made significant contributions to special populations such as the those who have disabilities, are disadvantaged or underprivileged, or are members of a minority group. Psychologists who are active in legislative, legal, political, organizational, and other areas that are directed at providing benefits to the public also are considered.]
1. The APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. This award is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). Research involving the original development of procedures, methodologies, or technical skills that significantly improve the application of psychological knowledge and provide direct and immediate solutions to practical problem areas will be considered, as will research that has informed psychologists on how better to observe, define, predict, or control behavior. Original integration of existing theories or knowledge is also eligible for consideration.
2. The APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent or Institutional Practice in the Private Sector. This award recognizes outstanding service delivery by a licensed psychologist who is primarily engaged in the practice of psychology in a private sector setting. The award is intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. Nominations will be considered for psychologists working in any area of clinical specialization, health services provision, or consulting, and services provided to any patient population or professional clientele in an independent or institutional practice setting. Services provided to diverse client groups or patient populations, including but not limited to children/adolescents/adults/older adults; urban/rural/frontier populations; minority populations; and persons with serious mental illness, will be considered. Contributions can be judged distinguished by virtue of peer recognition, advancement of the public’s recognition of psychology as a profession, relevant professional association honors, or other meritorious accomplishments denoting excellence as a practitioner including advancement of the profession.
3. The APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector. This award recognizes outstanding service delivery by a psychologist who is primarily engaged in the practice of psychology in a public sector setting (e.g., state hospital, military, veteran’s administration, etc.). The award is intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. Nominations will be considered for psychologists working in a wide variety of public sector settings. Services provided to diverse client groups or patient populations, including but not limited to children/adolescents/adults/older adults; urban/rural/frontier populations; minority populations; and persons with serious mental illness, will be considered. Contributions can be judged distinguished by virtue of peer recognition, advancement of the public’s recognition of psychology as a profession, relevant professional association honors, or other meritorious accomplishments denoting excellence as a practitioner including improvement of public service delivery systems or development of psychologically informed public policy.
130-3.3 The Board of Professional Affairs shall seek diversity in selecting recipients, avoiding as far as possible the consecutive selection of more than one person representing a specialized topic, a specific material, a given method, a particular application, or a specific specialized service.
130-3.4 Ineligible for the awards are members serving currently on the Board of Professional Affairs and the current APA President and President-elect. The following rules also apply: No person can receive a professional award in any two consecutive years; recipients are permitted to receive only one award in their lifetime per category of the professional awards; current members of the Board of Professional Affairs cannot vote for members of their own family; and those with a history of ethical violations at a state or national level or who have received disciplinary action from a state board of examiners in psychology are not eligible.
130-3.5 Nominations for these awards shall be solicited in the broadest possible manner, including announcements in appropriate publications. The category of the three awards in which the nomination is placed shall be based, insofar as possible, on a determination of the candidate's primary area of work. Deadlines for receipt of nominations shall be established by the Board of Professional Affairs each year. Nominators are responsible for providing the Board of Professional Affairs with an up-to-date resume and bibliography and a narrative statement detailing the nature of the contributions and focus of the nomination. Endorsements from other individuals and groups are also considered part of the record. All nominations are good for two years, after which nominators must reapply for another review. Nominators of the award recipients are also responsible for the wording of the awards' citation.
130-3.6 Award recipients shall be invited to be present at the annual convention to receive the awards and to address convention attendees in the year following the receipt of the awards.
D.(17) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of new business item #23U, "Task Force on Implementation of Primary Health Care Policy."
E. Council voted to postpone to its February 2002 meeting the executive session item "Board Certification for Psychologists in Applied Fields of Specialization in Professional Psychology."
F.(25A) A new business item "Increasing the Number of APA Members of a State/Provincial/Territorial Association Required for Affiliate Status" was referred to the Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice and P&P.
G.(32) Council received information about APA’s prescription privilege initiative.
H.(54) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Coalition Building to Design and Implement Healthcare Reform."
I.(55) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Information Service for Practitioners."
J.(56) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Guidelines for Provision of Humanistic Psychosocial Services."
K.(57) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Guidelines for Multicultural Counseling Proficiency for Psychologists."
L.(58) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Creation of a Task Force on Health Care Policy."
M.(59) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Primary Care Psychology."
N.(60) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Changes in Association Rules Regarding the Promulgation of Guidelines."
O.(61) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Re-Title Guidelines."
XI. SCIENTIFIC AFFAIRS
XII. PUBLIC INTEREST
A.(18) Council voted to approve the following Resolution on the Death Penalty in the United States:
RESOLUTION ON THE DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED STATES
WHEREAS recent empirical research reviewing all death penalty cases in the United States concluded that two thirds of the death penalty cases from 1973 to 1995 were overturned on appeal with the most common reasons cited as incompetent counsel, inadequate investigative services, or the police and prosecutors withholding exculpatory evidence. (Liebman, Fagan, & West, 2000); and
WHEREAS the recent application of DNA technology has resulted in, as of June 2000, 62 post-conviction determinations of actual innocence, with eight of these having been for persons sentenced to death at trial (Scheck, Neufeld, Weyer, 2000; Wells, Malpass, Lindsay, Fisher, Turtle, & Fulero, 2000); and
WHEREAS research on the process of qualifying jurors for service on death penalty cases shows that jurors who survive the qualification process ("death-qualified jurors") are more conviction-prone than jurors who have reservations about the death penalty and are therefore disqualified from service. (Bersoff, 1987; Cowan, Thompson and Ellsworth, 1984; Ellsworth, 1988; Bersoff & Ogden, 1987; Haney, 1984); and
WHEREAS recent social science research reveals strong inconsistencies in prosecutors’ decisions to seek the death penalty in particular cases, based on factors other than the severity of the crime. The "prosecutor is more likely to ask for a death sentence when the victim is European-American, of high social status, a stranger to the offender, and when counsel is appointed" (Beck & Shumsky, 1997, p. 534); and
WHEREAS race and ethnicity have been shown to affect the likelihood of being charged with a capital crime by prosecutors (e.g., Beck & Shumsky, 1997; Bowers, 1983; Paternoster, 1991; Paternoster & Kazyaka, 1988; Sorensen & Wallace, 1995) and therefore of being sentenced to die by the jury. Those who kill European-American victims are more likely to receive the death penalty, even after differences such as the heinousness of the crime, prior convictions, and the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator are considered. This is especially true for African-Americans (e.g., Keil & Vito, 1995; Thomson, 1997) and Hispanic-Americans who kill European-Americans (Thomson, 1997); and
WHEREAS psychological research consistently demonstrates that juries often misunderstand the concept of mitigation and its intended application (e.g., Haney & Lynch, 1994, 1997; Wiener, Pritchard, & Weston, 1995; Wiener, Hurt, Thomas, Sadler, Bauer & Sargent, 1998), so that mitigation factors, e.g., the defendant's previous life circumstances, mental and emotional difficulties and age, have little or no relation to penalty phase verdicts (Beck & Shumsky, 1997; Costanzo & Costanzo, 1994); and
WHEREAS death penalty prosecutions may involve persons with serious mental illness or mental retardation. Procedural problems, such as assessing competency, take on particular importance in cases where the death penalty is applied to such populations (Skeem, Golding, Berge & Cohn, 1998; Rosenfeld & Wall, 1988; Hoge, Poythress, Bonnie, Monahan, Eisenberg & Feucht-Haviar, 1997; Cooper & Grisso, 1997); and
WHEREAS death penalty prosecutions may involve persons under 18 (sometimes as young as 14). Procedural problems, such as assessing competency, take on particular importance in cases where the death penalty is applied to juveniles (Grisso & Schwartz, 2000; Lewis et al., 1988); and
WHEREAS capital punishment appears statistically neither to exert a deterrent effect (e.g., Bailey, 1983; 1990; Bailey & Peterson, 1994; Cheatwood, 1993; Costanzo, 1997; Decker & Kohfeld, 1984; Radelet & Akers, 1996; Stack, 1993) nor save a significant number of lives through the prevention of repeat offenses (Vito, Koester, & Wilson, 1991; Vito, Wilson, & Latessa, 1991); Further, research shows that the murder rate increases just after state-sanctioned executions (Bowers, 1988; Costanzo, 1998; Phillips, 1983; Phillips & Hensley, 1984);
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that the American Psychological Association:
Calls upon each jurisdiction in the United States that imposes capital punishment not to carry out the death penalty until the jurisdiction implements policies and procedures that can be shown through psychological and other social science research to ameliorate the deficiencies identified above.
Bailey, W. C. (1990). Murder, capital punishment, and television execution publicity and homicide rates. American Sociological Review, 55, 628-633.
Bailey, W. C. (1983). Disaggregation in deterrence and death penalty research: The case of murder in Chicago. The Journalof Criminal Law and Criminology, 74(3), 827-859.
Bailey, W. C., & Peterson, R.D. (1994). Murder, capital punishment and deterrence: A review of the evidence and an examination of police killings. Journal of Social Issues, 50, 53-74.
Beck, J. C. & Shumsky, R. (1997). A comparison of retained and appointed counsel in cases of capital murder. Law and Human Behavior, 21(5), 525-538.
Bersoff, D.N. (1987). Social science data and the Supreme Court: Lockhart as a case in point. American Psychologist, 42(1), 52-58.
Bersoff, D.N. & Ogden, D.W. (1987). In the Supreme Court of the United States Lockhart v. McCree: amicus curiae brief for the American Psychological Association. American Psychologist, 42 (1), 59-68.
Bowers, W. J. (1983). The pervasiveness of arbitrariness and discrimination under post-Furman capital statutes. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 74(2), 1067-1100.
Bowers, W.J. (1988). The effect of execution is brutalization, not deterrence. In K.C. Haas and J.A. Inciardi (Eds.). Challenging capital punishment: Legal and social science approaches (49-90). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cheatwood, D. (1993). Capital punishment and the deterrence of violent crime in comparable counties. Criminal Justice Review, 18(2), 165-181.
Cooper, D. & Grisso, T. (1997). Five-year research update (1991-1995): Evaluations for competence to stand trial. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(3), 347-364.
Costanzo, M. (1997). Just revenge: Costs and consequences of the death penalty. New York: St. Martins Press.
Costanzo, S., & Costanzo, M. (1994). Life or death decisions: An analysis of capital jury decision-making under the special issues framework. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 151-170.
Cowan, C.L. & Thompson, W. & Ellsworth, P. C. (1984). The effects of death qualification on jurors' predisposition to convict and on the quality of deliberation. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 53-80.
Decker, S. H. & Kohfeld, C. W. (1984). A deterrence study of the death penalty in Illinois, 1933-1980. Journal of Criminal Justice, 12, 367-377.
Ellsworth, P.C. (1988). Unpleasant facts: The Supreme Court's response to empirical research on capital punishment. In K.C. Haas and J.A. Inciardi (Eds.). Challenging capital punishment: Legal and social science approaches (177-211). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Grisso, T. & Schwartz, R. G. (Eds.). (2000). Youth on Trial: A Developmental Perspective on Juvenile Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Haney, C. (Ed.). (1984). Death qualification [Special issue]. Law and Human Behavior, 8 (1&2).
Haney, C. & Lynch, M. (1997). Clarifying life and death matters: An analysis of instructional comprehension and penalty phase closing arguments, Law and Human Behavior, 21(6), 575-595.
Haney, C. & Lynch, M. (1994). Comprehending life and death matters: A preliminary study of California’s capital penalty instructions, Law and Human Behavior, 18, 411-436.
Hoge, S. K., Poythress, N., Bonnie, R. J., Monahan, J., Eisenberg, M. & Feucht-Haviar, T. (1997). The MacArthur adjudicative competence study: Diagnosis, psychopathology, and competence-related abilities. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(3), 329-345.
Keil, T. J. & Vito, G. F. (1995). Race and the death penalty in Kentucky murder trials: 1976-1991. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 20(1), 17-36.
Lewis, D.O., Pincus, J.H., Bard B., Richardson, E. , Princher, L.S., Feldman, M. & Yeager, C. (1988). Neuropsychiatric, psychoeducational, and family characteristics of 14 juveniles condemned to death in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145(5), 584-589.
Liebman, J. S., Fagan, J., & West, V. (2000). A broken system: Error rates in capital cases, 1973-1995. [On-line]. Available: www.TheJusticeProject.org
Paternoster, R. & Kazyaka, A. (1988). Racial considerations in capital punishment: The failure of evenhanded justice. In K. C. Haas & J. A. Inciardi (Eds.), Challenging capital punishment: Legal and social science approaches (pp. 113-148). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Paternoster, R. (1991). Prosecutorial discretion and capital sentencing in North and South Carolina. In R. M. Bohm (Ed.), The death penalty in America: Current research (pp. 39-52). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Phillips, D.P. (1983). The impact of mass media violence in U.S. homicides. American Sociological Review, 48, 560-568.
Phillips, D.P. & Hensley, J.E. (1984). When violence is rewarded or punished: The impact of mass media stories on homicide. Journal of Communication, 34, 101-116.
Radelet, M. L. & Akers, R. L. (1996). Deterrence and the death penalty: The views of the experts. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87, 1-16.
Rosenfeld, B. & Wall, A. (1998). Psychopathology and competence to stand trial. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 25(4), 443-462.
Scheck, B., Neufeld, P., & Dwyer, W. (2000). Actual innocence. New York: Harper.
Skeem, J. L., Golding, S. L., Berge, G., & Cohn, N. B. (1998). Logic and reliability of evaluations of competence to stand trial. Law & Human Behavior, 22(5), 519-547.
Sorensen, J.R. & Wallace, D.H. (1995). Capital punishment in Missouri: Examining the issue of racial disparity. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 13(1), 61-81.
Stack, S. (1993). Execution publicity and homicide in Georgia. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 18(1), 25-39.
Thomson, E. (1997). Research note: Discrimination and the death penalty in Arizona. Criminal Justice Review, 22(1), 65-76.
Vito, G. F., Koester, P., & Wilson, D. G. (1991). Return of the dead: An update of the status of Furman-commuted death row inmates. In R. M. Bohm (Ed.), The death penalty in America: Current research (pp. 89-99). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Vito, G. F., Wilson, D. G., & Latessa, E. J. (1991). Comparison of the dead: Attributes and outcomes of Furman-commuted death row inmates in Kentucky and Ohio. In R. M. Bohm (Ed.), The death penalty in America: Current research (pp. 101-111). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Wells, G., Malpass, R., Lindsay, R., Fisher, R., Turtle, J., & Fulero, S. (2000). From the lab to the police station: A successful application of eyewitness research. American Psychologist, 55, 581-594.
Wiener, R., Hurt, L., Thomas, S., Sadler, M., Bauer, C., & Sarget, T. (1998). The role of declarative and procedural knowledge in capital murder cases. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 124-144.
Wiener, R., Pritchard, C., & Weston, M. (1995). Comprehensibility of approved jury instructions in capital cases. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 455-467
B.(62) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Proposed Resolution on Creating an APA Council Task Force of Pro Bono Affairs.
C.(63) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Rural Children’s Mental Health Services."
D.(64) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "APA Commitment to Equal Employment Opportunity and Reporting of EEO/Affirmative Action Statistics."
XIII. ETHNIC MINORITY AFFAIRS
B.(19) Council voted to approve the following motion regarding increasing ethnic minority participation on Council:
Because it believes that racial and ethnic diversity in the membership of Council has not been and is not currently satisfactory, Council finds that a program to provide incentives to Divisions and State and Provincial Associations to elect ethnic minorities as Council representatives is in the best interest of APA.
Accordingly APA will reimburse any Division or State or Provincial Psychological Association for the expenses incurred by representatives to Council who are ethnic minorities and who are elected during the years 2002-2004, to attend Council meetings. Reimbursement will be provided to Divisions, State and Provincial Psychological Associations for transportation, hotel and meal expenses for both the February and August meetings of Council. APA strongly encourages Divisions and State and Provincial Associations to submit one or more slates of nominees comprised solely of ethnic minorities.
For purposes of this program, ethnic minority identity is determined by self-identification as a member of one of the following four U.S. ethnic minority groups: African American/Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic / Latino. Council requests that the Board conduct a review of the effectiveness of this proposal and provide a recommendation to Council in August 2004 regarding funding its continuance beyond the 2004 election.
Furthermore, Council acknowledges that this represents an important first step in increasing ethnic minority participation in APA. Accordingly, Council directs the Committee on the Structure and Function of Council and Membership Committee to develop specific recommendations to Council to increase ethnic minority participation in APA.
It was noted that funding would be included in the 2003-2005 budgets based on results of the 2002-2004 elections for Council representatives.
B.(25B) A new business item "Book on Women of Color Leader Psychologists" was referred to the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest, the Finance Committee and P&C.
XIV. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(25E) A new business item "Culture and Gender Awareness in International Psychology" was referred to the Committee on International Relations in Psychology and BAPPI.
B.(33) Council received information regarding the Board taking emergency action at its June 2001 meeting to approve a "Resolution on Racism and Racial Discrimination: A Policy Statement in Support of the Goals of the 2001 United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance."
XV. CENTRAL OFFICE
XVI. FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
A.(20) Council voted to approve the 2002 Preliminary Budget in principle calling for a deficit of $502,400 to serve as the framework for the 2002 Final Budget that will be presented to Council for approval in February of 2002.
Consistent with the action of Council in August 2000 to "institute the practice of increasing the APA dues annually by the amount linked to the consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U)", Council voted to approve a $7 dues increase from $219 to $226 for the 2002 dues year.
B.(21) Council voted to approve the Net Worth Allocation Plan including the Financial Forecast for 2002-2004 as follows:
The goal for attainment of net worth as stated in Association Rule 210-3 should be reaffirmed; namely, that the Association strives to maintain a net worth equal to at least one year’s operating budget.
Consistent with accounting practices, conventional wisdom and comparable financial data from other organizations, the Association should not consider any portion of theoretical building equity toward attainment of the net worth goal mentioned in item 1 above.
Currently, rather than specifically set aside funds outside the normal budget process for development of programs deemed to be of high priority to the membership, the Association enthusiastically supports consideration of proposals for new revenue generating ideas. [Such proposals for new revenue generating ideas should be thoroughly detailed including all direct costs, indirect costs, and staff costs. Such proposals reviewed by the BOD and approved by the COR, will be funded out of ongoing revenues or out of the Association’s net worth, as necessary, assuming that full consideration is also given to the impact of such funding on progress towards the Association’s net worth goal mentioned in item 1 above.]
The specific financial forecast for 2002-2004 is as follows:
Strive to attain a net worth goal equal to at least one year’s operating budget consistent with Association Rule 210-3;
Include all net cash flow from building operations in the operating budget as a regular source of revenue (currently, the average net cash flow from building operations is estimated at $1,000,000 per year during this forecast period);
Include funding in the operating budget for the Public Education Campaign and the American Enhancement Initiative through the forecast period (2002-2004);
Restrict capital expenditures to no more than $7,000,000 over the forecast period;
Continue to reinvest realized gains/losses from our long-term portfolio activity (estimated at $3,000,000 over the forecast period);
Continue to subsidize the operating budget by all interest and dividends generated from our long-term portfolio activity (estimated at $1,675,000 over the forecast period); and,
Continue to treat the advance to Square 677 as a loan rather than as an additional capital contribution and limit the loan principal to no more than $10 million dollars.
Each year based on actual results and an analysis of our net worth, future financial forecasts will be adjusted accordingly.
Once the net worth goals are attained, any number of future actions can be taken including the long-term stabilization of dues; the long-term availability of funds for the development of programs deemed to be of high priority to the membership; further apportionment of building and investment proceeds toward operational expenses, etc.
C.(22) Council voted to reject the following main motion of new business item #23W:
That the Board of Directors and the Finance Committee develop, in general terms, a statement/analysis of the organizational resources needed and organizational mechanisms needed to implement and maintain a technologies policy, implementation and operations program.
D.(23) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of new business item #23I, "Dues Equity."
E.(24) Council voted to approve the following amendment to paragraph three of Association Rule 210-2.1 (bracketed material to be deleted):
A direct service program provides to individuals or organizations a product, benefit, or service for a fee. Each direct service program (e.g. Convention, [Sponsor Approval,] Continuing Professional Education, [Accreditation,] and Communications) shall have their specific financial goals set annually by the chief executive officer during the budget process but shall be expected to at least produce an excess over expenses.
F.(34) Council received as information the Arthur Andersen LLP 2000 Audited Financial Statements.
G.(35) Council received as information the minutes of the Finance Committee’s February 2001 meeting, April 2001conference call and June 2001 meeting.
H.(36) Council was informed of emergency action taken by the Board at its June 2001 meeting to increase APA’s line of credit with Bank of America from $10 million to $15 million dollars.
On Thursday morning, Norine G. Johnson, PhD, gave the President’s report; Raymond D. Fowler, PhD, presented his CEO report to Council; and James Jones, PhD, presented the Equal Employment Opportunity/Affirmative Action Report.
On Thursday afternoon, breakout sessions were held on APA’s priorities.
On Thursday afternoon, Kurt Salzinger, PhD, APA’s new Executive Director for Science, was introduced.
On Sunday morning, presidential citations were given to some colleagues who served as psychologists in Vietnam.
On Sunday morning, Russ Newman, PhD, JD, provided an update on APA’s prescription privilege initiative.
On Sunday afternoon, APA President Norine G. Johnson was commended for her exemplary leadership and remarkably effective way of conducting Council meetings.