Council of Representatives Approved Minutes: July 28 & 30, 2004
I. Minutes of meeting
A.(1) Council voted to approve the minutes of its February 20-22, 2004, meeting.
II. Elections, awards, membership and human resources
B.(2) Council voted to approve amending Association Rule 110-13.2 as follows (underlined material to be added):
110 13. Election of the board of directors
110 13.1 The election of the Board of Directors is conducted by a public audit firm; see Appendix C for a detailed statement of procedures.
110 13.2 Members are elected by and from the previous Council. Members of the Board of Directors shall not serve simultaneously on APA governance groups, other than as ex-officio or liaison; or on governing bodies of advocacy or political action organizations for psychologists or psychology that are national in scope. Nominations for the Board of Directors shall be by ballot distributed to members of the previous Council. Each Council member will be allowed to nominate twice as many candidates as there are vacancies. The APAGS Representative to Council is not eligible to run but is eligible to nominate and vote in elections for member-at-large and officers of the Board of Directors.
C.(3) Council voted to forward to the membership for a vote the following amendments to Article VII, Section 1 of the APA Bylaws: (bracketed material to be deleted, underlined material to be added):
The Board of Directors shall consist of the President, the President-elect, the Past President, the Recording Secretary, the Treasurer, the chief staff officer (without vote), the APAGS Representative to the Council of Representatives (without vote) and six others elected by a preferential ballot by those Members [and from those Members holding seats on Council during the year immediately preceding the election] holding seats on Council during the year preceding the election and from those members holding seats on Council representing Divisions or State and Provincial Psychological Associations during the year immediately preceding the election. Directors not serving ex officio shall serve for staggered terms of three years. All members of the Board of Directors shall serve until their successors are elected and qualify.
Council voted to include pro/con statements with the Bylaw amendment ballot.
D.(4) Council voted to approve amending Association Rule 110-3.3 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted):
[110-3.3 Signature validation. Return envelopes for all ballots mailed to the membership or Council shall have a space for the voter to validate the ballot by signing his or her name. Ballots returned without a validating signature will not be processed.]
Council also voted to approve amending paragraphs 2 and 6 of Association Rules, Appendix C, American Psychological Association: Procedures for the Nomination and Election of Members of Council to the Board of Directors as follows (bracketed material to be deleted):
2. On or about April 15, the audit firm will send the call for nominations to members of Council. The deadline for return of nominations printed on the form shall be 30 days after the date of mailing. All nominations will be returned directly to the audit firm. [The return envelopes will have a space for the validating signature of the Council member to permit the audit firm to ascertain that only Council members are voting.] The audit firm will retain the envelopes until election is certified and accepted by APA, then destroy them. The nomination ballots will be sent to the APA Central Office and will be retained in the files for at least one year.
6. The audit firm will mail the ballot, together with the candidates' statements on issues, to members of Council. The ballot will indicate a deadline for the return of ballots of 30 days after date of mailing. All ballots will be returned directly to the audit firm. [The return envelopes will have a space for the validating signature of the Council member to permit the audit firm to ascertain that only Council members are voting.] The audit firm will retain the envelopes until the election has been certified and accepted by APA and then destroy them. In all cases where excess ballots are redistributed the audit firm will mark those ballots that were redistributed. All ballots will be sent to the APA Central Office and will be retained in the files for at least one year.
E.(5) Council voted to refer the item “Amendment to the Association Rules: Filling Vacancies for Boards and Committees” to the Policy and Planning Board (P&P).
F.(6) Council voted to refer the item “Bylaw Revision of Membership Waiver Criteria” to the Membership Committee.
G.(7) Council voted to elect 119 members to initial Fellow status, on the nomination of the indicated divisions and on the recommendation of the Membership Committee and the Board of Directors.
H.(8) Council voted to approve amending Association Rule 210-5.2 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
210 5. Dues
210 5.1 In preparing the annual budget, the Finance Committee shall recommend necessary changes in dues rates. The Finance Committee's recommendation will be reviewed by the Board of Directors and submitted to Council for approval.
The annual dues of Members, including Fellows, and Associate members shall be determined by Council based on recommendations from the Membership Committee, Finance Committee, and Board of Directors. Dues amounts will be based on the following guideline [for first-year, second-year, third-year, and fourth-year Members shall be based on the following schedule]:
|Associate member||Step 1||24% of regular member dues|
|Associate member||Step 2||30% of regular member dues|
|Associate member||Step 3||46% of regular member dues|
|Associate member||Step 4+||72% of regular member dues|
|Member (Postdoctoral)||Step 1||20% of regular member dues|
|Member (Postdoctoral)||Step 2||22% of regular member dues|
|Member||Step 3||26% of regular member dues|
|Member||Step 4||28% of regular member dues|
|Member||Step 5||32% of regular member dues|
|Member||Step 6||55% of regular member dues|
|Member||Step 7||77% of regular member dues|
|Member||Step 8+||100% of regular member dues|
[First-Year Members — set annually by the Membership Committee, usually between 25% to 30% of regular Member dues.
Second-Year Members — 50% of regular Member dues.
Third-Year Members — 70% of regular Member dues.
Fourth-Year Members — 90% of regular Member dues.
Dues for Associate members shall be determined by Council. Dues for first-year Associate members shall be 50% of regular Associate dues.]
I.(8A) In executive session, Council voted to approve a one-year extension for the term of Sandra E. Tars, PhD, on P&P, thereby extending her term through December 31, 2005.
J.(37C) A new business item “Substituting of Candidates Slated for Election to Office” was referred to P&P.
K.(48) Council received as information an update regarding the specific uses of the 2004 membership fund.
IV. Board of directors
A.(9) Council voted approve amending the Association Rules as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
30 4. New business and withdrawal
30-4.1 General procedures: New business shall ordinarily be referred to the appropriate
boards or committees to make recommendations at the next session of Council.
New business shall be reviewed by the lead board or committee in a timely way that allows other referral groups to review it [prior to the next Council meeting] within one year of its submission. New business that has not been brought back to Council for action within 18 months of its submission shall be included in the Council agenda at the third Council meeting subsequent to its submission under a section titled, “Business Pending.” Council will be provided the opportunity to discuss the matter and act on the item if it so chooses by voting to suspend Association Rule 30-1.4. Action may include approval, rejection, referral, postponement or withdrawal.
[At the discretion of Council, t] The presiding officer, with consultation from the Parliamentarian, shall have the [final] authority to decide whether a newly introduced resolution involves new business or can be considered in relation to old business.
[30 4.2 New business shall be in order only if there is sufficient time for adequate debate and consideration during the session. New business so handled shall be given priority in the following order: (a) First priority. Resolutions supported by petition from 1/2 of 1% of members of the Association, submitted to the chief staff officer two weeks prior to a Council session; (b) Second priority. Resolutions that have been initiated by Council representatives and that have been recommended by the Board of Directors for Council consideration; (c) Third priority. Resolutions initiated by Council representatives and that have been recommended for Council consideration at a meeting of Council board and committee caucuses; (d) Last priority. Other resolutions initiated by Council representatives, in order received, as time permits. All resolutions not considered in connection with the meeting at which they were introduced shall be referred to appropriate boards or committees.]
30 4[.3]2 (1) New business addressed to documents revised on a periodic basis shall be referred to the revising body and shall not be carried as new business; (2) Except for those items identified by the Agenda Planning Group as having potential technical difficulty, new business shall neither be amended nor language substituted by the mover or cosponsors after the close of the Council session at which it was introduced. New business that has been identified by the Agenda Planning Group as having potential difficulty may be amended or withdrawn by the mover or cosponsors within [three days] two weeks of the close of the Council session at which it was introduced; (3) New business submitted following the close of the February Council meeting shall be distributed to Council at their August meeting; new business submitted following the close of the August Council meeting shall be distributed to Council at their February meeting; (4 ) Referral of new business shall initially be only within APA; referees may, as appropriate, consult with outside groups; and [(5 ) The Committee on Structure and Function of Council shall annually track new business that is on the books for two or more Council legislative years and shall report to Council its attempts to facilitate disposition; and (6)] (5) Any member or previous member of Council who originated a new business item may request withdrawal of that item at any time before it is voted on with concurrence of designated sponsors, if any. [Cosponsors whose concurrence is required for withdrawal shall be designated on the new business form. Withdrawal of cosponsors no longer members of Council is not required.] Withdrawal will be presented to Council in a consent agenda.
30 5. Form of motions
30 5.1 Motions calling for action by Council [will ordinarily] may come from a board or committee, [but they may come from] a division, a state/provincial/territorial association, or any Council representative(s) [acting individually]. [The following information should accompany the motion: (a)] [I]If the motion [it] creates or reconstitutes a committee, it shall present the mission, including the purpose for which the committee is established; whether it is to be a continuing committee or an ad hoc committee (in the latter case for what specific term); through what board or committee it shall report; and the number of members and the term of their service; [(b)] if [it] the motion proposes an amendment of the APA Bylaws, modifies these rules or an APA document adopted originally by Council, it shall specify the purpose or nature of the change and provide a manuscript of the revised text in which old text that is to be deleted is bracketed and new text that is to be added is underlined; [(c)] if [it] the motion directs a limited or single action, it shall specify the person, agency, board, or committee that shall carry out the action and the action to be taken; [(d)] if [it] the motion calls for the expenditure of funds, it shall specify the purpose of the expenditure and the funding level to be included in the budget for the next year, unless covered by other rules on finances; and [(e)] if [it] the motion expresses an opinion or a hope, or states a general policy or position, it shall include separate additional motions specifying implementation from the resolution.
[So as to ensure orderly procedures, a distinction is made between transitory legislation, such as (c) and (d) above, and continuing legislation, such as (a), (b), and (e).]
30 6. Motions/reports to council
[30 6.1 Reports from boards and committees that propose Council action ordinarily shall be in writing and shall be furnished to members of Council in advance of the meeting at which the proposed actions are to be considered. A report should distinguish clearly between the account of activities of the board or committee and problems discussed, on the one hand, and specific proposals for action on the other hand.]
30 6.1 A specific motion shall be transmitted in the following manner: (a) a motion introduced by a Council representative shall first be reviewed by the chair of CSFC, in consultation with appropriate APA staff and the Agenda Planning Group [with oversight by CSFC]; (b) a motion forwarded by a committee shall be transmitted either to the board listed in Association Rule 50 5 or directly to the Board of Directors, if no other board is specified; (c) a motion forwarded by a board other than the Board of Directors shall be transmitted directly to the Board of Directors; and (d) the Board of Directors shall develop an agenda for Council. In so doing, the Board of Directors shall transmit all motions from boards, committees, and Council representatives to Council, unless otherwise provided in the APA Bylaws or in the Association Rules.
The Board of Directors will provide a rationale whenever its recommendation to the Council of Representatives is to alter or oppose the main motion.
[30-6.3 All motions that are germane to the work of a committee or board, and are presented to the Board of Directors in writing and in time, shall be placed on Council's agenda. Any matter may be returned once (a) by a board to a committee originating or transmitting it and/or by the Board of Directors to a standing board or committee with a request that the matter be reconsidered, but if it is again sent forth, it must be placed by the Board of Directors on Council's agenda for action and/or information within two years.]
30 6.2 Motions presented by the Board of Directors and standing boards and committees to Council shall be in one of the following forms (note that substitute motions are treated as amendments where relevant):
(1) If the board or committee recommends adoption or rejection of the original motion, or makes no recommendation, the question should be on adopting the motion. That is, the question is on adopting the original motion, the recommendation of the board or committee notwithstanding.
(2) If the board or committee recommends that the original motion be amended, the question should first be on this amendment. If the amendment passes, action is then taken on the amended motion. If the amendment fails, amendments by Council are in order. Following any further amendment action, the original motion with any amendments is in order.
30 6.3 [Informational reports of boards or committees shall be accepted by the board to which they are originally submitted, or they may be returned to the board or committee if not acceptable. In addition, reports may be made available to the Board of Directors and to the members of Council, but action is required only from the board to which the report is originally submitted.] Annual Reports of boards and committees shall be provided to the Board of Directors and Council.
30-6.4 At each meeting of the Council of Representatives, legal counsel will report on the nature, status and financial implications of legal actions involving the Association.
B.(10) Council voted to approve the following motion:
That the Council of Representatives holds breakout groups at its February 2005 meeting to review and update its priorities. As a reference, members will be provided the latest list of priorities developed by Council. Each breakout group will develop a list of priorities. The lists from each group will be compiled and distributed to Council for ranking. The number of priorities will be determined by the natural break in numbers after all members’ rankings have been averaged.
At its February 2006 and 2007 meetings, Council will hold Thematically Based Breakout Groups. Members will be able to submit potential topics in advance or during the first day of the meeting. At the close of the first day’s meeting, a group of 3-5 members appointed by the President will evaluate the proposed topics and select the 6-8 that seem most urgent or of the widest interest. The President will ask Council members who proposed the selected topics or other volunteers to chair each breakout session. Council members will choose their own sessions. Based on level of interest, there may be more than one session per topic. Breakout groups will be held the afternoon of the second day or the final morning of the meeting. These groups are designed to be stimulating and enriching for participants and should help Council review and discuss priorities for psychology and our Association. There should be a formal mechanism for feedback and follow-up to Council.
At its August 2007 meeting, Council shall vote on whether to continue holding breakout groups at every third February Council meeting to review and update its priorities and to hold the thematically based breakout groups during the years in which Council isn’t updating its priorities.
C.(11) Council voted to adopt the following Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Military Service:
Sexual orientation and military service
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association (APA) has long opposed discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; and
WHEREAS the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue” policy as mandated by Title 10 of the U.S. Code (Section 654) discriminates on the basis of sexual orientation, and has caused many qualified personnel to be involuntarily separated from military service solely because of their sexual orientation; and
WHEREAS in light of the enactment of 10 USC § 654 in 1994, APA’s 1991 resolution U.S Department of Defense Policy on Sexual Orientation and Advertising in APA Publications needs to be revised; and
WHEREAS there is a long history of collaboration between psychology and the military (Dunivin, 1994; Yerkes, 1921); and
WHEREAS the law creates ethical dilemmas for military psychologists and it is APA’s responsibility to address these concerns (American Psychological Association, 2002); and
WHEREAS empirical evidence fails to show that sexual orientation is germane to any aspect of military effectiveness including unit cohesion, morale, recruitment and retention (Belkin, 2003; Belkin & Bateman, 2003; Herek, Jobe, & Carney, 1996; MacCoun, 1996; National Defense Research Institute, 1993); and
WHEREAS comparative data from foreign militaries and domestic police and fire departments show that when lesbians, gay men and bisexuals are allowed to serve openly there is no evidence of disruption or loss of mission effectiveness (Belkin & McNichol, 2000-2001; Gade, Segal, & Johnson, 1996; Koegel, 1996); and
WHEREAS when openly gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals have been allowed to serve in the U.S. Armed Forces, there has been no evidence of disruption or loss of mission effectiveness; and
WHEREAS the U.S. military is capable of integrating members of groups historically excluded from its ranks, as demonstrated by its success in reducing both racial and gender discrimination (Binkin & Bach, 1977; Binkin, Eitelberg, Schexnider, & Smith, 1982; Kauth & Landis, 1996; Landis, Hope, & Day, 1984; Thomas & Thomas, 1996);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that APA reaffirms its opposition to discrimination based on sexual orientation; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA reaffirms its support for our men and women in uniform and its dedication to promoting their health and well-being; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA recognizes and abhors the many detrimental effects that the law has had on individual service members, the military, and American society since its enactment in 1994; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA take a leadership role among national organizations in seeking to eliminate discrimination in and by the military based on sexual orientation through federal advocacy and all other appropriate means; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA act to ameliorate the negative effects of the current law through the training and education of psychologists; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA disseminate scientific knowledge and professional expertise relevant to implementing this resolution; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that this resolution replaces the 1991 resolution “U.S. Department of Defense Policy on Sexual Orientation and Advertising in APA Publications;” and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA reaffirms its strong commitment to removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual and bisexual behavior and orientations; promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and youth; eliminating violence against lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members; and working to ensure the equality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, both as individuals and members of committed same-sex relationships, in such areas as employment, housing, public accommodation, licensing, parenting, and access to legal benefits.
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.
Belkin, A. (2003). Don’t ask, don’t tell: Is the gay ban based on military necessity? Parameters, 33(2), 108-119.
Belkin, A., & Bateman, G. (2003). Don’t ask, don’t tell: Debating the gay ban in the military. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Belkin, A., & McNichol, J. (2000-2001). Homosexual personnel policy in the Canadian forces: Did lifting the gay ban undermine military performance? International Journal, 56(1), 73-88.
Binkin, M., & Bach, S. J. (1977). Women and the military. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Binkin, M., Eitelberg, M. J., Schexnider, A. J., & Smith, M. M. (1982). Blacks and the military. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Dunivin, D. L. (1994). Health professions education: The shaping of a discipline through federal funding. American Psychologist, 49(10), 868-878.
Gade, P. A., Segal, D. R., & Johnson, E. M. (1996). The experience of foreign militaries. In G. M. Herek, J. B. Jobe, & R. Carney (Eds.), Out in force: Sexual orientation and the military (pp. 106-130). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Herek, G. M., Jobe, J., & Carney, R. (Eds.). (1996). Out in force: Sexual orientation and the military. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kauth, M. R., & Landis, D. (1996). Applying lessons learned from minority integration in the military. In G. M. Herek, J. B. Jobe, & R. Carney (Eds.), Out in force: Sexual orientation and the military (pp. 86-105). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Yerkes, R. M. (1921). Psychological examining in the U.S. Army. Official Report of the Division of Psychology, the Surgeon General's Office. In R. M. Yerkes (Ed.), Memoirs: Vol. 15. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
D.(12) Council voted to approve the following changes to the Association Rules to establish a continuing Committee on Early Career Psychologists (underlined material to be added):
90-8. Committee on Early Career Psychologists
90-8.1 There shall be a Committee on Early Career Psychologists that shall seek to (1) research, organize and institute initiatives to increase the number of student affiliate who transition to full member status, as well as the number of early career psychologists joining the association for the first time; (2) collaborate in the development and implementation of the recruitment and retention initiatives of the Membership Committee; (3) support the development of new mechanisms and the enhancement of existing mechanisms to increase participation in APA Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations among early career psychologists; (4) promote greater awareness of the benefits of APA membership for early career psychologists and work to expand those benefits; and (5) represent the interests and concerns of early career psychologists throughout APA governance and the central office.
The Committee shall consist of six Members of the Association within seven years of the receipt of the doctorate representing Education, Practice, Public Interest and Science focuses and experience in Division and State/Provincial/Territorial Association Early Career Psychologist programs. Committee members will be appointed by the Board of Directors for staggered terms of three years. The Committee shall report to the Board of Directors.
50.5 List of continuing committees
50-5.1 The list below presents APA committees and their reporting lines.
Reporting directly to council
Structure and Function of Council
Reporting through the Board of Directors
International Relations in Psychology
Advancement of Professional Practice
American Psychological Association of Graduate Students
Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology
Agenda Planning Group
Early Career Psychologists
Reporting through the Publications and Communications Board
Council of Editors
Reporting through the Board of Educational Affairs
Continuing Professional Education
Education and Training Awards
Committee of Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Committee of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges
Reporting through the Board of Professional Affairs
Professional Practice and Standards
Reporting through the Board of Scientific Affairs
Animal Research and Ethics
Psychological Tests and Assessment
Reporting through the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest
Women in Psychology
Psychology in the Public Interest Award
Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns
Disability Issues in Psychology
Children, Youth and Families
Ethnic Minority Affairs
Reporting through the Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice
Committee on Rural Health
110-14 Rules govering simultaneous service on boards and committees
110-14.1 Members shall not serve simultaneously on any of the following governance groups, except as ex-officio (non-voting) members or if other exceptions are provided below.
Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest
Policy and Planning
Publications and Communications
Professional Affairs (except that one member is also a member
of the Committee on Professional Practice and Standards)
Advancement of Professional Practice
Animal Research and Ethics
Children Youth and Families
Disability Issues in Psychology
Early Career Psychologists
Ethnic Minority Affairs
International Relations in Psychology
Legal Issues (ad hoc)
Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Concerns
Professional Practice and Standards (except that one member
is also a member of the Board of Professional Affairs)
Psychological Tests and Assessment
Psychology and AIDS (ad hoc)
Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges
Structure and Function of Council
Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Women in Psychology
Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology
E.(37A) A new business item, “APA Policy Formulation on Mental Illness and the Death Penalty” was referred to COLI, with a request that it also be placed on the Fall 2004 cross-cutting agendas.
F.(37D) A new business item “Media Training for APA & STPA Members” was referred to the CEO.
G.(49) Council received information regarding APA becoming a founding partner of the National Foundation for Mental Health.
H.(50) Council received information regarding the Committee on the Structure and Function of Council’s discussion of recommendations from the Presidential Task Force on Governance that deal directly with the functioning and effectiveness of Council.
I.(59) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Support for Archives of the History of American Psychology.”
J.(60) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “COR/Directorate Communication Regarding COR Priorities for APA.”
V. Divisions and state, provencial and territorial associations
A.(13) Council voted to approve the addition of $12,500 in the 2005 Preliminary Budget for funding for the Interdivisional Grants Program to be reinstated beginning in 2005.
B.(61) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Travel Support for Council Representatives.”
VI. Organization of the APA
VII. Publications and communications
A.(14) Council voted to approve amending the Association Rules as follows (underlined material to be added.):
170-1.1 The Publications and Communications Board shall consists of nine APA members, who are elected for staggered terms of six years each, beginning July 1 the year after they are elected.
Council also voted to approve extending the term of all current members of the Publications and Communications Board by six months, thereby ending their term through June 30.
VIII. Convention Affairs
IX. Educational affairs
A.(15) Council voted to approve the renewal of the recognition of Clinical Health Psychology as a specialty in professional psychology for a period of seven years, to be reviewed again in 2011 unless otherwise warranted by provisions of the Procedures for Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (Section B, Para. 10).
B.(16) Council voted to renew the current recognition of Biofeedback: Applied Psychophysiology as a proficiency in professional psychology for a probationary period of one year, until August 2005, as outlined in the Procedures for Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (Section B, Para. 10).
C.(17) Council voted to approve the following motion:
That Council takes due note of an error in procedure placed before it by the Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (CRSPPP) and then inadvertently voted on by Council. At its meeting of August, 1999, Council was asked to approve brief descriptions of Clinical, Counseling, School, and I/O Psychology. Council understands that proper procedure requires that CRSPPP report proposed descriptions of recognized specialties and proficiencies to the Council but that Council has delegated the acceptance of such text to CRSPPP upon CRSPPP securing the advice and consent of petitioning groups. It therefore rescinds its action taken in August, 1999 with regard to the descriptions of the specialties of Clinical, School, Counseling, and Industrial/Organizational Psychology. The descriptions inappropriately approved by Council on that date are no longer to be considered as constituting policy statements of the American Psychological Association, and CRSPPP and petitioners are free to arrive at any amendments to those descriptions the parties may find mutually desirable. Council does, however, continue to require that any such revised text be reported to the Council for the Council’s information.
D.(38) Council received an update on the business pending item “Greater Autonomy for Committee on Accreditation.”
E.(39) Council received an update on the business pending item “Future Composition of the Committee on Accreditation.”
F.(40) Council received an update on the business pending item “Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Level in Consulting Psychology-Organizational Psychology.”
G.(51) Council was informed of CRSPPP’s decisions to not recommend initial recognition at this time for the petitions of Gerospychology as a specialty and Clinical Hypnosis as a proficiency in professional psychology.
H.(52) Council received an update on the work of the Council of Credentialing Organizations in Professional Psychology.
X. Prfessional affairs
A.(18) Council voted to adopt the following Resolution on Outpatient Civil Commitment:
Resolution on outpatient civil commitment
WHEREAS Outpatient civil commitment (OCC) is increasingly used in courts and civil commitment venues across the country (Swartz & Monahan, 2001);
WHEREAS People with serious mental illness and resulting psychological disabilities are the individuals most subject to imposition of involuntary mental health services, including OCC (Swartz & Monahan, 2001);
WHEREAS People with such disabilities have the same rights to personal liberty as other citizens (Stefan, 2001);
WHEREAS Psychological disabilities may impair the ability of individuals to appreciate threats to their well-being, placing them at risk for homelessness, incarceration, premature death, suicide, and vulnerability to violence (Swartz & Monahan, 2001);
WHEREAS There is heated controversy about the legitimacy of OCC, the criteria by which it should be applied, the relevant clinical methods and standards of professional practice, and the relative value of alternatives (Petrila, Ridgely & Borum, 2003);
WHEREAS People with behavior disorders severe enough to reach the dangerousness criterion should have access to psychological and behavioral interventions designed to treat the specific behaviors (Spaulding, Sullivan & Poland, 2003);
WHEREAS Key issues concerning OCC can be effectively addressed through application of the principles of psychological science and the findings of psychological and psycholegal research (Spaulding, Poland, Elbogen & Ritchie, 2000);
WHEREAS People with serious mental illness have a right to the resources and services generated by psychological research and practice (Van Houton, Axelrod, Bailey & Favell, 1988);
WHEREAS All people have a right to the opportunity for recovery, namely, full participation in society to the best of their ability (Stefan, 2001);
WHEREAS Issues regarding OCC, and broader issues of services for people with serious mental illness, will only be resolved in the context of a comprehensive, accessible, and responsive system of care that focuses on improved quality of life rather than mere symptom reduction (Petrila, Ridgely & Borum, 2003);
WHEREAS A key ingredient in recovery from serious mental illness is making choices for oneself and developing skills necessary to make those choices (Anthony and Liberman, 1992);
WHEREAS Clinical application of psychological methods (including neuropsychological, behavioral, sociocognitive, and functional assessments and interventions) hold substantial promise for enhancing skill development, including skills relevant to recovery from serious mental illness and skills relevant to making competent personal choices (Spaulding, Sullivan & Poland, 2003);
WHEREAS Resolution of controversies regarding OCC will require consideration of people’s rights; their uniqueness and diversity; the disabilities associated with serious mental illness; and the sometimes competing values of personal liberty, public safety, and the public’s interest in providing for those who cannot provide for themselves (Petrila, Ridgely & Borum, 2003);
WHEREAS Women and members of minority racial and ethnic groups are especially vulnerable to discrimination in adjudication and treatment related to involuntary incarceration and treatment (Stefan, 1996);
WHEREAS Women and members of minority racial and ethnic groups tend to receive less or lower quality mental health services (Thornicroft, Davides & Leese, 1999);
WHEREAS Members of other stigmatized groups may also be vulnerable to discrimination in adjudication and treatment related to involuntary incarceration and treatment;
WHEREAS Involuntary treatment raises special concerns about gender, ethnic or minority status, or membership in other stigmatized groups for the practitioner (Mindell, 1993; Baker, 1999);
WHEREAS It is the role of mental health scientists and practitioners to advocate for due process and appropriate legal representation and counsel, to advise the court through briefs or testimony, and to seek therapeutic benefits in application of the law (Daicoff & Wexler, 2003);
WHEREAS Mandating involuntary mental health services is a legal, not a clinical process; except in cases of dire emergency, it is never the role of any mental health practitioner, of any discipline, acting in the role of caregiver, to make decisions that infringe upon a person’s right to consent to services. Moreover, as specified in the APA Ethics Code, psychologists are required to respect the rights of individuals to self-determination and autonomy, and to act in accordance with the requirements for informed consent to therapy and related procedures.
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and engage in development of evidence-based clinical methods for determining risk and dangerousness, including risk associated with accepting or not accepting mental health services.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and engage in development of clinical methods for determining competence to make specific judgements and decisions, including decisions about whether to accept and/or participate in mental health services.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and engage in development of clinical methods for reversing the disabilities of serious mental illness and enhancing recovery, including those disabilities that incur risk and dangerousness, as well as those disabilities that compromise competent decisions and choices about accepting and/or participating in mental health services.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that when people with mental illness exhibit dangerous behavior, psychologists trained in the direct treatment of behavioral dysfunction can enhance positive outcomes by providing consultation and treatment for the specific behaviors.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and engage in development of clinical methods that help people participate to the maximum extent in legal processes that affect their lives.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and conduct rigorous research on the interaction of clinical and legal processes, with the objective of making those processes maximally accessible to and beneficial for people with serious mental illness.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and conduct rigorous research on the various forms of and alternatives to involuntary commitment, including OCC, limited guardianship, and advance directives, to determine their relative costs, outcomes, and benefits.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to promote and engage in development of clinical assessment methods that address and inform the legal processes that mandate involuntary mental health services, and should promote development of legal processes that make optimum use of information generated by psychological assessments.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to support and promote social policy that ensures accessibility of services that enhance recovery, including comprehensive biopsychosocial rehabilitation, for all people, regardless of gender or membership in racial, ethnic or other stigmatized and vulnerable groups.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to support and promote professional training and education in the treatment of serious mental illness, including the ethical, clinical, and legal considerations involved in involuntary services, and the impact of gender or membership in racial, ethnic or other stigmatized and vulnerable groups.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to support and promote public education and other strategies for eliminating the prejudice and stigmatization of serious mental illness, including public attitudes related to involuntary services.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to support and promote consumer empowerment, citizen advocacy, collaboration, and other strategies for enhancing the role of people with serious mental illness in mental health services, policy, and law.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to participate, as scientists, practitioners, educators and citizens, in the ongoing public discourse that weighs competing values and imperatives in formulation of law and social policy about involuntary mental health services.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists should continue to vigorously promote the view that involuntary services and related infringements on individual liberty can only be mandated through legal processes, not by mental health professionals acting as caregivers. However, psychologists also should assertively provide professional expertise and consultation to legal and judicial authorities in order to ensure that legal processes and decisions are appropriately informed by scientific and clinical considerations.
Allen, M. & Smith, V.F. (2001). Opening Pandora’s box: The practical and legal dangers of involuntary outpatient commitment. Psychiatric Services, 52, 342-346.
Anthony, W. A., & Liberman, R. P. (1992). Psychiatric Rehabilitation. In R. P. Liberman (Ed.), Handbook of psychiatric rehabilitation (pp. 95-126). New York: Macmillan.
Baker, K. (1999) The importance of cultural sensitivity and therapist self-awareness when working with mandatory clients. Family Process 38, 55-67.
Daicoff, S. & Wexler, B. (2003) Therapeutic jurisprudence. In A. Goldstein (ed.) Handbook of psychology: Forensic psychology, Vol. 11 (pp. 561-580).
Mindell, J. (1993) Issues in clinical psychology. Madison WI: Wm. C. Brown.
Morse, S. J. (1987). Treating crazy people less specially. West Virginia Law Review, 90, 353-385.
Munetz, M.R. & Frese, F.J. (2001). Getting ready for recovery: Reconciling mandatory treatment with the recovery vision. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 25, 35-42.
Petrila, J., Ridgely, M.S. & Borum, R. (2003) Debating outpatient commitment: Controversy, trends and empirical data. Crime and Delinquency 49: 157-172.
Reisner, R., Slobogin, C., & Rai, A. (1999). Law and the mental health system: Civil and criminal aspects (3rd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Group.
Ridgely, M.S., Borum, R., & Petrila, J. (2001). The effectiveness of involuntary outpatient treatment: Empirical evidence and the experience of eight states. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Saks, E. R., & Behnke, S. H. (1999). Competency to decide on treatment and research: MacArthur and beyond. Journal of Contemporary Legal Issues, 10, pp. 103-129.
Schopp, R. F. (2001). Competence, Condemnation, and Commitment: An Integrated Theory of Mental Health Law. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Schopp, R. F. (2003). Outpatient civil commitment: A dangerous charade or a component of a comprehensive institution of civil commitment? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 9, 33-69.
Spaulding, W., Johnson, D., & Coursey, R. (2001). Combined treatments and rehabilitation of schizophrenia. In M. Sammons & N. B.
Schmidt (Eds.), Combined treatments for mental disorders (pp. 161-190). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Spaulding, W., Poland, J., Elbogen, E., & Ritchie, J. (2000). Therapeutic juripsrudence in psychiatric rehabilitation. Thomas M. Cooley Law Review, 17, 135-170.
Spaulding, W., Sullivan, M., & Poland, J. (2003). Treatment and rehabilitation of severe mental illness. New York: Guilford.
Steadman, H.J., Gounis, K., Dennis, D., Hopper, K., Roche, B., Swartz, M., & Robbins, P.C. (2001). Assessing the New York City involuntary outpatient commitment pilot program. Psychiatric Services, 52, 330-336.
Stefan, S. (1996) Issues relating to women and ethnic minorities in mental health treatment and law. In B. Sales & D. Shuman (eds.) Law, mental health, and mental disorder. Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole (pp.240-278).
Stefan, S. (2001) The Americans With Disabilities Act and its impact on mental health systems. In S. Stefan (ed.) Unequal rights: Discrimination against people with mental disabilities and the Americans With Disabilities Act. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Swartz, M. & Monahan, J. (2001) Special Section on Involuntary Outpatient Commitment: Introduction. Psychiatric Services 52: 323-324.
Swartz, M.S., Swanson, J.W., Hiday, V.A., Wagner, H.R., Burns, B.J., & Borum, R. (2001). A randomized controlled trial of outpatient commitment in North Carolina. Psychiatric Services, 52, 325-329.
Thornicroft, G., Davides, S. & Leese, M. (1999) Health service research and forensic psychiatry: A black and white case. International Review of Psychiatry 11, 250-257.
Van Houton, R., Axelrod, S., Bailey, J. & Favell, J. (1988) The right to effective behavioral treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 21: 381-384.
Wallace, C.J., Liberman, R.P., Kopelowicz, A., & Yaeger, D. (2001). Psychiatric Rehabilitation. In Gabbard, G.O. (Ed.), Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders, 3rd Edition (pp. 1093-1112). Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing Co.
Winnick, B. (2003) Outpatient commitment: A therapeutic jurisprudence analysis. Psychology, Public Policy & Law 9:107-144.
B.(19) Council voted to approve the following motion:
The Executive Directors of the Science and Practice Directorates will work together to identify opportunities within the Public Education Campaign to underscore that there are research studies to support what psychologists do.
C.(20) Council voted to approve the following motion:
The Executive Directors of the Science and Practice Directorates will work together to continue to incorporate relevant expertise in public education evaluations.
D.( 37B) A new business item “An Amendment to the Model License Law” was referred to the Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP), the Board of Educational Affairs and the Board of Professional Affairs.
E.(41) Council received an update on the business pending item “Task Force to Develop Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women.”
F.(53) Council received information regarding the Board’s approval of CAPP’s request to utilize funds supporting the Public Education Campaign to also support the national Psychologically Healthy Workplace Award program as a component of the Practice Directorate’s public education activities.
G.(54) Council received information regarding APA’s participation in the Healthcare Community Leadership Roundtable Project organized by the Wye River Group on Healthcare.
H.(62) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Public’s Need to Recognize and Identify Specialty Practitioners who are Board Certified.”
I.(63) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Listing of American Board of Applied Psychology (ABAP) Diplomates in APA Directory.”
J.(64) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “APA Resolution on Health Care Priority.”
XI. Scientific affairs
A.(42) Council received an update on the business pending item “Scientific Expertise Categories in the APA Database.”
B.(43) Council received an update on the business pending item “Increase Media Staff in Science Writing.”
C.(44) Council received an update on the business pending item “Increase Science Directorate Public Policy Staff.”
D.(45) Council received an update on the business pending item “Develop Mechanisms to Identify Critical Issues that Need to Be Informed by Research.”
E.(55) Council received information regarding PSY21 - Psychological Science for the 21st Century – a new BSA-led initiative to develop and provide tools that will help psychological science remain vibrant and cohesive as it meets the opportunities and challenges of the 21st Century.
XII. Public interest
A.(21) Council voted to reject the following main motion:
A task force will be charged to investigate the feasibility of developing an endorsement of children’s products to assist in healthy product selection.
B.(22) Council voted to receive the Report of the Task Force on Psychology’s Agenda for Child
and Adolescent Mental Health.
C.(23) Council voted to approve the following motion:
In recognition of the importance of the psychological impact of how terrorism and the threat of terrorism are dealt with nationally and internationally, Council, at the request of the Task Force on the Psychological Effects of the Efforts to Prevent Terrorism, refers the Task Force report to relevant boards and committees at the Fall 2004 consolidated meetings for review and input. Following this process, Council requests that the report be presented to the February 2005 meeting of Council for its consideration as an official document of the Association. To facilitate the completion of this work, Council approves extending the authorization of the Task Force through August 2005, and allocates $1200 from the 2004 Council Discretionary Fund to cover related expenses in 2004.
D.(24) Council voted to adopt the following Resolution on Bullying Among Children and Youth:
APA resolution on bullying among children and youth
WHEREAS bullying is commonly characterized as aggressive behavior that (a) is intended to cause distress or harm, (b) involves an imbalance of power or strength between the aggressor and the victim, and (c) commonly occurs repeatedly over time (Limber, 2002; Olweus, 1993a; Nansel et al., 2001);
WHEREAS bullying may take many forms, including physical bullying; teasing or name-calling; social exclusion; peer sexual harassment; bullying about race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, and gender identity; and cyber bullying (bullying through email, text messaging, or other digital means).
WHEREAS bullying, as a form of peer victimization, differs from other forms of aggression among children (e.g., conflict between peers) (Espelage, Holt, & Henkel, 2003; Olweus, 1993a, 2001; Olweus, Limber, & Mihalic, 1999; Pellegrini, 2002); and
WHEREAS research has indicated that bullying involves large numbers of children and youth from the United States in all socio-economic backgrounds, in racial groups that have been studied, and in areas of different population density (urban, suburban, and rural settings)(Nansel et al., 2001); and
WHEREAS there are gender differences in the types of bullying that children experience, such that boys are more likely than girls to report being physically bullied by their peers (Harris, Petrie, and Willoughby, 2002; Nansel et al., 2001) and girls are more likely than boys to report being targets of rumor-spreading and sexual comments (Nansel et al., 2001).
WHEREAS girls report being bullied by boys and girls, while boys report being bullied primarily by other boys (Melton et al., 1998; Olweus, 1993).
WHEREAS bullying has been found to be related to negative psychosocial functioning among children who are victimized, including lowered self-esteem (Hodges & Perry, 1996; Olweus, 1993a; Rigby & Slee, 1993); higher rates of depression (Craig, 1998; Hodges & Perry, 1996; Olweus, 1993a; Salmon 2000; Slee, 1995); anxiety (Craig, 1998; Hodges & Perry, 1996; Olweus, 1993a; Rigby & Slee, 1993); feelings of loneliness (Kochenderfer & Ladd, 1996; Nansel et al., 2001); suicidal ideation (Rigby, 1996); and higher rates of school absenteeism (Rigby, 1996);
WHEREAS children and youth with disabilities and children and youth who are lesbian, gay, or trans-gender, or who are perceived to be so may be at particularly high risk of being bullied by their peers (Dawkins, 1996; Hershberger & D’Augelli, 1995; Hunter, 1990; Nabuzka & Smith, 1993; Pilkington & D’Augelli, 1995; Rigby, 2002; Yude, Goodman, & McConachie, 1998; Whitney, Smith, & Thompson, 1994)
WHEREAS children and youth who bully are more likely than their peers to hold beliefs supportive of violence (Bosworth, Espelage, & Simon, 1999;) and are more likely to influence their peers to engage in bullying others over time (Espelage et al., 2003); and
WHEREAS research suggests that there is no single cause of bullying. Rather, individual, familial, peer, school, and community factors may place a child or youth at risk for bullying his or her peers. (Limber, 2000; Olweus, Limber, & Mihalic, 1999).
WHEREAS research indicates that perpetrating bullying is related to other problem behaviors, including vandalism (Solberg & Olweus, 2003), fighting (Nansel et al., 2001; Nansel, Overpeck, Haynie, Ruan, & Scheidt, 2003), drinking alcohol (Nansel et al., 2001), smoking (Nansel et al., 2001), truancy (Byrne, 1994), dropping out of school (Byrne, 1994), carrying weapons (Nansel et al., 2003), high-risk gun ownership (i.e., guns owned for reasons other than sport; Cunningham, Henggeler, Limber, Melton, & Nation, 2000), and other antisocial behaviors (Solberg & Olweus, 2003); and
WHEREAS numerous bullying prevention programs, curricula, and strategies have been developed in recent years for use in schools (e.g. Beane, 1999; Committee for Children, 2001; Froschl, Spring, & Mullin-Rindler, 1998; Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager, & Short-Camilli, 1994; Newman, Horne, & Bartalumucci, 2000; Olweus, 1993a; Stein & Sjostrom 1996); and
WHEREAS existing research indicates that bullying at school may be significantly reduced through comprehensive, school-wide programs that are designed to change norms for behavior (Olweus, 1993a; Olweus, 1993b; Olweus, Limber, & Mihalic, 1999; Whitney, Rivers, Smith, & Sharp, 1994); and
WHEREAS social stereotypes may convey the impression that certain ethnic or socio-economic groups are more likely to bully and perpetrate violence. However, research findings reveal no significant racial differences in the rates of bullying (Nansel et al., 2001).
WHEREAS research, intervention, and policy efforts regarding bullying should therefore consider the potential impact of social stereotypes.
WHEREAS, psychologists have played critical roles in conducting research on bullying and in developing bullying prevention interventions (e.g., Olweus, 1993a; Nansel et al., 2001; Rigby, 1996; Smith & Sharp, 1994);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association integrate bullying prevention into its violence prevention activities and, where appropriate, into other activities of its directorates, divisions, and state and provincial psychological associations;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourage appropriate public and private funding agencies to support ecologically valid and culturally sensitive research on bullying behavior and antibullying interventions; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the APA integrate its bullying prevention work into initiatives with other associations, governmental entities, and other interested parties in the dissemination of information that will help school administrators and staff, parents, mental health professionals, children and youth, and others to prevent bullying among children and youth; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the APA encourage vigorous evaluations of bullying prevention programs used in schools, after-school programs, and other settings; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the APA encourage the implementation and dissemination of bullying prevention programs and interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness in schools and communities and that are culturally sensitive.
Beane, A.L. (1999) Bully free Classroom. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Press.
Bosworth, K., Espelage, D. L., & Simon, T. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 341-362.
Byrne, B. J. (1994). Bullies and victims in school settings with reference to some Dublin schools. Irish Journal of Psychology, 15, 574-586.
Committee for Children (2001) Steps to respect. Seattle: Author.
Craig, W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 123-130.
Cunningham, P. B., Henggeler, S. W., Limber, S. P., Melton, G. B., & Nation, M. A. (2000). Patterns and correlates of gun ownership among nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 432-442.
Dawkins, J. L. (1996). Bullying, physical disability and the pediatric patient. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 603-612.
Espelage, D. L., Holt, M. K., & Henkel, R. R. (2003). Examination of peer group contextual effects on aggressive behavior during early adolescence. Child Development, 74, 205-220.
Froschl, M., Spring, B. & Mullin-Rindler, N. (1998). Quit It! A teacher’s guide on teasing and bullying for use in grades K-3. New York: Educational Equity Concepts, Inc.
Garrity, C., Jens, K., Porter, W., Sager, N., & Short-Camilli, C. (1994). Bully-proofing your elementary school. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
Harris, S, Petrie, G. & Willoughby, W. (2002). Bullying among 9th graders: An exploratory study. NASSP Bulletin , 86 1630).
Hershberger, S. L.& D’Augelli, A. R. (1995). The impact of victimization on the mental health and suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. Developmental Psychology, 31, 65-74.
Hodges, E. V. E., & Perry, D. G. (1996). Victims of peer abuse: An overview. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 5, 23-28.
Hunter, J. (1990). Violence against lesbian and gay male youths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 295-300.
Kochenderfer, B. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1996). Peer victimization: Cause or consequence of school maladjustment? Child Development, 67, 1305-1317.
Limber, S. P. (2002). Addressing youth bullying behaviors. Published in the Proceedings of the Educational Forum on Adolescent Health on Youth Bullying. Chicago: American Medical Association.
Melton, G. B., Limber, S. P., Cunningham, P., Osgood, D. W., Chambers, J., Flerx, V., Henggeler, S., & Nation, M. (1998). Violence among rural youth. Final report to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Nabuzka, O., & Smith, P. K. (1993). Sociometric status and social behaviour of children with and without learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1435-1448.
Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behavior among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094-2100.
Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M. D., Haynie, D. L., Ruan, W. J., & Scheidt, P. C. (2003). Relationships between bullying and violence among U.S. youth. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 157, 348-353.
Newman, DA., Horne, A.M. & Bartolomccci, C.L. (2000). Bully busters: A teacher’s manual for helping bullies, victims, and bystanders. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Olweus, D. (1993a). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. New York: Blackwell.
Olweus, D. (1993b). Victimization by peers: Antecedents and long-term outcomes. In K. H. Rubin & J. B. Asendorf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition, and shyness (pp. 315-341). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Olweus, D. (2001). Olweus' core program against bullying and antisocial behavior: A teacher handbook. Bergen, Norway: Author.
Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. (1999). The Bullying Prevention Program. Blueprints for Violence Prevention. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Pellegrini, A. D. (2002). Bullying and victimization in middle school: A dominance relations perspective. Educational Psychologist, 37, 151-163.
Pilkington, N. W. & D’Augelli, A. R. (1995). Victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings. Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 34-56.
Rigby, K. (1996). Bullying in schools: And what to do about it. Bristol, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Rigby, K. (2002). New perspectives on bullying. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Rigby, K., & Slee, P. T. (1993). Dimensions of interpersonal relations among Australian school children and their implications for psychological well-being. Journal of Social Psychology, 133, 33-42.
Salmon, G., James, A., Cassidy, E. L., & Javoloyes, M. A. (2000). Bullying-A review: Presentations to an adolescent psychiatric service and within a school for emotionally and behaviorally disturbed children. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 563-579.
Slee, R. T. (1995). Peer victimization and its relationship to depression among Australian primary school students. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 57-62.
Smith, P. K., & Sharp, S. (1994). School bullying: Insights and perspectives. London: Routledge.
Solberg, M., & Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 239-268.
Stein, N. & Sjostram, L. (1996). Bullyproof. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women.
Whitney, I., Rivers, I., Smith, P., & Sharp, S. (1994). The Sheffield project: methodology and findings. In P. Smith & S. Sharp (Eds.),School bullying: Insights and perspectives (pp. 20-56). London: Routledge.
Whitney, I., Smith, P. K., & Thompson, D. (1994). Bullying and children with special educational needs. In P. K. Smith & S. Sharp (Eds.), School bullying: Insights and perspectives. London: Routledge.
Yude, C., Goodman, R., & McConachie, H. (1998). Peer problems of children with hemiplegia in mainstream primary schools. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 39, 533-54.
E.(25) Council voted to adopt the following Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage:
Resolution on sexual orientation and marriage
Minority stress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals
Psychological and psychiatric experts have agreed since 1975 that homosexuality is neither a form of mental illness nor a symptom of mental illness (Conger, 1975). Nonetheless, there is growing recognition that social prejudice, discrimination, and violence against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals take a cumulative toll on the well-being of these individuals. Researchers (e.g., DiPlacido, 1998; Meyer, 2003) use the term "minority stress" to refer to the negative effects associated with the adverse social conditions experienced by individuals who belong to a stigmatized social group (e.g., the elderly, members of racial and ethnic minority groups, the physically disabled, women, the poor or those on welfare, or individuals who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual).
A recent meta-analysis of population-based epidemiological studies showed that lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations have higher rates of stress-related psychiatric disorders (such as those related to anxiety, mood, and substance use) than do heterosexual populations (Meyer, 2003). These differences are not large but are relatively consistent across studies (e.g., Cochran & Mays, 2000; Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; Gilman et al., 2001; Mays & Cochran, 2001). Meyer also provided evidence that within lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations, those who more frequently felt stigmatized or discriminated against because of their sexual orientation, who had to conceal their homosexuality, or who were prevented from affiliating with other lesbian, gay, or bisexual individuals tended to report more frequent mental health concerns. Research also shows that compared to heterosexual individuals and couples, gay and lesbian individuals and couples experience economic disadvantages (e.g., Badgett, 2001). Finally, the violence associated with hate crimes puts lesbians, gay men and bisexual individuals at risk for physical harm to themselves, their families, and their property (D'Augelli, 1998; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999). Taken together, the evidence clearly supports the position that the social stigma, prejudice, discrimination, and violence associated with not having a heterosexual sexual orientation and the hostile and stressful social environments created thereby adversely affect the psychological, physical, social, and economic well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.
Research indicates that many gay men and lesbians want and have committed relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 40% and 60% of gay men and between 45% and 80% of lesbians are currently involved in a romantic relationship (e.g., Bradford, Ryan, & Rothblum, 1994; Falkner & Garber, 2002; Morris, Balsam, & Rothblum, 2002). Further, data from the 2000 United States Census (United States Census Bureau, 2000) indicate that of the 5.5 million couples who were living together but not married, about 1 in 9 (594,391) had partners of the same sex. Although the Census data are almost certainly an underestimate of the actual number of cohabiting same-sex couples, they indicated that a male householder and a male partner headed 301,026 households and that a female householder and a female partner headed 293,365 households.1
Despite persuasive evidence that gay men and lesbians have committed relationships, three concerns about same-sex couples are often raised. A first concern is that the relationships of gay men and lesbians are dysfunctional and unhappy. To the contrary, studies that have compared partners from same-sex couples to partners from heterosexual couples on standardized measures of relationship quality (such as satisfaction and commitment) have found partners from same-sex and heterosexual couples to be equivalent to each other (see reviews by Peplau & Beals, 2004; Peplau & Spalding, 2000).
A second concern is that the relationships of gay men and lesbians are unstable. However, research indicates that, despite the somewhat hostile social climate within which same-sex relationships develop, many lesbians and gay men have formed durable relationships. For example, survey data indicate that between 18% and 28% of gay couples and between 8% and 21 % of lesbian couples have lived together 10 or more years (e.g., Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983; Bryant & Demian, 1994; Falkner & Garber, 2002; Kurdek, 2003). Researchers (e.g., Kurdek, in press) have also speculated that the stability of same-sex couples would be enhanced if partners from same-sex couples enjoyed the same levels of social support and public recognition of their relationships as partners from heterosexual couples do.
A third concern is that the processes that affect the well-being and permanence of the relationships of lesbian and gay persons are different from those that affect the relationships of heterosexual persons. In fact, research has found that the factors that predict relationship satisfaction, relationship commitment, and relationship stability are remarkably similar for both same-sex cohabiting couples and heterosexual married couples (Kurdek, 2001, in press).
WHEREAS APA has a long-established policy to deplore "all public and private discrimination against gay men and lesbians" and urges "the repeal of all discriminatory legislation against lesbians and gay men" (Conger, 1975, p. 633);
WHEREAS the APA adopted the Resolution on Legal Benefits for Same-Sex Couples in 1998 (Levant, 1998, pp. 665-666);
WHEREAS Discrimination and prejudice based on sexual orientation detrimentally affects psychological, physical, social, and economic well-being (Badgett, 2001; Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999; Meyer; 2003);
WHEREAS "Anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution" (American Anthropological Association, 2004);
WHEREAS Psychological research on relationships and couples provides no evidence to justify discrimination against same-sex couples (Kurdek, 2001, in press; Peplau & Beals, 2004; Peplau & Spalding, 2000);
WHEREAS The institution of civil marriage confers a social status and important legal benefits, rights, and privileges ;
WHEREAS The United States General Accounting Office (2004) has identified over 1,000 federal statutory provisions in which marital status is a factor in determining or receiving benefits, rights, and privileges, for example, those concerning taxation, federal loans, and dependent and survivor benefits (e.g., Social Security, military, and veterans);
WHEREAS There are numerous state, local, and private sector laws and other provisions in which marital status is a factor in determining or receiving benefits, rights, and privileges, for example, those concerning taxation, health insurance, health care decision-making, property rights, pension and retirement benefits, and inheritance ;
WHEREAS Same-sex couples are denied equal access to civil marriage ;
WHEREAS Same-sex couples who enter into a civil union are denied equal access to all the benefits, rights, and privileges provided by federal law to married couples (United States General Accounting Office, 2004) ;
WHEREAS The benefits, rights, and privileges associated with domestic partnerships are not universally available , are not equal to those associated with marriage , and are rarely portable ;
WHEREAS people who also experience discrimination based on age, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and gender identity, religion, and socioeconomic status may especially benefit from access to marriage for same-sex couples (Division 44/Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients, 2000);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED That the APA believes that it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage and to all its attendant benefits, rights, and privileges;
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA shall take a leadership role in opposing all discrimination in legal benefits, rights, and privileges against same-sex couples;
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA encourages psychologists to act to eliminate all discrimination against same-sex couples in their practice, research, education and training ("Ethical Principles," 2002, p. 1063);
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA shall provide scientific and educational resources that inform public discussion and public policy development regarding sexual orientation and marriage and that assist its members, divisions, and affiliated state, provincial, and territorial psychological associations.
American Anthropological Association. (2004). Statement on marriage and family from the American Anthropological Association. Retrieved May 11, 2004, from http://www.aaanet.org/press/mastmtmarriage.htm.
Badgett, M. V. L. (2001). Money, myths, and change: The economic lives of lesbians and gay men. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American couples: Money, work, sex. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Bradford, J., Ryan, C., & Rothblum, E. D. (1994). National lesbian health care survey: Implications for mental health care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 228-242.
Bryant, A. S., & Demian. (1994). Relationship characteristics of gay and lesbian couples: Findings from a national survey. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 1, 101-117.
Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2000). Relation between psychiatric syndromes and behaviorally defined sexual orientation in a sample of the US population. Journal of Epidemiology, 151, 516-523.
Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health service use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53-61.
Conger, J. J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
D'Augelli, A. R. (1998). Developmental implications of victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 187-210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Division 44/Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns Joint Task Force on Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. (2000). Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. American Psychologist, 55, 1440-1451.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2002). American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.
Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Risks of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 933-939.
Falkner, A., & Garber, J. (2002). 2001 gay/lesbian consumer online census. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, OpusComm Group, and GSociety.
Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 945-951.
Kurdek, L. A. (2001). Differences between heterosexual non-parent couples and gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent couples. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 727-754.
Kurdek, L. A. (2003). Differences between gay and lesbian cohabiting couples. Journal of Social Personal Relationships, 20, 411-436.
Kurdek, L. A. (in press). Are gay and lesbian cohabiting couples really different from heterosexual married couples? Journal of Marriage and Family.
Levant, R. F. (1999). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 1998: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 20-22, 1998, Washington, DC, and August 13 and 16, 1998, San Francisco, CA, and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December meetings of the Board of Directors. American Psychologist, 54, 605-671.
Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D. (2001). Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1869-1876.
Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.
Morris, J. F., Balsam, K. F., & Rothblum, E. D. (2002). Lesbian and bisexual mothers and nonmothers: Demographics and the coming-out process. Developmental Psychology, 16, 144-¬156.
Peplau, L. A., & Beals, K. P. (2004). The family lives of lesbians and gay men. In A. L. Vangelisti (Ed.), Handbook of family communication (pp. 233-248). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Peplau, L. A., & Spalding, L. R. (2000). The close relationships of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. In C. Hendrick & S. S. Hendrick (Eds.), Close relationships: A sourcebook (pp. 111-¬123). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
United States Census Bureau. (2000). Summary File 1: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.
United States General Accounting Office. (2004, January 23). Defense of Marriage Act: Update to Prior Report [GAO-04-353R]. Retrieved May 19, 2004, from http://www.gao.gov
Council also voted to adopt the following Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents and Children:
Resolution on sexual orientation, parents, and children
Lesbian and gay parents
Many lesbians and gay men are parents. In the 2000 U. S. Census, 33% of female same-sex couple households and 22% of male same-sex couple households reported at least one child under the age of 18 living in the home. Despite the significant presence of at least 163,879 households headed by lesbian or gay parents in U.S. society, three major concerns about lesbian and gay parents are commonly voiced (Falk, 1994; Patterson, Fulcher & Wainright, 2002). These include concerns that lesbians and gay men are mentally ill, that lesbians are less maternal than heterosexual women, and that lesbians' and gay men's relationships with their sexual partners leave little time for their relationships with their children. In general, research has failed to provide a basis for any of these concerns (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Tasker, 1999; Tasker & Golombok, 1997). First, homosexuality is not a psychological disorder (Conger, 1975). Although exposure to prejudice and discrimination based on sexual orientation may cause acute distress (Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 2003), there is no reliable evidence that homosexual orientation per se impairs psychological functioning. Second, beliefs that lesbian and gay adults are not fit parents have no empirical foundation (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002). Lesbian and heterosexual women have not been found to differ markedly in their approaches to child rearing (Patterson, 2000; Tasker, 1999). Members of gay and lesbian couples with children have been found to divide the work involved in childcare evenly, and to be satisfied with their relationships with their partners (Patterson, 2000, 2004a). The results of some studies suggest that lesbian mothers' and gay fathers' parenting skills may be superior to those of matched heterosexual parents. There is no scientific basis for concluding that lesbian mothers or gay fathers are unfit parents on the basis of their sexual orientation (Armesto, 2002; Patterson, 2000; Tasker & Golombok, 1997). On the contrary, results of research suggest that lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children.
Children of lesbian and gay parents
As the social visibility and legal status of lesbian and gay parents has increased, three major concerns about the influence of lesbian and gay parents on children have been often voiced (Falk, 1994; Patterson, Fulcher & Wainright, 2002). One is that the children of lesbian and gay parents will experience more difficulties in the area of sexual identity than children of heterosexual parents. For instance, one such concern is that children brought up by lesbian mothers or gay fathers will show disturbances in gender identity and/or in gender role behavior. A second category of concerns involves aspects of children's personal development other than sexual identity. For example, some observers have expressed fears that children in the custody of gay or lesbian parents would be more vulnerable to mental breakdown, would exhibit more adjustment difficulties and behavior problems, or would be less psychologically healthy than other children. A third category of concerns is that children of lesbian and gay parents will experience difficulty in social relationships. For example, some observers have expressed concern that children living with lesbian mothers or gay fathers will be stigmatized, teased, or otherwise victimized by peers. Another common fear is that children living with gay or lesbian parents will be more likely to be sexually abused by the parent or by the parent's friends or acquaintances.
Results of social science research have failed to confirm any of these concerns about children of lesbian and gay parents (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Tasker, 1999). Research suggests that sexual identities (including gender identity, gender-role behavior, and sexual orientation) develop in much the same ways among children of lesbian mothers as they do among children of heterosexual parents (Patterson, 2004a). Studies of other aspects of personal development (including personality, self-concept, and conduct) similarly reveal few differences between children of lesbian mothers and children of heterosexual parents (Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999). However, few data regarding these concerns are available for children of gay fathers (Patterson, 2004b). Evidence also suggests that children of lesbian and gay parents have normal social relationships with peers and adults (Patterson, 2000, 2004a; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999; Tasker & Golombok, 1997). The picture that emerges from research is one of general engagement in social life with peers, parents, family members, and friends. Fears about children of lesbian or gay parents being sexually abused by adults, ostracized by peers, or isolated in single-sex lesbian or gay communities have received no scientific support. Overall, results of research suggest that the development, adjustment, and well-being of children with lesbian and gay parents do not differ markedly from that of children with heterosexual parents.
WHEREAS APA supports policy and legislation that promote safe, secure, and nurturing environments for all children (DeLeon, 1993, 1995; Fox, 1991; Levant, 2000);
WHEREAS APA has a long-established policy to deplore "all public and private discrimination against gay men and lesbians" and urges "the repeal of all discriminatory legislation against lesbians and gay men" (Conger, 1975);
WHEREAS the APA adopted the Resolution on Child Custody and Placement in 1976 (Conger, 1977, p. 432)
WHEREAS Discrimination against lesbian and gay parents deprives their children of benefits, rights, and privileges enjoyed by children of heterosexual married couples;
WHEREAS some jurisdictions prohibit gay and lesbian individuals and same-sex couples from adopting children, notwithstanding the great need for adoptive parents (Lofton v. Secretary, 2004);
WHEREAS There is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation: lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children (Patterson, 2000, 2004; Perrin, 2002; Tasker, 1999);
WHEREAS Research has shown that the adjustment, development, and psychological well-being of children is unrelated to parental sexual orientation and that the children of lesbian and gay parents are as likely as those of heterosexual parents to flourish (Patterson, 2004; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED That the APA opposes any discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services;
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA believes that children reared by a same-sex couple benefit from legal ties to each parent;
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA supports the protection of parent-child relationships through the legalization of joint adoptions and second parent adoptions of children being reared by same-sex couples;
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA shall take a leadership role in opposing all discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services;
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That APA encourages psychologists to act to eliminate all discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services in their practice, research, education and training ("Ethical Principles," 2002, p. 1063);
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the APA shall provide scientific and educational resources that inform public discussion and public policy development regarding discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services and that assist its members, divisions, and affiliated state, provincial, and territorial psychological associations.
Armesto, J. C. (2002). Developmental and contextual factors that influence gay fathers' parental competence: A review of the literature. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 3, 67 - 78.
Conger, J.J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the Annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.
Conger, J. J. (1977). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 1976: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 32, 408-438.
Fox, R.E. (1991). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1990: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 9 and 12, 1990, Boston, MA, and February 8-9, 1991, Washington, DC. American Psychologist, 45, 845.
DeLeon, P.H. (1993). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1992: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 13 and 16, 1992, and February 26-28, 1993, Washington, DC. American Psychologist, 48,782.
DeLeon, P.H. (1995). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1994: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives August 11 and 14, 1994, Los Angeles, CA, and February 17-19, 1995, Washington, DC. American Psychologist, 49, 627-628.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2002). American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.
Levant, R.F. (2000). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the Legislative Year 1999: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 19-21, 1999, Washington, DC, and August 19 and 22, 1999, Boston, MA, and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December 1999 Meetings of the Board of Directors. American Psychologist, 55, 832-890.
Lofton v. Secretary of Department of Children & Family Services, 358 F.3d 804 (11th Cir. 2004).
Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D. (2001). Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1869-1876.
Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.
Patterson, C.J. (2000). Family relationships of lesbians and gay men. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1052- 1069.
Patterson, C.J. (2004a). Lesbian and gay parents and their children: Summary of research findings. In Lesbian and gay parenting: A resource for psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Patterson, C. J. (2004b). Gay fathers. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th Ed.). New York: John Wiley.
Patterson, C. J., Fulcher, M., & Wainright, J. (2002). Children of lesbian and gay parents: Research, law, and policy. In B. L. Bottoms, M. B. Kovera, and B. D. McAuliff (Eds.), Children, Social Science and the Law (pp, 176 - 199). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Perrin, E. C., and the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health (2002). Technical Report: Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Pediatrics, 109, 341 - 344.
Stacey, J. & Biblarz, T.J. (2001). (How) Does sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 65, 159-183.
Tasker, F. (1999). Children in lesbian-led families - A review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 153 - 166.
Tasker, F., & Golombok, S. (1997). Growing up in a lesbian family. New York: Guilford Press.
F.(26) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council new business item #28, “APA Ban on Department of Defense Advertising in APA Publications.”
G.(27) Council voted to refer the item “Request for Withdrawal of Council New Business Item #58C: Rural Children’s Mental Health Services” to the Committee on Children, Youth and Families, requesting information on what APA is doing on the issue of Rural Children’s Mental Health Services.
H.(28) Council voted to approve the following affirmative and concrete steps that will enhance diversity representation across the APA governance system:
1. Allocate $3,000 in 2005 to support the costs of a pilot diversity training activity at a C/R meeting and at the Spring or Fall Consolidated meetings. It is recommended that new governance members receive diversity training in order to inform their work in their respective venues. (It is anticipated that the plenary session at the Spring or Fall Consolidated meeting will be extended to accommodate diversity training).
2. Assess the impact of the training on participants to determining whether/how it should be
conducted in future C/R and consolidated meetings.
3. Request that all APA governance groups (including the B/D) include a report on diversity
training and representation on their respective groups within their annual reports.
4. Encourage Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Associations to include diversity training in their respective leadership conferences and to make diversity training sessions an integral part of their leadership conference programs on an annual basis.
5. Encourage Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Associations to incorporate diversity training into their programs and resources. Encourage Division and State, Provincial and Territorial Association presidents to have diversity training on their respective Executive Boards/Committees and allow each Executive Board/Committee member to receive the training at least once during his/her tenure.
I.(28A) Council voted to approve the funding for the establishment of a Task Force on Diversity in Course Content, Publications and Training Programs and the addition of a staff intern in the APA Research Office to develop a Report on the Status of Diversity in Course Content, Publications and Training Programs. The five-person Task Force, comprised of individuals with expertise in this area, will provide oversight and make recommendations regarding the ongoing development of the report on the status of diversity in course content publications and training programs. This report shall serve to inform Council and serve as a basis upon which to recommend the resources needed to enhance diversity in the discipline of psychology. Members of the Task Force will be appointed by the APA President.
J.(46) Council received an update on the business pending item “Diversity in Course Content, Publications and Training Programs.”
K.(47) Council received an update on the business pending item “Proposed Resolution on Families of Incarcerated Offenders.”
L.(56) Council received information regarding the Board’s approval of APA’s participation in an International Network for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual and Gender Identity Issues in order to work on the goals and recommendations in the Final Report, Sexual Orientation and Mental Health, Toward Global Perspectives on Practice and Psychology.
M.(65) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Establishing a New Committee within the Public Interest Directorate, The Committee on Socioeconomic Status.”
N.(66) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Proposal for a Task Force on Gender Identity, Gender Variance, and Intersex Conditions.”
XIII. Ethnic minority affairs
A.(29) Council voted to approve the following motion:
Because it believes that racial and ethnic diversity in the membership of Council has not been and is not currently satisfactory, Council finds that a program to provide incentives to Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Associations to elect ethnic minorities as Council representatives is in the best interest of APA.
Accordingly APA will reimburse any Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Psychological Association for the expenses incurred by representatives to Council who are ethnic minorities and who are elected during the years 2005-2007, to attend Council meetings. Reimbursement will be provided to Divisions, State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations for transportation, hotel and meal expenses for both the February and August meetings of Council. APA strongly encourages Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Associations to submit one or more slates of nominees comprised solely of ethnic minorities.
For purposes of this program, ethnic minority identity is determined by self-identification as a member of one of the following four U.S. ethnic minority groups: African American/Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic / Latino.
Council requests that the Board conduct a review of the effectiveness of this proposal and provide a recommendation to Council in August 2007 regarding funding its continuance beyond the 2007 election.
B.(67) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Council Representation for Four Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations.”
XIV. International affairs
A.(30) Council voted to approve the addition of $7,000 in the 2004 Final Budget to fund one meeting of a seven-member Task Force to address the concerns raised by members of APA Council with regard to agenda item 30 of the July 2004 Council agenda in which the main motion is to receive the Report of the APA Delegation to the World Congress Against Racism. Members of the Task Force shall be appointed by the President. Council recommends that the Task Force be formed with broad representation of the concerns raised.1 The Task Force should meet between now and the end of the year and report back at the February 2005 Council meeting.
(1) During further discussion by Council, it was recommended that the task force meet in Washington, DC, and include parties involved in writing the report and representatives from the Board of Directors, the Committee on International Relations in Psychology, the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs and the Women’s Caucus.
B.(31) That the Council of Representatives adopts the following Resolution on Culture and Gender Awareness in International Psychology:
Resolution on culture and gender awareness in international psychology
WHEREAS an estimated 60 percent (or more) of the world's psychologists now live outside the US (Hogan, 1995);
WHEREAS psychologists outside of the US have generated perspectives, methods and practices that correspond to the needs of the people in their societies and data that are relevant to the development of a more complete psychology of people (Bhopal, 2001; Espin & Gaweleck, 1992; Martin-Baro, 1994; Weiss, Whelan & Gupta, 2000; Winslow, Honein, & Elzubeir, 2002);
WHEREAS US leadership in world psychology is sometimes perceived as disproportionably influential, partly because of access to research funds, an abundance of US publication outlets and the wide acceptance of the English language (Kagitcibasi in Sunar, 1996; Sloan 2000);
WHEREAS US psychology needs to more fully consider the ramifications of national and cultural perspectives and indigenous psychologies (Castillo, 2001; Frank & Frank, 1991; Sue & Zane 1987) in its research, practice and educational efforts (Best & Williams, 1997; Draguns, 2001; Segall, Lonner, & Berry, 1998);
WHEREAS US grounded, normed, and structured measures dominate US empirical psychology, while internationally based, qualitative methods such as community action research are less known or valued in the US (Denzin & Lincoln, 2001; Murray & Chamberlain, 1999; Robson, 1993);
WHEREAS US assessment procedures, tests and normative data have been used extensively in other countries, some times without consideration of cultural differences that affect reliability and validity (Dana, 2000);
WHEREAS people of other cultures have adopted US methods of clinical diagnosis and intervention and US psychology has also exported these methods based on US norms and values to other cultures (Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000; Mezzich, 2002; Nakane and Nakane, 2002; Thorne & Lambers, 1998];
WHEREAS there is a need to develop and disseminate materials that will facilitate the training of psychologists to conduct culturally-appropriate research and practice around the world as well as within the culturally diverse United States (diMauro, Gilbert, & Parker, 2003; Friedman, 1997; Hays, 2001);
WHEREAS universities and colleges have called upon faculty and departments to internationalize their courses and curriculum, given the increasing number of international students at North American institutions (Marsella & Pedersen, 2002; Woolf, Hulsizer, & McCarthy, 2002);
WHEREAS most individuals from the United States, including psychologists, do not speak a second language or read journals or books in another language other than English, and therefore are unlikely to be familiar with firsthand sources of international research in other countries other than English speaking countries;
WHEREAS research focused on immigration and discrimination against immigrants and undocumented immigrants is sparse (Esses, Dovidio, Jackson & Armstrong, 2001; Evans, 2002; Martin, 1994);
WHEREAS decades of psychological studies have demonstrated that scientifically sound practice requires taking into account issues of gender and culture at all stages of the research process (Bem, 1993; Brodsky & Hare-Mustin; 1980; Harding, 1987; Schmitz, Stakeman & Sisneros, 1996; Sherif, 1979; Spence, 1987; White; Russo & Travis, 2001);
WHEREAS psychologists have demonstrated how privilege and oppression affect the lives of women and men across sexual orientations, disabilities, social class, age, ethnic and religious memberships (APA Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Older Adults, 2003; Banks, 2003; Eberhardt & Fiske, 1998; Gershick, 2000; Sidanius, Levin, Federico & Pratto, 2001; Sidanius & Pratto, 1999;
WHEREAS women world wide experience discrimination in terms of resources and access to food, health care, inheritance, credit, education, vocational training, hiring, fair compensation for paid work, family and public rights, individual mobility and travel and religious education and participation, and they also may face legal, societal, cultural and religious practices which justify and endorse this discrimination (Bianchi, Casper & Peltola, 1999; Goode, 1993; Hauchler & Kennedy, 1994; Smeeding & Ross, 1999; United Nations, 2000; United Nations Population Fund, 2000), and psychology could address these global problems internationally (United Nations, 2000; United Nations Population Fund, 2000);
WHEREAS as a result of gender discrimination, women internationally constitute a majority of the poor, and female headed families are the lowest income groups in many countries around the world (Blossfield, 1995; Duncan & Edwards, 1997; Goldberg & Kremen, 1990; McLanahan & Kelly, 1998); moreover, educational achievements and opportunities and literacy rates for women are significantly less than for men (United Nations Department of Public Information, 1995; UNESCO, 2002);
WHEREAS as a result of gender discrimination, women experience violations of their body integrity, interpersonal violence and physical abuse (Center for Policy Alternatives, 1998; European Women's Lobby, 2000; Nylen & Heimer, 2000); and under repressive systems, in wars, and in postwar conditions, women are targeted for violence (Comas-Diaz & Jansen, 1995);
WHEREAS as a result of gender discrimination individuals with differently gendered identity and gender expression experience violence and discrimination within many societies from both the populace and from those in authority (Dworkin, & Yi, 2003);
WHEREAS psychologists strive to promote international peace and understanding and to decrease ethnic and gender violence;
WHEREAS in contrast to the United States where professional practices and policies generally are in concert with and support governmental structures, in many other countries, psychologists must advocate for social justice and oppose unjust governmental structures and policies (Fox & Prilleltensky, 2001; Martin-Baro, 1994; Moane, 1999; Moler & Catley, 2000; Nandy, 1987);
WHEREAS knowledge management, production and dissemination of information are also affected by global politics and economics in ways that maintain social inequality (Capra, 1996; Fox & Prilleltensky, 2001; Giddens, 2000; Harding, 1993; Wallerstein, 1992);
WHEREAS the field of psychology could benefit significantly from the expansion of its knowledge base through international perspectives, conclusions and practices (Bronstein & Quina, 1988; Gielen & Pagan, 1993; Marsella, 1998); Nandy 1983, Pareek 1990;
WHEREAS the opportunity for mutual benefit and greater effectiveness in solving global problems is at hand in research partnerships across nations and cultures if psychologists proceed with critical awareness and a commitment to gender, cultural, social, economic and religious justice (Sloan, 1996);
WHEREAS psychologists have a responsibility to better understand the values, mores, history and social policies of other nations and cultures that affect generalizations and recommendations about best practices (Schmitz, Stakeman & Sisneros, 1996);
WHEREAS psychologists are committed to culture fair and gender fair competent unbiased practice (APA Guidelines on Cross Cultural Education and Training, Research, Organizational Change and Practice for Psychologists, 2002; APA Guidelines for Practice with Girls and Women (Draft), 2002; APA Guidelines for Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients, 2000; American Psychological Association, A New Model of Disability, 2003);
WHEREAS psychologists are ethically guided to "recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology" and to "respect the rights, dignity, and worth of all people" (American Psychological Association, Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2002);
WHEREAS the International Committee for Women Task Force of Division 52, International Psychology, has developed an important position paper on “Cultural And Gender Awareness in International Psychology” that identifies critical areas of consideration for psychologists to consider in cross-cultural research (Rice and Ballou, 2002);
THEREFORE LET IT BE RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association will:
(1) advocate for more research on the role that cultural ideologies have in the experience of women and men across and within countries on the basis of sex, gender identity, gender expression, ethnicity, social class, age, disabilities, and religion.
(2) advocate for more collaborative research partnerships with colleagues from diverse cultures and countries leading to mutually beneficial dialogues and learning opportunities.
(3) advocate for critical research that analyzes how cultural, economic, and geopolitical perspectives may be embedded within US psychological research and practice.
(4) encourage more attention to a critical examination of international cultural, gender, gender identity, age, and disability perspectives in psychological theory, practice, and research at all levels of psychological education and training curricula.
(5) encourage psychologists to gain an understanding of the experiences of individuals in diverse cultures, and their points of view and to value pluralistic world views, ways of knowing, organizing, functioning, and standpoints.
(6) encourage psychologists to become aware of and understand how systems of power hierarchies may influence the privileges, advantages, and rewards that usually accrue by virtue of placement and power.
(7) encourage psychologists to understand how power hierarchies may influence the production and dissemination of knowledge in psychology internationally and to alter their practices according to the ethical insights that emerge from this understanding.
(8) encourage psychologists to appreciate the multiple dilemmas and contradictions inherent in valuing culture and actual cultural practices when they are oppressive to women, but congruent with the practices of diverse ethnic groups.
(9) advocate for cross national research that analyzes and supports the elimination of cultural, gender, gender identity, age, and disability discrimination in all arenas—economic, social, educational, and political.
(10) support public policy that supports global change toward egalitarian relationships and the elimination of practices and conditions oppressive to women.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association (1) recommend that Boards and Committees consider the impact of the globalization of psychology and the incorporation of international perspectives into their activities, and (2) charge the Committee on International Relations in Psychology, in collaboration appropriate APA Boards and Committees, to implement any directives from the Council of Representatives that result from the adoption of the resolution.
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XV. Central Office
XVI. Financial affairs
A.(32) That the Council approves the 2005 Preliminary Budget in principle calling for a 2004 probable surplus of $735,500 and a surplus of $160,800 for the 2005 Preliminary Budget. This 2005 Preliminary Budget shall serve as the framework for the 2005 Final Budget that will be presented to Council for approval in February of 2005.
Consistent with the actions of Council in August 2000 and 2002 to institute the practice of increasing the APA dues and graduate student affiliate fees annually by an amount linked to the consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U), Council specifically approves a $6 member dues increase from $247 to $253 for the 2005 dues year, and a $1 graduate student affiliate fee increase from $42 to $43 (the revenues generated from this increase to be added to the APAGS budget).
B.(33) Council voted to approve the Net Asset Allocation Plan including the Financial Forecast for 2005-2007 as follows:
1. The goal for attainment of net assets as stated in Association Rule 210-3 is reaffirmed;
namely, that the Association strives to maintain net assets equal to at least one year’s operating budget.
2. Consistent with accounting practices, conventional wisdom and comparable financial data from other organizations, the Association should not consider any portion of theoretical building equity toward attainment of the net assets goal mentioned in item 1 above.
3. Currently, rather than specifically set aside funds outside the normal budget process for development of programs deemed to be of high priority to the membership, the Association enthusiastically supports consideration of proposals (in the form of a business plan) for new revenue generating ideas. [Such proposals for new revenue generating ideas should be thoroughly detailed including all direct costs, indirect costs, and staff costs. Such proposals reviewed by the FC, the BOD and approved by the COR, will be funded out of ongoing revenues or out of the Association’s net assets, as necessary, assuming that full consideration is also given to the impact of such funding on progress towards the Association’s net assets goal mentioned in item 1.]
4. The specific financial forecast for 2005 – 2007 is as follows:
a) Strive to attain a net asset goal equal to at least one year’s operating budget consistent with Association Rule 210-3;
b) Include $2.5M net cash flow from building operations in the operating budget as a regular source of revenue;
c) Include full funding in the operating budget for the Public Education Campaign and the Academic Enhancement Initiative through the forecast period;
d) Restrict capital expenditures to no more than $8 million over the forecast period;
e) Continue to reinvest net realized gains/losses from our long-term portfolio;
f) Reinvest all interest/dividends from our long-term portfolio; and,
g) Treat all real estate cash flow in excess of $2.5M annually from building operations as an increase to net assets and not available for operations or capital equipment, but rather as a reserve for financial investment and/or debt extinguishment.
5. Each year based on actual results and an analysis of our net assets, future financial forecasts and the net asset allocation plan will be adjusted accordingly.
6. Once the net assets goals are attained, any number of future actions can be taken including the long-term stabilization of dues; the long-term availability of funds for the development of programs deemed to be of high priority to the membership; further apportionment of building and investment proceeds toward operational expenses, etc.
Council also voted to approve the following amendments to Association Rule 210-3 (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
On a continuing basis, the Association shall strive to maintain working capital, and assets reserves as follows:
Working Capital: (current assets* less current liabilities**)
The Association shall strive to maintain working capital equal to at least four months of operating expenses.
Net [Worth] Assets: (assets less liabilities)
The Association shall strive to maintain a net [worth] assets equal to at least one year's operating budget.
*Current Assets - Cash and other liquid assets or resources commonly identified
as those which are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold or consumed during the normal operating cycle of the business.
**Current Liabilities - Liabilities whose regular and ordinary liquidation is expected to occur within a relatively short period of time, usually twelve months.
C.(34) Council voted to affirm the importance and support the annual occurrence of the Education Leadership Conference, Science Leadership Conference, Division Leadership Conference and State Leadership Conference.
D.(35) Council voted to approve amending Association Rule 210-1 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
210 1. Finance Committee
210 1.1 The Finance Committee shall be composed of seven voting members and up to [four] seven non-voting members. Of the voting members, two shall be elected each year for terms of three years; one slate shall be limited to first-year and/or second-year members of Council and the second slate shall be limited to first-year and/or second-year Council members or former or outgoing members of the Finance Committee. No member may serve more than two consecutive terms. The seventh voting member of the Committee is the APA Treasurer, who shall serve as its Chair. The non-voting members shall be representatives from the investment community (up to four) and the accounting/financial community (up to three) and are not necessarily psychologists. The non-voting members will be recommended by the Finance Committee and appointed by the Board of Directors for terms of three years not to exceed three consecutive terms.
Consistent with the mission of the Finance Committee set forth in Article XI, Section 3 of the APA Bylaws, the Finance Committee shall review and make recommendations on all new business and any old business coming before Council having financial implications that have not already been provided for in the budget. In addition, it is the responsibility of the Committee to (a) recommend overall investment strategy, including, but not limited to, amounts to be invested in equities, bonds, short-term holdings and real estate; (b) monitor the performance of the investment managers, if any; (c) research and develop alternative investments; (d) and advise the Treasurer and appropriate staff on investing funds not entrusted to an investment manager. It is also the responsibility of the Committee to (a) review audit scope and approach; (b) monitor issues raised during the audit and management letter; (c) understand the major components of the consolidated financial statements; (d) ensure compliance with legal and regulatory requirements; and, (e) monitor major financial risk exposures and steps taken to control such exposures.
E.(35A) Council voted to request that it receive the full report every three years of the Employee Contracts and Staff Compensation, noting that events that differ from those in the report are to be reported to Council at the following Council meeting. Council asked that it receive an annual report on factors used in determining total CEO compensation.
F.(36) Council received an update regarding the sale of 10 G Street building.
G.(57) Council received as information the Pricewaterhouse Coopers LLP 2003 Audited Financial Statements.
H.(58) Council received as information the minutes of the June 4-5, 2004, Finance Committee meeting.
On Wednesday afternoon, President Diane F. Halpern, PhD, and Chief Executive Officer Norman B. Anderson, PhD, presented their reports to Council.
On Wednesday afternoon, President Halpern recognized and thanked Rachel Hare-Mustin, PhD, for her service as Parliamentarian for a total of 14 APA Presidents. Dr. Hare-Mustin plans to take a hiatus beginning in 2005.
On Friday afternoon, current and former members of the Committee on Women of Psychology (CWP) performed a “Storming of Council”, a reenactment of the October 4, 1970, event whereby ten women, who were members of the Association of Women in Psychology, walked into the APA Council meeting, demanded the right to speak and presented the historic list of 52 “Resolutions and Motions Regarding the Status of Women in Psychology.” Dr. Halpern presented current and former members of CWP, and Rona Fields, PhD, and Ethel Tobach, PhD, two of the original “stormers,” with Presidential Citations commemorating the event.
On Friday afternoon, Raymond D. Fowler, PhD, was presented with the first Raymond D. Fowler Award for Outstanding Contributions to APA - Member.