Council Of Representatives: August 16 & 19, 2007
I. MINUTES OF MEETING
A.(1) Council voted to approve the minutes of its February 16-18, 2007, meeting.
II. ELECTIONS, AWARDS, MEMBERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCES
A.(2) Council voted to approve the following amendments to Association Rule 130-3.2 (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
3. The APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice [in the Public Sector recognizes outstanding service delivery by a psychologist who is primarily engaged in the practice of psychology in a public-sector setting (state hospital, military, Department of Veterans Affairs)]. The award is intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. Nominations will be considered for psychologists working in a wide variety of [public-sector] institutional practice settings (e.g. schools, military, state hospital, Department of Veterans Affairs, etc.) Services provided to diverse client groups or patient populations, including, but not limited to, children/adolescents/adults/ older adults, urban/rural/frontier populations, minority populations and persons with serious mental illness, will be considered. Contributions may be judged or distinguished by virtue of peer recognition, advancement of the public's recognition of psychology as a profession, relevant professional association honors or other meritorious accomplishments denoting excellence as a practitioner, including improvement of [public- ] institutional service delivery systems or development of psychologically informed public policy.
B.(3) Council provided no comment on the item "Representation on the Board of Directors and Allocation of Resources Across Directorates" but expects to receive the item again in February 2008.
C.(4) Council voted to approve the following amendments to the APA Bylaws and Association Rules (bracketed material to be deleted, underlined material to be added):
40-1. ELECTION AND PROCEDURES FOR COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVES
40-1.5. The Council apportionment ballot shall be [mailed] sent November 1 or the next business day. The ballot period closes at the end of forty-five days.
110.8. PRESIDENT-ELECT ELECTION
110.8.2 Candidates are nominated by Fellows, Members, and Associate members with voting privileges. Nominations are made by preferential ballots, and up to five names may be listed in rank order. Nomination ballots are [mailed] sent on or about February 1. The balloting period closes within 45 days. Only APA members are eligible for nominations.
110.8.3. The APA President-elect shall be elected by Fellows, Members, and those Associate members who have been granted voting privileges. The election ballot shall be preferential and shall list five candidates. Final election ballots shall be [mailed] sent on or about October 15. The balloting period shall close within 45 days [after the mailing].
110-10. CHIEF STAFF OFFICER CONFIRMATION
110-10.3. The confirmation vote will be by secret ballot sent by the Recording Secretary of the Association. Voters shall indicate on the ballot whether they approve or disapprove of the nominee. Ballots will be returned [in a sealed envelope] to the Recording Secretary, who will supervise the tabulation of the vote.
110-12. CHIEF STAFF OFFICER RECONFIRMATION
110-12.3 The reconfirmation votes shall be by secret ballot sent by the Recording Secretary of the Association. Voters shall indicate on the ballot whether they approve or disapprove the reconfirmation. Ballots will be returned [in a sealed envelope] to the Recording Secretary, who will supervise the tabulation of the vote and will announce the results to Council.
110-13. ELECTION OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS
110-13.3. Nomination ballots are [mailed] sent April 15 or the next business day; nominations close within 30 days and may list up to two persons for each vacancy.
110-13.4. The election ballot is a preferential ballot; three persons shall be nominated for each vacancy chosen in order of total nominations received. Final elections ballots are [mailed] sent July 1 or the next business day; election closes within 30 days.
Candidates are invited to submit a statement of no more than 500 words with their opinions of issues facing psychology and the role APA should play regarding these issues. Copies of these statements are [mailed] sent with each ballot. <
110-15. ELECTION OF STANDING BOARD AND COMMITTEE MEMBERS
110-15.3 The Council elects members of standing boards and committees by a preferential election ballot; those voting assign a rank order to as many candidates as desired. Ballots are [mailed] sent on the last working day in October. The balloting period closes within 30 days.
220. AMENDING APA BYLAWS
220-1.1. In the event that any change in the APA Bylaws is proposed, the text of such change shall be published in the APA Monitor on Psychology at least one month before the ballot is [mailed] sent and preferably long enough in advance to permit comment.
APPENDIX C AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION: PROCEDURES FOR THE NOMINATION AND ELECTION OF MEMBERS OF COUNCIL TO THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS
2. On or about April 15, the audit firm will send the call for nominations to members of Council. The deadline for return of nominations printed on the form shall be 30 days after the [date of mailing] nominations are sent. All nominations will be returned directly to the audit firm. The audit firm will retain [the envelopes] voter eligibility information until the election is certified and accepted by APA[, then destroy them]. The nomination ballots will be sent to the APA Central Office and will be retained in the files for at least one year.
5. The Central Office will prepare the final ballot and copies of the candidates' statements on issues and send them to the audit firm to be [mailed] sent on or about July 1.
6. The audit firm will [mail] send the ballot, together with the candidates' statements on issues, to members of Council. The ballot will indicate a deadline for the return of ballots of 30 days after [date of mailing] being sent. All ballots will be returned directly to the audit firm. The audit firm will retain [the envelopes] voter eligibility information until the election has been certified and accepted by APA [and then destroy them]. In all cases where excess ballots are redistributed the audit firm will mark those ballots that were redistributed. All ballots will be sent to APA Central Office and will be retained in the files for at least one year.
ARTICLE III: BILL OF RIGHTS FOR MEMBERS
1. All Members and Fellows shall have the right to vote, to hold office, and to secure fair consideration for governance appointment in the Association. Voting in any Association election may be done by either mail or electronic means.
ARTICLE VIII: OFFICERS
3. The President-elect shall be a Member of the Association, elected by preferential [mail] ballot, and shall take office as President-elect on January 1 of the year following his/her election. During the term of office, the President-elect shall serve as presiding officer of the Association, the Board of Directors, and Council in the absence of the President.
ARTICLE X: NOMINATIONS AND ELECTIONS
1. The Election Committee shall issue annually a call [by mail] to all voting members of the Association for nominations for the office of President-elect. The nomination ballots shall provide spaces for at least three names to be listed in order of preference. Forty-five days after [mailing] sending the nomination ballots, the Election Committee shall close nominations and shall make a preferential count of nominees for President-elect. The Election Committee shall then prepare for the final election ballot a slate including the names of the five persons who receive the largest numbers of nominating votes.
2. The Election Committee shall [mail] send to all voting Members of the Association the final ballot, which shall include nominees for President-elect and may include the names of nominees to such other offices as may appropriate.
5. Forty-five days after [mailing] sending a final ballot, the Election Committee shall close the election and shall make a preferential count of the election ballot. Tie votes shall be resolved by lot. The Election Committee shall also secure reports from the Divisions and from the State/Provincial Associations of the results of all elections conducted by them. The election results shall be reported by the Election Committee to the Board of Directors and Council within thirty days after the ballot closes.
ARTICLE XX: AMENDMENTS
1. The Association, by [mail] vote of the voting Members on the official rolls of the Association at the time of [mailing] sending, may adopt such Bylaws or amendments to Bylaws as are consistent with the Association's Certificate of Incorporation and are deemed necessary for the management of the affairs of the Association.
2. Amendments may be proposed (a) by Council, (b) by the Policy and Planning Board, (c) by the Board of Directors when approved by Council by a majority vote, or (d) by petition signed by four percent or more of the Members of the Association. A copy of each amendment proposed, with space appropriate for voting and such explanations of the amendments are as deemed necessary, shall be [mailed] sent to the last recorded address of each Fellow, Member, and voting Associate member. Pro and con statements shall accompany amendments unless two-thirds of the representatives present and voting consider such statements to be unnecessary. Forty-five days after the date of [mailing] sending, the poll shall be closed and the votes counted by the Election Committee, which shall certify the results to Council at its next meeting, at which time the amendment, if passed by two-thirds of all Members voting, shall take effect.
Council voted not to include pro/con statements with the Bylaw amendment ballot.
D.(4A) Council voted to elect 145 members listed to initial Fellow status, on the nomination of the indicated divisions and on the recommendation of the Membership Committee and the Board of Directors.
E.(34) Council received an update on the business pending item "APA Dues Credit for Members Who are State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations." Council requested that the item come back to Council for action at its February 2008 meeting.
F.(35) Council received an update on the business pending item "Enhancing Member Dues Revenue."
G(44) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Encourage Membership Through Convention."
A.(5) Council voted to adopt the following resolution as APA policy:
Reaffirmation of the American Psychological Association Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Its Application to Individuals Defined in the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants"i
WHEREAS the mission of the American Psychological Association is to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health, education and human welfare through the establishment and maintenance of the highest standards of professional ethics and conduct of the members of the Association;
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association is an accredited non-governmental organization at the United Nations and so is committed to promote and protect human rights in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association passed the 2006 Resolution Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, a comprehensive and foundational position applicable to all individuals, in all settings and in all contexts without exception;
WHEREAS in 2006, the American Psychological Association defined torture in accordance with Article l of the United Nations Declaration and Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,
[T]he term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted upon a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official [e.g., governmental, religious, political, organizational] capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to lawful sanctions [in accordance with both domestic and international law];
WHEREAS in 2006, the American Psychological Association defined the term "cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment" to mean treatment or punishment by a psychologist that, in accordance with the McCain Amendment, is of a kind that would be "prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, as defined in the United States Reservations, Declarations and Understandings to the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment done at New York, December 10, 1984." Specifically, United States Reservation I.1 of the Reservations, Declarations and Understandings to the United Nations Convention Against Torture stating, "the term 'cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment' means the cruel, unusual and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the Fifth, Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States."ii
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association reaffirms unequivocally the 2006 Resolution Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in its entirety in both substance and content (see Appendix A);
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association affirms that there are no exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether induced by a state of war or threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, that may be invoked as a justification for torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, including the invocation of laws, regulations, or orders;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association unequivocally condemns torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, under any and all conditions, including detention and interrogations of both lawful and unlawful enemy combatants as defined by the US Military Commissions Act of 2006;
BE IT RESOLVED that the unequivocal condemnation includes an absolute prohibition against psychologists' knowingly planning, designing, and assisting in the use of torture and any form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
BE IT RESOLVED that this unequivocal condemnation includes all techniques considered torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment under the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Geneva Conventions; the Principles of Medical Ethics Relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, Particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners: or the World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo. An absolute prohibition against the following techniques therefore arises from, is understood in the context of, and is interpreted according to these texts: mock executions; water-boarding or any other form of simulated drowning or suffocation; sexual humiliation; rape; cultural or religious humiliation; exploitation of fears, phobias or psychopathology; induced hypothermia; the use of psychotropic drugs or mind-altering substances; hooding; forced nakedness; stress positions; the use of dogs to threaten or intimidate; physical assault including slapping or shaking; exposure to extreme heat or cold; threats of harm or death; isolation; sensory deprivation and over-stimulation; sleep deprivation; or the threatened use of any of the above techniques to an individual or to members of an individual’s family. Psychologists are absolutely prohibited from knowingly planning, designing, participating in or assisting in the use of all condemned techniques at any time and may not enlist others to employ these techniques in order to circumvent this resolution's prohibition;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association calls on the United States government-including Congress, the Department of Defense, and the Central Intelligence Agency-to prohibit the use of these methods in all interrogations and that the American Psychological Association shall inform relevant parties with the United States government that psychologists are prohibited from participating in such methods ;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association, in recognizing that torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment can result not only from the behavior of individuals, but also from the conditions of confinement, expresses grave concern over settings in which detainees are deprived of adequate protection of their human rights, affirms the prerogative of psychologists to refuse to work in such settings, and will explore ways to support psychologists who refuse to work in such settings or who refuse to obey orders that constitute torture;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association asserts that any APA member with knowledge that a psychologist, whether an APA member or non-member, has engaged in torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, including the specific behaviors listed above, has an ethical responsibility to abide by Ethical Standard 1.05, Reporting Ethical Violations, in the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2002) and directs the Ethics Committee to take appropriate action based upon such information, and encourages psychologists who are not APA members also to adhere to Ethical Standard 1.05;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association commends those psychologists who have taken clear and unequivocal stands against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, especially in the line of duty, and including stands against the specific behaviors (in lines 81 through 100) or conditions listed above; and that the American Psychological Association affirms the prerogative of psychologists under the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2002) to disobey law, regulations or orders when they conflict with ethics ;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association asserts that all psychologists with information relevant to the use of any method of interrogation constituting torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment have an ethical responsibility to inform their superiors of such knowledge, to inform the relevant office of inspector generals when appropriate, and to cooperate fully with all oversight activities, including hearings by the United States Congress and all branches of the United States government, to examine the perpetration of torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment against individuals in United States custody, for the purpose of ensuring that no individual in the custody of the United States is subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment;
BE IT RESOLVED that the APA Ethics Committee shall proceed forthwith in writing a casebook and commentary that shall set forth guidelines for psychologists that are consistent with international human rights instruments, as well as guidelines developed for health professionals, including but not limited to: Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions; The United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; The United Nations Principles of Medical Ethics Relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; and The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo: Guidelines for Physicians Concerning Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in Relation to Detention and Imprisonment;
BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association, in order to protect against torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, and in order to mitigate against the likelihood that unreliable and/or inaccurate information is entered into legal proceedings, calls upon United States legal systems to reject testimony that results from torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
i Defined as both unlawful enemy combatants and lawful enemy combatants as set forth in the U.S. Military Commissions Act of 2006 (Chapter 47A; Subchapter I: § 948a. Definitions)
(1) UNLAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANT.-
(A) The term unlawful enemy combatant' means-
(i) a person who has engaged in hostilities or who has purposefully and materially supported hostilities against the United States or its co-belligerents who is not a lawful enemy combatant (including a person who is part of the Taliban, al Qaeda, or associated forces); or
(ii) a person who, before, on, or after the date of the enactment of the Military Commissions Act of 2006, has been determined to be an unlawful enemy combatant by a Combatant Status Review Tribunal or another competent tribunal established under the authority of the President or the Secretary of Defense.
(B) CO-BELLIGERENT.-In this paragraph, the term cobelligerent', with respect to the United States, means any State or armed force joining and directly engaged with the United States in hostilities or directly supporting hostilities against a common enemy.
(2) LAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANT.-The term 'lawful enemy combatant' means a person who is-
(A) a member of the regular forces of a State party engaged in hostilities against the United States;
(B) a member of a militia, volunteer corps, or organized resistance movement belonging to a State party engaged in such hostilities, which are under responsible command, wear a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance, carry their arms openly, and abide by the law of war; or
(C) a member of a regular armed force who professes allegiance to a government engaged in such hostilities, but not recognized by the United States.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
IV. BOARD OF DIRECTORS
A.(6) The item "Options for Council Action in Considering Task Force Reports" was postponed to Council's February 2008 meeting.
B.(7) Council voted to request that diversity training on sexual orientation and gender identity be provided to Council at its February 2008 meeting and to boards and committees at the March 2008 Consolidated Meetings. The training shall be developed by the Governance Affairs Office with assistance from the Office on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Concerns.
D.(39) Council received as information a copy of the current APA Insurance Trust Charter.
E.(45) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Dealing with Proposed Wording Changes During Council Debate."
F.(46) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Amendment to APA Priorities."
V. DIVISIONS AND STATE AND PROVINCIAL ASSOCIATIONS
A.(33C) A new business item, "Increased Funding for Interdivisional Grants" was referred to the Committee on Division/APA Relations and the Policy and Planning Board.
B.(47) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Task Force to Address SPTA Impact on and Input in the Development of APA Policy."
VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE APA
A.(8) Council voted to approve the following amendments to the APA Bylaws and Association Rules (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
1. Council shall be composed of Representatives of Divisions, Representatives of State, [and] Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations, members of the Board of Directors, the Officers of the Association (the chief staff officer shall serve without vote), [and] the APAGS Representative and one Representative from each National Ethnic Minority Psychological Association (the Asian American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, and the Society of Indian Psychologists).
5. Council Representatives of a Division [or], a State/Provincial/Territorial Association, or the Asian American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, and the Society of Indian Psychologists shall be members of [the Division or State/Provincial Association] their respective constituencies and Members of the Association, and shall be elected for a period not to exceed three years. If during that three-year period the Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association is allocated fewer seats, the Division or State/Provincial/Territorial Association shall recall the appropriate number of Representatives. The term of office of the recalled member is thereby terminated.
6. Each APA Fellow, Member, and voting Associate member shall choose the Division(s) or State/Provincial/Territorial Association(s) through which he/she elected to have his/her interest represented on Council by allocating, at the time of the annual dues statement, a total of ten (10) votes to the Division(s) and/or State/Provincial/Territorial Association(s) through which he/she wishes to be represented the following year. However, only Fellows, Members (or voting Associate members) of the Divisions or State/Provincial/Territorial Associations so designated will be allowed to nominate and elect their Council Representatives. The Representatives of each of the National Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations shall be designated by their respective Association.
8. A Council member who has served for six consecutive years shall not be eligible for election or appointment for a period of one year as a Representative from any Division, State/Provincial/Territorial Association, National Ethnic Minority Psychological Association, or coalition.
Article XVI. National Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations
1. As provided in Article V.1, the Asian American Psychological Association, Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, and the Society of Indian Psychologists shall each have one voting representative serving on the Council of Representatives of the American Psychological Association.
2. Each of these National Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations shall exercise such control over its members so that membership in such Association shall not imply membership in the American Psychological Association.
3. The American Psychological Association shall not be responsible for the acts or omissions of these National Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations, except as specifically authorized by these Bylaws or other duly promulgated rule of Council.
Note: Subsequent sections to the Bylaws will be renumbered.
40-1.11 Unless it is an ex officio appointment, there shall be at least two nominees on the final election ballot for each office of Council representative from divisions or state/provincial/territorial psychological associations.
40-1.12 Names of candidates running for Council seats from divisions or state/provincial/territorial psychological associations must be submitted to the APA Election Committee before March 15 of the year in which the election is held.
40-1.13 National Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations must advise Central Office of the name of their representative by June 30 of the year preceeding the start of the Council term.
Council voted not to include pro/con statements with the Bylaw amendment ballot.
B.(9) Council voted to approve the appointment of a Task Force on Council Representation to examine the current apportionment system to determine if changes are needed and to indicate any changes necessary to ensure equitable representation of all constituencies. The Task Force is to report back to Council no later than August 2008.
VII. PUBLICATIONS AND COMMUNICATIONS
A.(10) Council voted to approve the Division 36 request for authorization to publish a divisional journal, to be titled Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.
B.(11) Council voted to approve the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' (Section VIII of Division 12 - Society of Clinical Psychology) request to become the official sponsor of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings.
VIII. CONVENTION AFFAIRS
IX. EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(12) Council voted to approve an extension for the recognition of Behavioral Psychology as a specialty in professional psychology for an additional period of one year (until August 2008).
B.(13) Council voted to approve a name change for the specialty of Psychoanalytic Psychology to Psychoanalysis in Psychology and the renewal of this specialty in professional psychology under the new name until August 2014, as outlined in the Procedures for Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology.
C.(14) Council voted to adopt the following Resolution in Support of Education for Sustainable Development as APA policy:
The concept of sustainable development emerged in the 1980s in response to a growing awareness of the need to link economic and social progress with environment responsibility. Sustainable development offers a framework for understanding and addressing the most urgent problems of our time. It recognizes that challenges such as global warming, wasteful consumption, environmental degradation, poverty, and violent conflict are interdependent and that interdisciplinary solutions - involving economic, social, environmental, and political dimensions - are required.
The United Nations has declared a Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, 2005-2014. As stated by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the lead agency for the Decade: "The international community now strongly believes that we need to foster - through education - the values, behaviour and lifestyles required for a sustainable future. Education for sustainable development has come to be seen as a process of learning how to make decisions that consider the long-term future of the economy, ecology and equity of all communities. Building the capacity for such futures-oriented thinking is a key task of education.1
We herein commit to the following actions in support of education for sustainable development:
1. We will improve our understanding of education for sustainable development through collaboration with other organizations and promotion of programs/projects within our associations.
2. We will share resources and support innovations in education for sustainable development with our members.
3. We will work with other organizations to help the public become both literate about our sustainability challenges and more engaged in addressing solutions.
4. We will encourage our members to identify and pursue linkages between their disciplinary expertise and related issues in sustainable development and to collaborate with other disciplines and specialties for cross-fertilization of ideas and problem-solving around sustainability.
5. We will practice institutional social responsibility and take action to minimize the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of our organizational activities.
1UNESCO 2003, United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (January 2005 - December 2014), Framework for a Draft International Implementation Scheme, p.4.
D.(15) Council voted to approve, in principle, the 2007 revisions of the Recommended Postdoctoral Education and Training Program in Psychopharmacology for Prescription Privileges and the Model Legislation for Prescriptive Authority with the expectation that at a future time the documents will be submitted to Council for approval as policy along with a proposal for the establishment of an APA designation program for education and training programs in psychopharmacology.
E.(16) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council New Business Item #31H: "Accreditation of Graduate Programs in North America."
X. PROFESSIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(17) Council voted to approve the following motion:
Authors of APA communications and publications are strongly encouraged to use the terms "psychology," "psychological" and "psychologists" when referring specifically to the activities of psychologists. However, in many contexts, good judgment may determine that alternative terms be used. The aim of this motion is to reclaim the distinctiveness of the term psychology, not to be divisive with fellow health-care professions. Of course, in other contexts outside of APA, such as clinical work, psychologists may well use generic terms.
- Avoid use of generic terms (e.g., clinician, intervention, therapy, assessment) in professional communications when referring to psychologists and psychological activities.
- Use generic terms only as necessary in public information publications to introduce concepts to consumers. Use "psychological" terms in subsequent references as often as possible.
- Employ generic terms in only those situations referring to the activities of members of multiple mental health professions.
- Adopt brand recognition of psychology; for example, "psychotherapy" in place of "therapy," "psychological disorder" in place of "disorder," "psychological assessment" or "neuropsychological assessment" (as appropriate) in place of "assessment," "psychological treatment" in place of "treatment," and "psychological counseling" in place of "counseling."
- Use the legally protected terms of "psychology" and "psychologists" when so indicated.
B.(18) Council voted to approve the following motion:
APA Principles for Health Care Reform
- Everyone should have coverage that provides affordable health care for all basic services.
- Basic health care services eliminate the artificial distinction between "mental" and "physical" health, recognize the inseparable relationship between mental and physical well being, and offer access to treatment for "mental health conditions" equivalent in all respects to access for "physical health conditions".
- Basic health care services include the psychological treatment of physical conditions in order to maximize rehabilitation and quality of life.
- Basic health care services include appropriate prevention services that address the role that behavior plays in seven out of the ten leading causes of mortality and morbidity.
C.(36) Council received an update on the business pending item "Infusing the Association Guidelines in the Public Interest Which Have Been Adopted by Council for Psychologists Throughout APA."
D.(37) Council received an update on the business pending item "Division 55 Pharmacotherapy Practice Guidelines."
E.(48) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Ad Hoc Task Force to Investigate the Merits, Needs, and Outcomes of an Evidence Based Practice Policy for Applied Psychologists and the Benefits of Collaborating with International Associations Interested in Developing EBP Policy for Applied Psychology."
XI. SCIENTIFIC AFFAIRS
A.(19) Council voted to refer Council New Business Item #25 H, "The Ambassador's Program of Division 41: A Novel Approach to the Recruitment of Minority Undergraduate Students to Graduate Study in Psychology and Law," to the Board of Scientific Affairs and the Board of Educational Affairs for development of other ways that APA can support the Division 41 program. Elizabeth C. Wiggins, PhD, abstained from voting on the item.
B.(33B) Council voted to approve the following motion:
Council directs staff to disseminate this statement through posting on the website and wide distribution of press releases.
C.(49) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Support for Social Psychology Network."
D.(50) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Warming."
E.(51) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Support for Quantitative Training for Underrepresented Groups."
XII. PUBLIC INTEREST
A.(20) Council adopted the following resolution as APA policy:
Prejudice based on or derived from religion and antireligious prejudice has been, and continues to be, a cause of significant suffering in the human condition. The American Psychological Association's policy statement on prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination provides operational definitions for prejudices, stereotypes, and interpersonal and institutional discrimination. The resolution specifically states,
Prejudices are unfavorable affective reactions to or evaluations of groups and their members, stereotypes are generalized beliefs about groups and their members, interpersonal discrimination is differential treatment by individuals toward some groups and their members relative to other groups and their members, and institutional discrimination involves policies and contexts that create, enact, reify, and maintain inequality. (American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, 2006)
Prejudice directed against individuals and groups based on their religious or spiritual beliefs, practice, adherence, identification, or affiliation has resulted in a wide range of discriminatory practices. Such discrimination has been carried out by individuals, by groups, and by governments. Examples of nongovernmental discrimination based on religion include social ostracism against individuals based on their religion, desecration of religious buildings or sites, and violence or other hate crimes targeted toward adherents of particular faith traditions (U.S. Department of State, 2004). Prejudice and discrimination based on religion and/or spirituality continue to be problematic even in countries that otherwise have achieved a high level of religious liberty and pluralism. Governmental discrimination based on religion has taken both covert and overt forms. Current examples of covert religious discrimination include government surveillance of religious speech, pejorative labeling by governmental bodies of certain religious groups as "cults" with a resulting loss of religious freedoms, and a lack of legal protection for citizens from nonmajority faiths who are victims of religious hate crimes (Center for Religious Freedom, 2001, 2003; U.S. Department of State, 2004). Prejudice based on or derived from religion has been used to justify discrimination, prejudice, and human rights violations against those holding different religious beliefs, those who profess no religious beliefs, individuals of various ethnicities, women, those who are not exclusively heterosexual, and other individuals and groups depending on perceived theological justification or imperative.
Indeed, it is a paradoxical feature of these kinds of prejudices that religion can be both target and victim of prejudice, as well as construed as justification and imperative for prejudice. The right of persons to practice their religion or faith does not and cannot entail a right to harm others or to undermine the public good. This situation is further complicated by the increasing tendency of individuals to identify as "spiritual" apart from any identification or affiliation with a religious tradition (Hill & Pargament, 2003). It is as yet unclear what impact on the relationships between spirituality and prejudice this increasing trend toward noninstitutionalized spirituality may produce.
While many individuals and groups have been victims of antireligious discrimination, religion itself has also been the source of a wide range of beliefs about and attitudes and behaviors toward other individuals (Donahue & Nielsen, 2005). Several decades of psychological research have found complicated relationships between measures of religiousness and measures of prejudice (Allport, 1954/1979; Allport & Ross, 1967; Gorsuch & Aleshire, 1974; Spilka, Hood, Hunsberger, & Gorsuch, 2003). Dozens of studies have reported positive linear relationships between measures of conventional religiousness, such as frequency of church attendance or fundamentalism scale elevations, and measures of negative social attitudes, such as prejudice, dogmatism, or authoritarianism (Altemeyer, 1988; Altemeyer & Hunsberger, 1992, 2005). Yet, Allport (1950) and his colleagues (Allport & Ross, 1967) observed that the relationship between religion and prejudice is curvilinear rather than linear, with highly religious individuals having lower levels of prejudice than marginally religious adherents. This finding has been relatively robust over numerous subsequent studies on religion and prejudice using self-report measures (Batson & Stocks, 2005; Gorsuch & Aleshire, 1974). Recent research, using non-self-report measures, has found even more complex and varied sets of relationships between diverse types of personal religiousness and prejudice indicators (Batson & Stocks, 2005). As Allport (1954/1979) concluded, "The role of religion is paradoxical. It makes prejudice and it unmakes prejudice" (p. 444). While religious motivations and rationales for violent conflicts, social oppression of religious outgroups or norm violators, and the reinforcement of prejudicial stereotypes are readily adducible, it is also true that religious motivations and rationales have been key factors contributing to prosocial developments such as the abolition of slavery (Harvey, 2000; Herek, 1987; Hunsberger, 1996; Rambo, 1993; Rodriguez & Ouellete, 2000; Silberman, 2005; Stark, 2003). This complex relationship between religion and psychosocial variables has led to multiple models of the relationship between forms of religiousness and psychological adjustment (Allport, 1950; Altemeyer, 2003; Batson, Schoenrade, & Ventis, 1993; Kirkpatrick, 2005; Watson et al., 2003). A common motif across these models is that it is the way one is religious rather than merely whether one is religious that is determinative of psychosocial outcomes (Donahue, 1985).
It is important for psychology as a behavioral science, and various faith traditions as theological systems, to acknowledge and respect their profoundly different methodological, epistemological, historical, theoretical, and philosophical bases. Psychology has no legitimate function in arbitrating matters of faith and theology, and faith traditions have no legitimate place arbitrating behavioral or other sciences. While both traditions may arrive at public policy perspectives operating out of their own traditions, the bases for these perspectives are substantially different.
WHEREAS religion is an important influence in the lives of the vast majority of people, is ubiquitous in human cultures, and is becoming increasingly diverse throughout the world (Brown, 2005; Eck, 2001; Genia, 2000; Richards & Bergin, 2000; Shafranske, 1996); and
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association opposes prejudice and discrimination based upon age, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, or physical condition (American Psychological Association, 2002); and
WHEREAS, psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people and are committed to improving the condition of individuals, organizations, and society; and psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differences among individuals, including (but not limited to) those based on ethnicity, national origin, and religion (American Psychological Association, 2002); and
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association has recognized the profound negative psychological consequences of hate crimes motivated by prejudice (American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, 2005), and
WHEREAS prejudice against individuals and groups based on their religion or spirituality, and prejudice based on or derived from religion, continues to result in various forms of harmful discrimination perpetuated by private individuals, social groups, and governments in both covert and overt forms (Balakian, 2004; Center for Religious Freedom, 2001, 2003; Marshall, 2000; U.S. Department of State, 2004; Yakovlev, 2004); and
WHEREAS the experience of pluralistic cultures that embrace religious liberty shows that a variety of religious faiths and nonreligious worldviews can peacefully coexist while maintaining substantial doctrinal, valuative, behavioral, and organizational differences (Byrd, 2002; Eck, 2001; Marshall, 2000); and
WHEREAS understanding and respecting patient/client spirituality and religiosity are important in conducting culturally sensitive research, psychological assessment, and treatment (Hathaway, Scott, & Garver, 2004; McCullough, 1999; Richards & Bergin, 1997; Shafranske, 1996; Worthington & Sandage, 2001); and
WHEREAS evidence exists that religious and spiritual factors are underexamined in psychological research both in terms of their prevalence within various research populations and in terms of their possible relevance as influential variables (Emmons & Paloutzian, 2003; Hill & Pargament, 2003; King & Boyatzis, 2004; Miller & Thoresen, 2003, Weaver et al., 1998); and
WHEREAS contemporary psychology as well as religious and spiritual traditions all address the human condition, they often do so from distinct presuppositions, approaches to knowledge, and social roles and contexts, and while these differences can be enriching and may stimulate fruitful interaction between these domains, they also can present opportunities for misunderstanding and tension around areas of shared concern (Emmons & Paloutzian, 2003; Gould, 2002; Haldeman, 2004; Miller & Delaney, 2004; Van Leeuwen, 1982); and
WHEREAS religion and spirituality can promote beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors that can dramatically impact human life in ways that are either enhancing or diminishing of the well-being of individuals or groups (Allport, 1950; Altemeyer & Hunsberger, 1992, 2005; Silberman, 2005; Stark, 2003);
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association condemns prejudice and discrimination against individuals or groups based on their religious or spiritual beliefs, practices, adherence, or background.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association condemns prejudice directed against individuals or groups, derived from or based on religious or spiritual beliefs.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association takes a leadership role in opposing discrimination based on or derived from religion or spirituality and encouraging commensurate consideration of religion and spirituality as diversity variables.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages all psychologists to act to eliminate discrimination based on or derived from religion and spirituality.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages actions that promote religious and spiritual tolerance, liberty, and respect, in all arenas in which psychologists work and practice, and in society at large.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association views no religious, faith, or spiritual tradition, or lack of tradition, as more deserving of protection than another and that the American Psychological Association gives no preference to any particular religious or spiritual conventions.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association will include information on prejudice and discrimination based on religion and spirituality in its multicultural and diversity training material and activities.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages the dissemination of relevant empirical findings about the psychological correlates of religious/spiritual beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors to concerned stakeholders with full sensitivity to the profound differences between psychology and religion/spirituality.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages individuals and groups to work against any potential adverse psychological consequences to themselves, others, or society that might arise from religious or spiritual attitudes, practices, or policies.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists are encouraged to be mindful of their distinct disciplinary and professional roles when approaching issues of shared concern with religious adherents.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists are encouraged to recognize that it is outside the role and expertise of psychologists as psychologists to adjudicate religious or spiritual tenets, while also recognizing that psychologists can appropriately speak to the psychological implications of religious/spiritual beliefs or practices when relevant psychological findings about those implications exist. Those operating out of religious/spiritual traditions are encouraged to recognize that it is outside their role and expertise to adjudicate empirical scientific issues in psychology, while also recognizing that they can appropriately speak to theological implications of psychological science.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that psychologists are careful to prevent bias from their own spiritual, religious, or nonreligious beliefs from taking precedence over professional practice and standards or scientific findings in their work as psychologists.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the American Psychological Association encourages collaborative activities in pursuit of shared prosocial goals between psychologists and religious communities when such collaboration can be done in a mutually respectful manner that is consistent with psychologists' professional and scientific roles.
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Allport, G. W., & Ross, M. J. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432-443.
Altemeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of freedom: Understanding right-wing authoritarianism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Altemeyer, B. (2003). Why do religious fundamentalists tend to be prejudiced? International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 13, 17-28.
Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (1992). Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2, 113-133.
Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (2005). Fundamentalism and authoritarianism. In R. F. Paloutizian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 378-393). New York: Guilford.
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American Psychological Association Council of Representatives. (2005). Resolution on hate crimes. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association Council of Representatives. (2006). Resolution on prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. Washington, DC: Author.
Balakian, P. (2004). Burning Tigris, the Armenian genocide and America's response. New York: HarperCollins.
Batson, C. D., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, W. L. (1993). Religion and the individual: A social-psychological perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Batson, C. D., & Stocks, C. L. (2005). Religion and prejudice. In J. F. Davidio,
P. Glick, & L. A. Rudman (Eds.), On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport (pp. 413-427). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Brown, K. (2005). Does psychology of religion exist? European Psychologist, 10, 71-73.
Byrd, J. P., Jr. (2002). The challenges of Roger Williams: Religious liberty, violent persecution and the Bible. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.
Center for Religious Freedom. (2001). Massacre at the millennium: A report on the murder of 21 Christians in Al-Kosheh, Egypt in January 2000 and the failure of justice. Washington, DC: Author.
Center for Religious Freedom. (2003). The rise of Hindu extremism and repression of Christian and Muslim minorities in India. Washington, DC: Author.
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Donahue, M. J. (1985). Intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 400-419.
Donahue, M. J., & Nielsen, M. E. (2005). Religion, attitudes, and social behavior. In R. F. Paloutizian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 274-291). New York: Guilford Press.
Eck, D. L. (2001). A new religious America: How a "Christian country" has become the world's most religiously diverse nation. San Francisco: Harper.
Emmons, R. A., & Paloutzian, R. F. (2003). The psychology of religion. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 377-402.
Genia, V. (2000). Religious issues in secularly based psychotherapy. Counseling and Values, 44, 213-222.
Gorsuch, R. L., & Aleshire, D. (1974). Christian faith and ethnic prejudice: A review and interpretation of research. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 348-354.
Gould, S. J. (2002). Rock of ages: Science and religion in the fullness of life. New York: Ballantine Books.
Haldeman, D. C. (2004). When sexual and religious orientation collide: Considerations in working with conflicted same-sex attracted male clients. Counseling Psychologist , 32, 691-715.
Harvey, P. (2000). An introduction to Buddhist ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hathaway, W. L., Scott, S. Y., & Garver, S. A. (2004). Assessing religious/spiritual functioning: A neglected domain in clinical practice? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 97-104.
Herek, G. M. (1987). Religious orientation and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 33-44.
Hill, P. C., & Pargament, K. I. (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research. American Psychologist, 58, 64-74.
Hunsberger, B. (1996). Religious fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostility towards homosexuals in non-Christian religious groups. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 6, 39-49.
King, P. E., & Boyatzis, C. J. (2004). Exploring adolescent spiritual and religious development: Current and future theoretical and empirical perspectives. Applied Developmental Science, 8, 2-6.
Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2005). Evolutionary psychology: An emerging new foundation for the psychology of religion. In R. F. Paloutizian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 101-119). New York: Guilford Press.
Marshall, P. (2000). Religious freedom in the world: A global report on freedom and persecution. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.
McCullough, M. E. (1999). Research on religion-accommodative counseling: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 92-98.
Miller, W. R., & Delaney, H. D. (2004). Psychology as the science of human nature: Reflections and research directions. In W. R. Miller & H. D. Delaney (Eds.), Judeo-Christian perspectives on psychology: Human nature, motivation and change (pp. 291-308). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58, 24-35.
Rambo, L. R. (1993). Understanding religious conversion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Richards, P. S. & Bergin, A. E. (1997). A spiritual strategy for counseling and psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Richards, P. S. & Bergin, A. E. (2000). Toward religious and spiritual competency for mental health professionals. In P. S. Richards & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity (pp. 3-26). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Rodriguez, E. M., & Ouellete, S. C. (2000). Gay and lesbian Christians: Homosexual and religious identity integration in the members of a gay-positive church. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39, 333-347.
Shafranske, E. P. (1996). Introduction: Foundation for the consideration of religion in the clinical practice of psychology. In E. P. Shafranske, (Ed.), Religion in the clinical practice of psychology (pp. 1-17). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Silberman, I. (2005). Religious violence, terrorism, and peace: A meaning-system analysis. In R. F. Paloutizian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 529-549). New York: Guilford Press.
Spilka, B., Hood, R. W., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. L. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Stark, R. (2003). For the glory of God: How monotheism led to reformation, science, witch-hunts, and the end of slavery. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
U.S. Department of State (2004). Annual report on international religious freedom. Washington, DC: Author.
Van Leeuwen, M. S. (1982). The sorcerer's apprentice: A Christian looks at the changing face of psychology. Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Watson, P. J., Sawyer, P., Morris, R. J., Carpenter, M. I., Jemenez, R. S., Jonas, K. A., & Robinson, D. L. (2003). Reanalysis within a Christian ideological surround: Relationships of intrinsic religious orientation with fundamentalism and right-wing authoritarianism. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31, 315-328.
Weaver, A. J., Kline, A. E., Samford, J. A., Lucas, L. A., Larson, D. B., & Gorsuch, R. L. (1998). Is religion taboo in psychology? A systematic analysis of research on religion in seven major American Psychological Association journals: 1991-1994. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 17, 220-232.
Worthington, E. L., & Sandage, S. J. (2001). Religion and spirituality. Psychotherapy, 38, 473-478.
Yakovlev, A. N. (2004). A century of violence in Soviet Russia (A. Austin, Trans.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
B.(21) Council voted to file the FinalReport of the APA Task Force on Multicultural Training:
Recommendations for Providing Culturally Competent Mental Health Services in Disaster Response
Situations: The Katrina Case Study.
C(22) Council voted to amend the Resolution on Anti-Semitic and Anti-Jewish Prejudice (adopted by Council in August 2005) (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added) as follows:
Resolution on Anti-Semitic and Anti-Jewish Prejudice
Anti-Semitism is not new. This anti-Jewish hostility has taken various forms over the centuries and has been perpetrated by various groups throughout history. Forced conversions, confiscation of lands and other property, kidnapping of children, false accusations (e.g., that Jews kill Christian children and use their blood for rituals), forced residential confinement (ghettoization), and prohibitions against the observance of Jewish customs and religious laws are among the monstrous offenses committed against Jews over the years.
Existing as it has down through the ages, anti-Semitism has often led to slaughter of Jews, often in more or less officially sanctioned actions. Slaughter occurred during the 12th century Crusades, during the 15th century Inquisition and during the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries' innumerable pogroms in Eastern Europe.
In the twentieth century, the Nazis murdered 6 million Jews, including one and a half million children, out of intense hatred. This event, which has become known as The Holocaust, proceeded without much objection from, and, indeed, with the explicit complicity of much of the rest of the so-called civilized world (Allswang, 1985).
Towards the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries, there has been a resurgence of anti-Jewish, anti-Semitic attitudes and anti-Jewish or anti-Semitic acts in the U. S., (Anti-Defamation League, 2005), Canada (B'nai Brith Canada, 2005) and Europe (U.S. Department of State, 2005). It includes the widespread suppression of memories or outright denial of the history of atrocities against Jews. Recent polls in England, Holland and Sweden, to cite a few (Europe's Resurgent Anti-Semitism, 2005), demonstrate that most young people do not know about the horrors of the Holocaust, especially, but not exclusively, the concentration camps of World War II, where five million people-- including gypsies, homosexuals, people of color, people with disabilities, and the mentally ill and mentally retarded-were exterminated alongside the six million Jews.
Concurrent with the lack of knowledge of the crimes perpetrated against Jews, there is a resurgence of Nazi imagery about Jews and against Jews. The flagrant forgery known as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a description of a worldwide conspiracy by a group of Jews to "enslave Christian civilization" (Bronner, 2000) was utilized by Hitler in his murderous campaign to mischaracterize and dehumanize Jews. This calumny has resurfaced. It can now be found in many places on the Internet, including the Palestinian Authority website (Reuters, 2005, May 18), and has been used as a model for a TV program in Egypt (Anti-Defamation League, 2005).
The recent increase in anti-Semitism has led to various studies and conferences, by the US (Helsinki commission, 2005) the EU (European Union, 2004) and the UN (United Nations, 2004). In the latter, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Anan acknowledged that, with regard to anti-Semitism, the "UN's own record has at times fallen short of the Organization's ideals" (United Nations, 2004).
The code of ethics of the American Psychological Association (APA) calls for respect for the dignity and worth of all people, the importance of civil and human rights, and freedom of inquiry and expression in research. Psychologists are ethically bound to respect and protect civil and human rights, as well as protect the freedom of inquiry and expression in research (American Psychological Association, 2002). Those principles are called upon in the face of such movements as a campaign based purportedly on opposition to Israeli politics that has led to the forced resignations of Israeli scholars from the editorial boards of British scholarly publications. Very recently APA took a stand against a more formal version of this deliberate exclusion of Jewish scholars and academics through the boycott proposed by the British Association of University Teachers (AUT) against two universities in Israel. APA agreed with the stance of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), citing the principle of freedom of conduct of science and promoting equal access to scientific data. This proposed boycott, later rescinded under international pressure, was seen by many as an example of today's "new anti-Semitism," which may pour the old wine of hostility towards Jews into bottles labeled as anti-Israeli politics.
Because anti-Semitism has had a long life and because it operates insidiously, when it is not flagrantly violating human decency, the time has come for APA to call attention to its sometimes shadowy, sometimes blatant existence and to affirm our organizational, professional and personal commitments to its eradication.
WHEREAS prejudice and discrimination based on religion have caused untold human suffering throughout recorded history; and
WHEREAS anti-Jewish hostility, usually called anti-Semitism, has taken various forms over the centuries and has been perpetrated by many groups throughout history (Allswang, 1985); and
WHEREAS the intense prejudice, discrimination and hatred that grew out of long-standing anti-Semitism led to the Holocaust, perpetrated in Europe by the Nazis in the 1940s, which eventuated in the brutal annihilation of six million Jews (Charney, 2000); and
WHEREAS anti-Semitic acts of violence in the United States are increasing alarmingly, with 1,821 reported in 2004, the highest level in nine years and an increase of 17% over the number reported in 2003 (Anti-Defamation League, 2005); and
WHEREAS "The increasing frequency and severity of anti-Semitic incidents since the start of the 21st century, particularly in Europe, has compelled the international community to focus on anti-Semitism with renewed vigor" (U.S. Department of State, 2004); and
WHEREAS the United States Congress has approved the Global Anti-Semitism Awareness/Review Act, which acknowledges a disturbing increase in anti-Semitism and
establishes an office in the State Department to monitor and combat anti-Semitism worldwide (U.S. Department of State, 2004); and
WHEREAS the 2005 Survey of American Attitudes Towards Jews in America by the Anti-Defamation League found that 14% of Americans, or nearly 35 million adults, hold views about Jews that are "unquestionably anti-Semitic" (Anti-Defamation League, 2005); and
WHEREAS much anti-Semitism today takes the form of "modern" or "new" anti-Semitism, in which actual bias against Jews is denied while prejudiced attitudes exist and discriminatory statements or acts are engaged in (Anti-Semitism Worldwide, 2004); and
WHEREAS this form of anti-Semitism may be more difficult for its perpetrators to identify and challenge, as their beliefs about themselves may be that they are not biased against Jews (Gaertner & Dovidio, 1986); and
WHEREAS this form of anti-Semitism [is frequently] may be asserted in the context of discourse regarding the actions of the [State] Government of Israel, thus further disguising the anti-Semitic nature of the discourse (Anti-Semitism Worldwide, 2004); and
WHEREAS the link between extreme anti-Israel rhetoric and deeds directed against Jewish individuals and communities has become an observable global trend and has at times unleashed demonization and dehumanization of Jews; (Anti-Semitism Worldwide, 2004); and
WHEREAS every anti-Semitic act creates a climate of fear, anxiety and insecurity, both for the individual and the community; as such therefore, Jews are exposed to suffering the feelings of vulnerability, anger, depression and other sequelae of victimization (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003; Valent, 2002); and
WHEREAS anti-Semitic acts also harm the perpetrators by desensitizing them to violence, and raise concerns about their generalizing such acts to other groups (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003; Ezequiel, 1995, 2002; Staub, 1990, 2005); and
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association has recognized the profound psychological consequences of hate crimes motivated by prejudice (APA Council of Representatives, 2005); and
WHEREAS the American Psychological Association opposes prejudice and discrimination based upon race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity or physical condition (American Psychological Association, 2002); and
WHEREAS as psychologists we respect the dignity and worth of all people and are committed to improving the condition of individuals, organizations, and society, and we are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differences among individuals, including (but not limited to) those based on ethnicity, national origin, and religion (American Psychological Association, 2002); and
WHEREAS psychologists recognize and protect civil and human rights and strive to help the public develop informed judgments and choices concerning human behavior:
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, that the American Psychological Association condemns all anti-Semitic attitudes and actions, both overt and covert, and will use its influence to promote fairness, respect, and dignity for all people, regardless of religion or ethnicity, in all arenas in which psychologists work and practice, and in society at large.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the American Psychological Association will take a leadership role in opposing anti-Semitism.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the American Psychological Association encourages all psychologists to act to eliminate all discrimination of an anti-Semitic nature.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the American Psychological Association encourages research to better understand the characteristics, causes, and consequences of both overt and covert anti-Semitic and Anti-Jewish prejudice.
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the American Psychological Association will include appropriate information on anti-Semitism in its multicultural and diversity training material and activities, and that diversity and multicultural efforts will take cognizance of anti-Semitism, whether subtle or not, and will attempt to overcome it.
American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.
Anti-Semitism worldwide 2004: General analysis (2004). The Stephen Roth Institute for the study of anti-Semitism and Racism, Tel Aviv University. Retrieved May 22, 2005, from http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/
Anti-Defamation League (2005, April 4). ADL audit: Anti-Semitic incidents at highest level in nine years. Retrieved April 23, 2005, from http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ASUS_12/4671_12.htm
Anti-Defamation League (2005, April 4). ADL survey: Anti-Semitism declines slightly in America: 14 percent of Americans hold 'strong' anti-Semitic beliefs. Retrieved April 26, 2005, from http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ASUS_12/4680_12.htm
APA Council of Representatives (2005, February). Resolution on hate crimes. Washington, DC: Author.
B'nai Brith Canada (2005). Audit of anti-Semitic incidents: Patterns of prejudice in Canada, 2004. Retrieved May 27, 2005 from http://www.bnaibrith.ca/pdf/audit2004.pdf
Bronner, S. E. (2000). A rumor about the Jews: reflections on Antisemitism and the "Protocols of the learned elders of Zion." New York: St Martin's Press.
Charney, I. (Ed.) (2000). Encyclopedia of Genocide (Vol. 2). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Crandall, C. S. & Eshleman, A. (2003). A justification-suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 414-446.
Europe's Resurgent Anti-Semitism (2005). Response, 26(1), 3.
European Union (2004). EU anti-racism body publishes anti-Semitism reports. Retrieved June 1, 2005, from http://europa-eu-un.org/articles/en/article_3341_en.htm
Ezequiel, R. S. (1995). The racist mind. New York: Penguin.
Ezequiel, R. S. (2002). The ethnographer looks at neo-Nazi and Klan groups: The racist mind revisited. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), 51-57.
Gaertner, S. L. & Dovidio, J. F. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination and racism (pp. 61-99). Orlando, FL: Academic.
Helsinki commission leaders react to state department's anti-Semitism report. (2005, January 6). Jewish Council for Public Affairs. Retrieved June 1, 2005, from http://eguana.net/organizations.php3?action =printContentItem&orgid=54&typeID=89&itemID=10236&User_Session=0c029b3dc0c0cc69f380b489f6f4e7ff
Reuters (2005, May 18). Jewish group assails Palestinians over web tract. Retrieved May 18,
2005, from http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory?id=767539
Staub, E. (1990). Moral exclusion, personal goal theory and extreme destructiveness. Journal of Social Issues,46(1), 47-65.
Staub, E. (2005). The origins and evolution of hate, with notes on prevention. In R.
Sternberg, (Ed.), The Psychology of Hate (pp. 60-61). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
United Nations (2004, June 21). Throughout history, anti-Semitism unique manifestation of hatred, intolerance, persecution says secretary-general in remarks to headquarters seminar. [SG/SM/9375-HR/4774-Pl/1590]. Retrieved June 1, 2005, from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2004/ sgsm9375.doc.htm
U.S. Department of State (2004, December). Report on global anti-Semitism, July 1, 2003-December 15,2004. Washington, DC: Author.
Valent, P. (2002). Child survivors of the Holocaust. New York: Brunner-Routledge
D.(23) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council New Business Item #27: "Addendum to Resolution on Anti-Semitic and Anti-Jewish Prejudice."
E.(24) Council voted to allocate $300 from its 2007 discretionary fund to support the development of a leadership program/institute for women in psychology.
F.(25) Council voted to approve the inclusion of $16,000 to the 2008 Preliminary Budget to support to a Minority Fellowship Program transition and planning advisory committee.
G.(33A) A new business item "Call to Shut Down the Illegal Prison at Guantanamo Bay" was referred to the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest, the Board of Professional Affairs and the Ethics Committee.
H.(38) Council received an update on the business pending item "Proposed Resolution on Families of Incarcerated Offenders."
I.(52) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Emancipating and Rehabilitating Enslaved Persons and Prevention of Future Slavery."
J.(53) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Proposed Task Force on the Psychological Effects of War on Children."
K.(54) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "Resolution in Support of Ethnic Minority Training in Psychology."
L.(55) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item "APA Resolution to Promote Well-being and Alleviate Psychological Risk Factors for Immigrants."
XIII. ETHNIC MINORITY AFFAIRS
A.(26) Council voted to file the APA CEMRRAT2 Task Force Progress Report: A Portrait of Success and Challenge, 1997-2005.
B.(27) Council voted to adopt the following Resolution to Enhance Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology:
Resolution to Enhance Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology
WHEREAS the APA Council of Representatives declared by resolution adopted in December, 1993 that "APA places a high priority on issues related to the education of ethnic minorities";and
WHEREAS the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT) completed its work upon adoption by the APA Council of Representatives of the CEMRRAT Plan for Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training in Psychology, which was part of Visions and Transformations: The Final Report; and
WHEREAS the APA CEMRRAT2 Task Force was established in 1999 by the APA Board of Directors to provide oversight of the CEMRRAT Plan and consultation on Association issues related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology; and
WHEREAS the CEMRRAT2 Task Force has prepared a progress report on the status of the implementation of the APA/CEMRRAT Plan for ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology; and
WHEREAS the CEMRRAT2 Task Force Progress Report, A Portrait of Success and Challenge, 1997-2005, reflects both the tremendous success that U.S. psychology has experienced in confronting and aggressively addressing barriers to improvements in ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training, as well as the significant challenges that remain;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the CEMRRAT2 Task Force continue to provide oversight of the implementation of the APA/CEMRRAT Plan for Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology; provide consultation on the Association's other ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training efforts; and monitor the recommendations and findings outlined in the CEMRRAT2 Task Force Progress Report; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the APA Council of Representatives directs the APA Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to consider the CEMRRAT2 Task Force's Progress Report's findings, recommendations, and strategic actions for inclusion in both the CEO's proposed Diversity Implementation Plan and APA Strategic Plan.
C.(28) Council voted to approve the following motion regarding the reimbursement policy for ethnic minority members of Council:
Council finds that the program of fully reimbursing ethnic minority members of Council for their attendance at the February and August Council meetings (first approved by Council in August 2001) has been helpful in increasing ethnic minority representation on Council and should be continued.
Since the inception of the reimbursement program for ethnic minority members, Council approved a policy that became effective in January 2006 to provide that all Council members be fully reimbursed for their attendance at the February meeting of Council and for the cost of two night's stay at the headquarters hotel where Council is housed for the convention meeting of Council.
APA strongly encourages Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Associations to submit one or more slates of nominees comprised solely of ethnic minorities. In order to continue to provide incentives for Divisions and State, Provincial and Territorial Associations to elect ethnic minorities to Council, APA shall provide full reimbursement (transportation, hotel and meal charges) for ethnic minority members of Council who are elected during the years 2008-2010 for their attendance at the convention meeting of Council.
For purposes of this program, ethnic minority identity is determined by self-identification as a member of one of the following four U.S. ethnic minority groups: African American/Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic / Latino.
D.(40) Council received as information an update on the CEMRRAT2 Task Force's 2006/2007 activities.
XIV. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
A.(29) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council New Business Item #29D: "United Nations-University Partnerships."
XV. CENTRAL OFFICE
XVI. FINANCIAL AFFAIRS
A.(30) Council voted to support the creation of a designation of net assets in the amount of $7,600,000 to fund the Web Relaunch Project.
B.(31) Council voted to approve the 2008 Preliminary Budget, in principle, calling for a surplus of $381,200. This 2008 Preliminary Budget shall serve as the framework for the 2008 Final Budget that will be presented to Council for approval in February of 2008.
Consistent with the actions of Council in August 2000 and 2002 to institute the practice of increasing the APA base member dues and graduate student affiliate fees annually by an amount linked to the consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U), Council specifically voted approve a $9 increase in the APA base member dues ($270 to $279) and a $1 increase in the graduate student affiliate fee from $50 to $51 (APAGS $23 to $24).
C.(32) Council voted to approve the Net Asset Allocation Plan including the Financial Forecast for 2008-2010 as follows:
1. The goal for attainment of net assets as stated in Association Rule 210-3 is reaffirmed; namely, that the Association strives to maintain net assets equal to at least one year's operating budget.
2. Consistent with accounting practices, conventional wisdom and comparable financial data from other organizations, the Association should not consider any portion of theoretical building equity toward attainment of the net assets goal mentioned in item 1 above.
3. Currently, rather than specifically set aside funds outside the normal budget process for development of programs deemed to be of high priority to the membership, the Association enthusiastically supports consideration of proposals (in the form of a business plan) for new revenue generating ideas. [Such proposals for new revenue generating ideas should be thoroughly detailed including all direct costs, indirect costs, and staff costs. Such proposals reviewed by the Finance Committee, the Board and approved by Council, will be funded out of ongoing revenues or out of the Association's net assets, as necessary, assuming that full consideration is also given to the impact of such funding on progress towards the Association's net assets goal mentioned in item 1 above.]
4. Each year, based on actual results and an analysis of our net assets, future financial forecasts and the net asset allocation plan will be adjusted accordingly.
5. Once the net asset goals are attained, any number of future actions could be taken including the long-term stabilization of dues; the long-term availability of funds for the development of programs deemed to be of high priority to the membership; further apportionment of building and investment proceeds toward operational expenses, etc.
6. During this forecast period, a Designation of Net Assets shall be created to fund the Web Relaunch Project in an amount not to exceed $7,600,000.
7. The specific Financial Forecast for 2008 - 2010 is as follows:
- Strive to attain a net asset goal equal to at least one year's operating budget consistent with Association Rule 210-3;
- Include $2.5M net cash flow from building operations in the operating budget as a regular source of revenue;
- Include full funding in the operating budget for the Public Education Campaign, Psychology Public Education Campaign, Workforce Analysis Initiative, International Goals Project, Academic Enhancement Initiative and PSY21, through the forecast period (2008 - 2010);
- Restrict capital expenditures to no more than $17M estimated over the forecast period (this limit includes the $5M in capital purchases planned as part of the designation);
- Continue to reinvest net realized gains/losses from our long-term portfolio activity;
- Reinvest all interest/dividends from our long-term portfolio activity(2009-2010) (interest/dividends earned will be transferred from LT to working capital to supplement operations as recommended by the FC and Board for 2007 and 2008 only);
- Treat Federal income tax expenses as non-operating activity;
- Treat all real estate cash flow in excess of $2.5M annually from building operations as an increase to net assets and not available for operations or capital equipment, but rather as a reserve for financial investment and/or debt extinguishment; and,
- Continue to pay down the long-term debt as current scheduled. This plan is consistent with our recent long-term debt analysis and anticipates no sale of our real estate over this forecast period. This plan will provide many options for consideration in 2012, when the long-term debt matures.
D.(41) Council received as information the PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP 2006 Audited Financial Statements.
E.(42) Council received as information the 2006 IRS Tax Form 990.
F.(43) Council received as information the minutes of the June 1 & 2, 2007, Finance Committee meeting.
On Wednesday morning, the following APA members who passed away since the last meeting were remembered with a memorial minute: Toni M. Bernay, PhD, William Bevan, PhD, and Albert Ellis, PhD. Other members who have passed away since the last Council meeting were also remembered.
On Wednesday morning, Norman Anderson, PhD, Chief Executive Officer, gave his update to Council. Dr. Anderson recognized James L. McHugh, APA Senior Counsel, Jack McKay, Vice President & Chief Financial Officer, and Russ J. Newman, PhD, JD, Executive Director, Practice Directorate, who will be retiring at the end of the year.
Dr. Anderson's update also included information on the strategic planning process for the Association; the Diversity Plan (including plans to begin recruiting a Diversity Information Officer at the latter part of 2008); changes to the APA Convention Office (including hiring of a consultant and the relocation of the Office of Convention and Meeting Services to the Governance Affairs Office) and updates on financial and technological transitions.
On Wednesday morning, Rhea Farberman, Executive Director, Public and Member Communications, presented Council with plans for the Web Relaunch Project.
On Wednesday afternoon Council paid tribute to Jack McKay for 35 years of service to APA. Council also adopted a resolution honoring Jack McKay (attached).
On Sunday morning the 2007 Raymond D. Fowler Award - Member - was presented to Florence Denmark, PhD, and a Presidential Citation was presented to Corann Okorodudu, PhD.
American Psychological Association
Council of Representatives
Charles L. "Jack" McKay
Whereas, Jack McKay has spearheaded outstanding stability and financial growth for the American Psychological Association serving with distinction for 35 years; and
Whereas, he has displayed a vision for the Association and an uncanny ability to bring ideas to fruition, inspiring the work of others; and
Whereas, he has kept the wheels on the bus and sanity among the passengers during the annual construction of a budget that has grown over a decade from $77 million to $111 million, reflecting great strides and increased complexity; and
Whereas, under his watch our net assets have grown from $1.2 million to almost $44 million since 1970; and
Whereas, he has led the negotiations to purchase real estate and construct buildings now valued at over $240 million; and
Whereas, he has overseen the growth of our long term investment portfolio to over $75 million in the past decade; and
Whereas, he has become known internally as Jack "sweetheart deal" McKay for his tough negotiating skills on behalf of the Association, which stand in contrast to his otherwise loveable demeanor; and
Whereas, he has never wavered in his adherence to the highest standards of ethics and personal integrity, which he learned as a boy under rigorous Jesuit education; and
Whereas, he has protected the Association through hard times and boom times, with the same prudence, wisdom, and vision he would apply to his own family; now,
Therefore, we bestow this resolution with great affection and in grateful recognition of the magnitude of his contributions, in the knowledge that he stands as one-of-a-kind, with a spirit and legacy that will remain with us always.
Sharon Stephens Brehm, PhD
American Psychological Association