Council of Representatives approved minutes: February 16–18, 2007
I. Minutes of meeting
A.(1) Council voted to approve the minutes of its August 9 & 13, 2006, meeting.
II. Elections, awards, membership and human resources
A.(2) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council New Business Item #31C: “Separate Slates for Board of Director Candidates Each Year.”
B.(33) Council received an update on the business pending item “APA Dues Credit for Members Who Are State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Association Members.”
C.(34) Council received an update on the business pending item “Enhancing Member Dues Revenue.”
D.(46) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Encourage Membership Through Convention.”
A. Olivia D. Moorehead-Slaughter, PhD, gave an update on APA’s continuing work on ethics and interrogations.
B.(38) Council received as information an update on activities of the Ethics Committee related to the Report of the Presidential Task Force on Psychological Ethics and National Security.
C.(47) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Psychologist Participation at US Detention Centers.”
IV. Board of Directors
A.(3) Council voted to approve the following motion:
Council requests a structured procedure for new business items. Following the referral of each new business item by the Agenda Planning Group and approval of the referrals by the Committee on Structure and Function of Council, the mover(s) of a Council new business item will be provided with information for follow-up. This is to include the name of the board or committee designated as the lead on the new business item, contact information for the staff liaison of the lead board or committee, the names of additional boards and committees designated as referral groups for the item, and information on dates and locations of upcoming board and committee meetings.
In addition, Council encourages staff liaisons to contact the mover(s) of a Council new business item when clarification or additional information is needed on an item, and to send the mover(s) a copy of the relevant minute from the lead board or committee's initial discussion of the new business item.
B.(4) Council voted to approve the following addition to the APA Association Rules:
25. Strategic planning for the association
The CEO of APA will be responsible for an ongoing strategic planning process for the Association.
The CEO will be responsible for reporting annually to the APA Council of Representatives and Board of Directors on the status, results, and implications of the strategic planning process.
Council also voted to direct that the strategic planning process be developed, evaluated and modified in consultation with a Strategic Planning Advisory Committee to include APA Council members with expertise in organizational strategic planning. Council asked the CEO to consider a revision of the current APA mission statement in the Bylaws as part of the strategic planning process.
C.(5) Michelle D. Sherman, PhD, Co-Chair of the Presidential Task Force on Military Deployment Services for Youth, Families and Service Members, gave a brief presentation to Council.
Council voted to approve the following motions:
1) That Council adopts the report by the Presidential Task Force on Military Deployment Services for Youth, Families and Service Members.
2) That Council approves the establishment of a Task Force on the Psychological Needs of U.S. Military Service Members and Their Families. There are no 2007 fiscal implications since the Task Force will conduct its work via email and conference calls and the associated costs will be subsumed by the Practice Directorate budget. If they are unable to complete their work in 2007, the Task Force will return to the Board of Directors and/or Council of Representatives to request the allocation of discretionary funds in 2008. The Task Force will review the preliminary findings of the Presidential Task Force on Military Deployment Services for Youth, Families and Service Members so that a long-term plan of action with specific recommendations for APA regarding mental health services for military service members and their families may be developed and presented to the Association.
D.(6) Council voted to approve the inclusion of $50,000 in the 2007 Final Budget for the hiring of professional staff in the APA Center for Psychology Workforce Analysis and Research.
E.(6A) Council voted to allocate $10,600 from its 2007 discretionary fund for the APA Center for Psychology Workforce Analysis and Research for one-time activities related to grant writing and meeting costs.
F. In executive session, Council discussed the 2006 CEO Evaluation.
G. In executive session, Council discussed the Executive Leave Program and the Three-Year Compensation Report.
H.(32A) A new business item “Dealing with Proposed Wording Changes During Council Debate” was referred to the Committee on the Structure and Function of Council.
I.(32C) A new business item “Task Force to Address SPTA Impact on and Input in the Development of APA Policy” was referred to the Policy and Planning Board (P&P), the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI), BEA, BPA, BSA, Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice (CAPP) and the Committee on Division/APA Relations (CODAPAR).
J.(32F) A new business item “Amendment to APA Priorities” was referred to CSFC, the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA) and the Board of Scientific Affairs (BSA).
K.(39) Council received as information a motion approved by the Board of Directors as its December 2006 meeting regarding representation on the Board of Directors and allocation of resources across the four directorates.
L.(40) Council received as information the Committee on Structure and Function of Council Report on Multicultural/Diversity Capabilities.
M.(40A) Council received as information the Litigation Report from Nathalie Gilfoyle, APA General Counsel.
V. Divisions and state and provencial associations
VI. Organization of APA
A.(41) Council received information regarding the P&P’s discussions on equity between divisions and affiliates and P&P’s decision to recommend no changes at this time to the requirements for divisions and other affiliate organizations seeking recognition with APA.
VII. Publications and communications
A.(7) Council voted to approve the Division 10 request for authorization to publish a divisional journal, to be titled Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts.
B.(42) Council received an update on Publications and Communications (P&C) Board activities. The P&C Board met twice in 2006, on May 19-21 and November 3-5. The P&C Board reported The APA Dictionary of Psychology premiered in June, 2006 to rave scholarly reviews and first six-month sales of over $350,000. The P&C Board also reported that APA Journals printed and mailed all 2006 issues in 2006 due to a streamlined 8-week production schedule. The P&C Board made five editorial appointments in 2006, naming the following to 6-year terms to begin in 2007 as the editor-elect year (and 2008 as the beginning masthead year): Behavioral Neuroscience (Ann E. Kelley, PhD), Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied (Wendy Rogers, PhD), Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (Fernanda Ferreira, PhD), Neuropsychology (Stephen A Rao, PhD), Psychological Methods (Scott Maxwell, PhD), and Psychology and Aging (Fredda Blanchard-Fields, PhD). The P&C Board opened searches for the following five journals: Journal of Applied Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Education Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes; and Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. The P&C Board discussed the limitations of the print products Psychological Abstracts and Neuropsychological Abstracts as compared to electronic databases and reviewed the declining revenue trends for these publications. The P&C Board terminated Psychological Abstracts and ceased the print version of Neuropsychological Abstracts as the end of 2006. In 2006, the P&C Board appointed the APA Publication Manual Revisions Task Force. The six-member task force includes three P&C Board members, Mark Appelbaum, PhD, Leah Light, PhD, Peter Ornstein, PhD, one Council of Editors member, Harris Cooper, PhD, one member-at-large, Richard Valencia, PhD, and one Board of Scientific Affairs representative, Lois Tetrick PhD. The membership of this task force represents many broad areas of psychology including quantitative methods, developmental, organizational, industrial, and educational as well as a depth of scientific research and scholarly writing. During 2006, PsycINFO added 177,914 new records to the overall database, and expanded coverage by adding 187 journals to the coverage list. In 2006, PsycARTICLES staff digitized all articles from all APA journals back to the first issue of the first volume. Over 74,000 full-text articles were added to the PsycARTICLES database during 2006. PsycBOOKS added 436 book title and 5,938 chapter records during 2006. PsycCRITIQUES reviewed 1,083 books and films in 2006, and PsycEXTRA added 26,700 records to that database in 2006. In 2006, sales of the APA Publication Manual reached $7 million and sales of Concise Rules of APA Style reached over $750,000. In addition, APA Books released over 64 new titles in 2006 and Magination Press released twelve new titles. APA Journals published over 37,000 pages in 2006 in 46 journals and four Abstract/Scan publications. Total revenue for APA’s core scholarly and professional publishing program exceeded $65.4 million in 2006. This is the 20th straight year of stable and continuing growth in overall revenue.
VIII. Convention affairs
IX. Educational affairs
A.(8) Council voted to renew the recognition of Psychoanalytic Psychology as a specialty in professional psychology for an additional probationary period of six months.
B.(9) Council voted to approve the following changes in Domain A: Eligibility of the Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation of Programs in Professional Psychology (bracketed text to be deleted):
A. Doctoral Graduate Programs
Domain A: Eligibility
As a prerequisite for accreditation, the program’s purpose must be within the scope of the accrediting body and must be pursued in an institutional setting appropriate for the doctoral education and training of professional psychologists.
1. The program offers doctoral education and training in psychology, one goal of which is to prepare students for the practice of professional psychology.
2. The program is sponsored by an institution of higher education accredited by a nationally recognized regional accrediting body in the United States [or, in the case of Canadian programs, the institution is publicly recognized by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada as a member in good standing].
Further, Council requested that staff work with the Canadian Psychological Association in revising the Memorandum of Understanding to allow for the discontinuation of concurrent accreditation.
C.(10) Council voted to allocate $20,000 from its 2007 discretionary fund to support a pilot five-day institute for high school psychology teachers.
D.(35) Council received an update on the business pending item “Accreditation of Graduate Programs in North America.”
X. Professional affairs
A.(11) Council voted to adopt the Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women as APA policy.
B.(12) Council voted to adopt as APA policy the revised Record Keeping Guidelines that were developed by the Board of Professional Affairs’ (BPA)Committee on Professional Practice and Standards after amending lines 41-43 of the Guidelines as follows (underlined material to be added):
Extension of the guidelines to some areas of practice (e.g., industrial organizational, consulting psychology) may likely call for modifications, although some of the same general principles may be useful.
C.(13) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council New Business Item #25A, “Disseminating Psychological First Aid.”
D.(14) Council voted to approve the withdrawal of Council New Business Item #25B, “National Psychology Week.”
E.(15) Council voted to allocate $10,000 from its 2007 discretionary fund to support a third meeting of the Task Force to Revise the APA Model Act for State Licensure for Psychologists.
F.(36) Council received an update on the business pending item “Infusing the Association Guidelines in the Public Interest Which Have Been Adopted by Council for Psychologists throughout APA.”
G.(48) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “APA Policy on Healthcare Reform.”
H.(49) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Division 55 Pharmacotherapy Practice Guidelines.”
I.(50) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Reclaiming Recognition of Psychology.”
J.(51) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Ad Hoc Task Force to Investigate the Merits, Needs, and Outcomes of an Evidence-Based Practice Policy for Applied Psychologists and the Benefits of Collaborating with International Associations.”
XI. Scientific affairs
A.(16) Council voted to adopt as APA policy the following Resolution Rejecting Intelligent Design as Scientific and Reaffirming Support for Evolutionary Theory:
Resolution rejecting intelligent design as scientific and reaffirming support for evolutionary theory
The science, practice, and application of psychology depend on science education and the culture of evidence and critical thought to which it contributes. Evolutionary theory is one of the most powerful elements of contemporary science. With due diligence in repudiating misappropriations of evolution to justify social injustices, scholars informed by evolutionary theory can unify scientific knowledge and serve public interests in invaluable ways. Proponents of Intelligent Design (ID) present ID theory as a viable alternative scientific explanation for the origins and diversity of life. However, ID has not withstood the scrutiny of scientific peer review of its empirical, conceptual, or epistemological bases and thus is not properly regarded as a scientific theory.
WHEREAS Intelligent Design Theory poses a threat to the quality of science education in
the United States, and recognizing the urgency pressed upon it by the endorsement of teaching ID alongside evolutionary theory by some political leaders; (Baker & Slevin, 2005; Santorum, 2005)
WHEREAS Evolutionary theory is a major unifying force in contemporary science; (Gould, 1994; National Science Teachers Association, 2003; Wilson, 1998)
WHEREAS The bases of continuity and variation that follow from evolutionary theory inform, explicitly or implicitly, the work of many psychologists with humans and other animals; (Caporael, 2001; Crawford, 1989; Gray, 1996)
WHEREAS ID proponents dismiss contemporary evolutionary theory as scientifically invalid; (Discovery Institute, n.d., Wells, 2000/2001)
WHEREAS ID proponents promulgate their theory as science in the absence of empirical evidence or, indeed, a means of testing it that passes scientific muster; (Young & Edis, 2004) and
WHEREAS The teaching of ID as science would seriously undermine both the vitality of psychological science and the science literacy so essential to an informed, responsible citizenry; (Gray, 1996; Shtulman, & Weisberg, 2006; National Science Teachers Association, 2003)
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that APA applauds the consistent repudiation by federal courts of Creationism, Creation Science, and now ID as a part of science education; (Edwards v. Aguillard, 1987; Kitzmiller et al v. Dover Area School District, 2005; McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education, 1982; Peloza v. Capstriano Unified School District, 1994; Webster v. New Lennox School District, 1990)
THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the APA reaffirms earlier relevant resolutions (APA, 1982 & 1990) and joins other leading scholarly organizations including American Association for the Advancement of Science (2002), American Astronomical Society (2005), American Society of Agronomy (2005), Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology (2005), and National Association of Biology Teachers (2005) in opposing the teaching of Intelligent Design as a scientific theory.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (2002) Resolution on intelligent design theory. Retrieved May 9, 2006 from http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2002/1106id2.shtml
American Astronomical Society (2005) Statement on the teaching of evolution. Retrieved May 9, 2006 from http://www.aas.org/governance/council/resolutions.html
American Psychological Association. (1982). APA Council of Representatives resolution on creationism. Retrieved May 9, 2006 from http://www.apa.org/about/division/cpmscientific.html
American Psychological Association. (1990). APA Council of Representatives endorsement of American Association for the Advancement of Science resolution on the use of animals in research, testing, and education. Retrieved May 9, 2006 from http://www.apa.org/about/division/cpmscientific.html
American Society of Agronomy (2005). Position statement in support of teaching of evolution (2005) Retrieved May 9, 2006 from http://www.asa-cssa-sssa.org/pdf/intdesign_050815.pdf
Baker, P. & Slevin P. (2005, August 3). Bush remarks on “Intelligent design” theory fuels debate. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/08/02/AR2005080201686_pf.html
Caporael, L. R. (2001). Evolutionary psychology: Toward a unifying theory and a hybrid science. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 52, 607-628.
Crawford, C. B. (1989). The theory of evolution: Of what value to psychology? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103(1), 4-22.
Discovery Institute (n.d.) A scientific dissent from Darwinism. Retrieved May 4, 2006 from http://www.dissentfromdarwin.org/
Edwards v. Aguillard, 482 U.S. 578 (1987).
Gray, P. (1996). Incorporating evolutionary theory into the teaching of psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 23, 207-214.
Gould, S. (1994). The evolution of life on earth. Scientific American, 271, 85-91.
Lombrozo, T., Shtulman, A., Weisberg, M. (2006). The Intelligent Design controversy: Lessons from psychology and education. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(2), 56-57.
Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District. 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 (MD Pa. 2005).
McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education, 529 F. Supp. 1255 (ED Ark. 1982).
National Association of Biology Teachers (2000). Statement on teaching evolution. Retrieved May 9, 2006 from http://www.nabt.org/sub/position_statements/evolution.asp
National Science Teachers Association. (2003). Position statement on the teaching of evolution. Retrieved May 4, 2006 from http://www.nsta.org/159&psid=10
Peloza v. Capistrano Unified School District, 37 F.3d 517 (9th Cir. 1994).
Santorum, R. (2005). Teaching the controversy. Retrieved May 10, 2006 from http://santorum.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAct...egion_id=0&Issue_id=0&CFID=1399365&CFTOKEN=28056303
Webster v. New Lennox School District #122, 917 F.2d 1003 (7th Cir. 1990).
Wells, J. (2000/2001) Survival of the fakest. The American Spectator, Dec 2000/Jan 2001.
Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience: The unity of knowledge. New York: Knopf.
Young, M., & Edis, T. (Eds.) (2004). Why intelligent design fails: A scientific critique of the new creationism. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
B.(17) Council voted to approve the inclusion of $75,000 in the 2007 Final Budget to support planning for the Psychology Public Education Campaign.
C.(18) Council voted to approve the following motion:
That Council allocates $13,500 from its 2007 discretionary fund for the establishment of a twelve member Task Force to consider the convention program coordination, programming structures, programming content, programming time distribution, program development, input to APA, and feedback from APA, and cross-cutting programming.
The Task Force will consist of twelve members: ten past program chairs (one each from a selection of science divisions), one member from BCA, and one member from BSA, and will be staffed by the Science Directorate. Each division may be invited to also send one additional representative at the division’s expense.
D.(30) A new business item “Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Warning” was referred to BSA, BAPPI, BEA, the Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP) and CODAPAR.
E.(31) A new business item “Support for Social Psychology Network” was referred to BSA, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS), BAPPI, BEA, CAPP, CODAPAR and the Policy and Planning Board (P&P).
F.(32E) A new business item “Support for Quantitative Training for Underrepresented Groups” was referred to BSA, APAGS, BAPPI, the Board of Convention Affairs (BCA) and BEA.
G.(52) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “The Ambassador’s Program of Division 41: A Novel Approach to the Recruitment of Minority Undergraduate Students to Graduate Study in Psychology and Law.”
XII. Public interest
A.(19) Council voted to amend Association Rule 150-4 and relevant sections of Association Rule 50-5.1 and 110-14.1 as follows (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):
150-4. Committee on Lesbian, Gay, [and] Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns
150-4.1 There shall be a Committee on Lesbian, Gay, [and] Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns whose mission shall be to:
(a) study and evaluate on an ongoing basis how the issues and concerns of lesbian, gay male, [and] bisexual, and transgender psychologists can best be dealt with;
(b) encourage objective and unbiased research in areas relevant to lesbian, gay male, [and] bisexual, and transgender adults and youths and the social impact of such research;
(c) examine the consequences of inaccurate information and stereotypes about lesbian, gay male, [and] bisexual, and transgender adults and youth in clinical practice;
(d) develop educational materials for distribution to psychologists and others; and
(e) make recommendations regarding the integration of these issues into the APA’s activities to further the cause of civil and legal rights of lesbian, gay male, [and] bisexual, and transgender psychologists within the profession.
The Committee shall consist of six members, three of whom self-identify as women and three of whom self-identify as men, to be appointed for staggered terms of three years. Transgender members who do not self-identify as either women or men may fill either a female or a male seat, in alternation (for example, if there were two transgender members who did not identify as either women or men, one would fill a male seat and one would fill a female seat). It shall report to Council through the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest.
50 5. List of continuing committees
50 5.1 The list below presents APA continuing committees and their reporting lines.
Reporting through the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest
Women in Psychology
Psychology in the Public Interest Award
Lesbian, Gay [and] Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns
Disability Issues in Psychology
Children, Youth, and Families
Ethnic Minority Affairs
110-14. Rules governing simultaneous service on boards and committees
110-14.1 Members shall not serve simultaneously on any of the following governance groups, except as ex-officio (non-voting) members or if other exceptions are provided below.
Advancement of Professional Practice
Animal Research and Ethics
Children, Youth and Families
Disability Issues in Psychology
Early Career Psychologists
Ethnic Minority Affairs
International Relations in Psychology
Legal Issues (ad hoc)
Lesbian, Gay [and] Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns
Professional Practice and Standards (except that one member is
also a member of the Board of Professional Affairs)
Psychology and AIDS (ad hoc)
Structure and Function of Council
Psychological Tests and Assessment
Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges
Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools
Women in Psychology
B.(20) Council voted to adopt the following resolution as APA policy:
Resolution on opposing discriminatory legislation and initiatives aimed at lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons
While legislation and initiatives that discriminate against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people have been enacted for decades (Smith, 1997), there has been a dramatic increase in such enactments during the past several years. One form of these enactments has been legislation passed by states and other jurisdictions that restricts the rights of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people in a variety of spheres including limiting access to the rights and responsibilities of marriage, restricting parental rights, and constraining access to legal recourse in the face of discrimination. The other major form of restrictive legal enactments has been popular initiatives proposing amendments to state constitutions that also result in restrictions on marriage and/or parenting rights or recourse in the face of discrimination. Some of the laws resulting from such legislation or initiatives also place restrictions on the rights of same-sex couples to enter into contractual arrangements of various kinds (e.g., Davidoff, 2006; Gay marriage ban goes too far, 2006).
Damage to Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexual People
The very process of introducing, debating, and voting on such measures—whether in legislative or referendum contexts—can have deleterious effects on lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. The rhetoric of these debates tends to be grounded in undocumented and faulty arguments about gay people (Herek, 1998; McCorkle & Most, 1997); often revives old stereotypes and prejudices (Bullis & Bach, 1996); and portrays lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people as dangerous and threatening (Davies, 1982; Douglass, 1997; Eastland, 1996a, 1996b; Herman, 1997; McCorkle & Most, 1997; Moritz, 1995; Smith, 1997; Smith & Windes, 2000; Wieshoff, 2002). Much of the rhetoric includes a tone of moral condemnation (Smith, 1997). Lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people are thereby objectified and disenfranchised.
Effects of Such Legislation and Initiatives
These legislative and initiative actions result in practical restrictions on the social and political freedom of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Some of these restrictions occur in the realm of the everyday; for example, in the context of the least restrictive of these legal actions, same-sex couples do not have access to the legal rights and responsibilities of civil marriage. Some of these restrictions occur in the context of more extraordinary events; for example, if one member of a same-sex couple has an accident and requires medical care, the couple’s signed and notarized medical power of attorney can be legally disregarded by hospital personnel in a jurisdiction that has the more restrictive legal enactments (e.g., Davidoff, 2006; Gay marriage ban goes too far, 2006).
These legislative and initiative actions can also result in psychological distress for lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Immediate consequences include fear, sadness, alienation, anger, and an increase in internalized homophobia (Russell, 2000; Russell & Richards, 2003). In addition, these actions can increase the degree to which lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people are affected by minority stress (Cochran & Mays, 2000; Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; DiPlacido, 1998; Gilman, Cochran, Mays, Hughes, Ostrow, & Kessler, 2001; Herdt & Kertzner, 2006; King & Bartlett, 2006; Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 2003).
Incompatibility with APA Policies
Discriminatory legislation and initiatives stand in explicit violation of earlier APA policies. Relevant APA policies, rooted in empirical data, have established that there is no basis for discrimination against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people (Conger, 1975); that there is no basis for legal enactments that limit legal recourse in the face of discrimination based on sexual orientation (APA, 1993); that there is no basis for discrimination against same-sex couples in marriage rights (Paige, 2005a) or parental rights (Paige, 2005b).
Therefore, there exists essential incompatibility between APA’s existing policies and the discriminatory legislation and initiatives that seek to limit the rights of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Despite this incompatibility, it is expected that, in the foreseeable future, legislation and initiatives that discriminate against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people will be introduced, debated, and voted on.
WHEREAS various states and other jurisdictions have enacted legislation and/or constitutional amendments that limit the access of same-sex couples to the legal rights and responsibilities of marriage and that therefore affect their relationships with each other and/or with their children;
WHEREAS various states and other jurisdictions have enacted legislation and/or constitutional amendments that limit legal recourse available to lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people in the face of discrimination based on sexual orientation;
WHEREAS it has been the expressed or implied intent of some elected and appointed officials to apply these laws in a manner that selectively discriminates against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people (e.g., Davidoff, 2006);
WHEREAS these legal restrictions resist the force of psychological data that provide “no evidence to justify discrimination against same-sex couples” (Paige, 2005a, p. 2);
WHEREAS these legal restrictions contradict two decades of empirical research that suggests “that the development, adjustment, and well-being of children with lesbian and gay parents do not differ markedly from that of children with heterosexual parents” (Paige, 2005b, p. 2);
WHEREAS the debate leading up to these legal enactments as well as their outcome cause undue psychological risk to same-sex couples and their children as well as to single lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals, and they create a hostile climate for all lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (Bullis & Bach, 1996; Davies, 1982; Donovan & Bowler, 1997; Douglass, 1997; Eastland, 1996a, 1996b; Gonsiorek, 1993; McCorkle & Most, 1997; Moritz, 1995; Moses-Zirkes, 1993; Russell, 2000; Russell & Richards, 2003; Smith, 1997; Whillock, 1995);
WHEREAS the psychological risks associated with exposure to prejudice and discrimination result in increased psychological distress (Cochran & Mays, 2000; Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; DiPlacido, 1998; Gilman, Cochran, Mays, Hughes, Ostrow, & Kessler, 2001; Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 2003; Russell, 2000; Russell & Richards, 2003);
WHEREAS APA has taken clear stands against discrimination in any of its forms and against discrimination against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people in particular (Conger, 1975);
WHEREAS current immigration law unfairly discriminates against same-sex couples when one is a U.S. citizen and the partner is not;
WHEREAS municipal laws that prohibit or otherwise limit households members who are not related by biology or marriage may unfairly affect same-sex couples, who typically lack access to marriage, as well as poor people and other-sex partners who do not choose to marry;
WHEREAS APA has policies that specifically oppose discrimination against same-sex couples in access to marriage (Paige, 2005a) and that oppose “any discrimination based on sexual orientation in matters of adoption, child custody and visitation, foster care, and reproductive health services” (Paige, 2005b, p. 3);
WHEREAS APA is increasingly adopting an international focus and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people in many parts of the world face hostile environments;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that APA reaffirms its opposition to discrimination against lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people and will take a leadership role in actively opposing the adoption of discriminatory legislation and initiatives;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA will convene a meeting of representatives of national health and mental health organizations to encourage a concerted response to discriminatory legislation and initiatives;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA will make deliberate efforts to hold meetings in states and other jurisdictions and to enter into contracts with entities located in states and other jurisdictions that do not put members of the organization at physical, emotional, or social risk;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA collaborate in amicus briefs with regard to such discriminatory legislation and that APA take other appropriate legal action to protect its employees who live in states and other jurisdictions that put members of the organization at physical, emotional, or social risk;
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA, when meeting in a state or jurisdiction that has enacted legislation and/or constitutional amendments that limit access of same-sex couples to the legal rights and responsibilities of marriage and that therefore affect their relationships with one another and/or with their children, APA will take steps to promote the physical and psychological safety of its members and will offer specific and concrete measures to counter the hostile environment.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA will ask the U. S. National Committee for Psychology to suggest a policy stance on antigay legislation internationally and to bring this policy to the International Union of Psychological Science General Assembly for discussion and adoption.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that APA encourage the United States to enact immigration laws that allow same-sex couples in which one is a citizen and one is not access to the same rights, privileges, and responsibilities that apply to other-sex couples in which one is a U.S. citizen and the partner is not;
BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED that APA encourage municipalities to abolish laws that prohibit or otherwise limit households members who are not related by biology or marriage that unfairly affect same-sex couples, who typically lack access to marriage, as well as poor people and other-sex partners who do not choose to marry.
American Psychological Association. (1993). Resolution on state initiatives and referenda. Washington, DC: Author.
Bullis, C., & Bach, B. W. (1996). Feminism and the disenfranchised: Listening beyond the "other." In E. B. Ray (Ed.), Communication and disenfranchisement: Social health issues and implication (pp. 3-28). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2000). Relation between psychiatric syndromes and behaviorally defined sexual orientation in a sample of the US population. Journal of Epidemiology, 151, 516-523.
Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of mental disorders, psychological distress, and mental health service use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 53-61.
Conger, J. J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 1974. Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives American Psychologist, 30, 62-651.
Davies, C. (1982). Sexual taboos and social boundaries. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 1032-1063.
Davidoff, J. (2006, February 27). Gay marriage ban may catch companies off guard. Retrieved February 28, 2006 from http://www.madison.com
Gay marriage ban goes too far [Editorial]. (2006, February 26]. Virginia Pilot. Retrieved February 27, 2006 from http://home.hamptonroads.com
DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G. M. Herek (Eds.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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C.(21) Council voted to adopt the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls and file the Appendix of the Report.
Council also voted to adopt the following recommendations from the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (In accordance with Association Rule 30-6.2, "in order to be implemented, recommendations contained in the Report must further be presented to Council as main motions, with the usual accompanying information on fiscal implications and what entity has responsibility to carry out the actions contemplated.")
That psychologists conduct research to:
1. Document the frequency of sexualization, specifically of girls, and examine whether sexualization is increasing.
2. Examine and inform our understanding of the circumstances under which the sexualization of girls occurs and identify factors involving the media and products that either contribute to or buffer against the sexualization of girls.
3. Examine the presence or absence of the sexualization of girls and women in all media but especially movies, music videos, music lyrics, video games, books, and blogs and internet sites. In particular, research is needed to examine the extent to which girls are portrayed in sexualized and objectified ways and whether this has increased over time. In addition, it is important that these studies focus specifically on sexualization rather than sexuality more broadly or on other constructs such as gender-role stereotyping.
4. Describe the influence and/or impact of sexualization on girls. This includes both short- and long-term effects of viewing or buying into a sexualizing objectifying image, how these effects influence girl's development, self-esteem, friendships and intimate relationships, ideas about femininity, body image, physical, mental, and sexual health, sexual satisfaction, desire for plastic surgery, risk factors for early pregnancy, abortion, and sexually transmitted infections, attitudes toward women, other girls, boys, and men, as well as educational aspirations and future career success.
5. Explore issues of age compression ("adultification" of young girls and "youthification" of adult women), including prevalence, impact on the emotional well-being of girls and women, and influences on behavior.
6. Explore differences in presentation of sexualized images and effects of these images on girls of color, lesbian, bisexual, questioning, and transgendered girls, girls of different cultures and ethnicities, girls of different religions, girls with disabilities, and girls from all socioeconomic groups.
7. Identify media (including advertising) and marketing alternatives to sexualized images of girls, such as positive depictions of sexuality.
8. Identify effective culturally competent protective factors (examples include helping adolescent girls develop a nonobjectified model of normal, healthy sexual development and expression through school or other programs).
9. Evaluate the effectiveness of programs and interventions that promote positive alternatives and approaches to the sexualization of girls. Particular attention should be given to programs and interventions at the individual, family, school, and/or community level.
10. Explore the relationship between the sexualization of girls and societal issues such as sexual abuse, child pornography, child prostitution, and the trafficking of girls. Research on the potential associations between the sexualization of girls and the sexual exploitation of girls is virtually nonexistent and the need for this line of inquiry is pressing.
11. Investigate the relationships between international issues such as immigration and globalization and the sexualization of girls worldwide. Document the global prevalence of the sexualization of girls and the types of sexualization that occur in different countries or regions, and any regional differences in the effects of sexualization. Assess the effects of sexualization on immigrant girls and determine whether these effects are moderated by country of origin, age at immigration, and level of acculturation.
12. Conduct controlled studies on the efficacy of working directly with girls and girls' groups that address these issues, as well as other prevention/intervention programs.
13. That researchers who are conducting studies on related topics (e.g., physical attractiveness, body awareness or acceptance of the thin ideal) consider the impact of sexualization as they develop their findings.
1. That APA make the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls available to practitioners working with children and adolescents in order to familiarize them with information and resources relevant to the sexualization of girls and objectifying behavior on the part of girls.
2. That APA make the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls available to practitioners as a source of information on assisting girls in developing the skills necessary to advocate for themselves and counter these adverse messages, taking into account the impact and influence of family and other relationships.
III. Education and training
1. That APA disseminates information about the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls to instructors at the middle school and high school and undergraduate levels and to chairs of graduate departments of psychology.
2. That information from the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls be considered for inclusion in future revisions of the "National Standards for High School Psychology” and "Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major" by the groups charged with revising these documents.
3. That chairs of graduate departments of psychology and of graduate departments in other areas in which psychologists work be encouraged to consider information from the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls as curricula are developed within their programs and to aid in the dissemination of the report.
4. That information from the Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls be considered for development as continuing education and online academy programming, in partnership with APA’s Continuing Education in Psychology Office.
5. That the Ethics Committee and APA Ethics Office consider and use this report in developing ethics educational and training materials for psychologists and make this report available to the group responsible for the next revision of the APA Ethical Principles.
IV. Public policy
1. That APA advocate for funding to support needed research in the areas outlined above.
2. That APA advocate for funding to support the development and implementation by public agencies and private organizations of media literacy programs, including interactive media, in schools that combat sexualization and objectification.
3. That APA advocate for the inclusion of information about sexualization and objectification in health and other related programs, including comprehensive sex education and other sexuality education programs.
4. That APA encourage federal agencies to support the development of programming that may counteract damaging images of girlhood and test the effects of such programs, for example, web "zines" (web magazines) extracurricular activities (such as athletics), and programs that help girls feel powerful in other ways than through a sexy appearance.
5. That APA work with Congress and relevant federal agencies and industry to reduce the use of sexualized images of girls in all forms of media and products.
V. Public awareness
1. That APA seek outside funding to support the development and implementation of an initiative to address the issues raised in this report and identify outside partners to collaborate on these goals. The long-term goals of this initiative, to be pursued in collaboration with these outside partners, should include the following:
a. Develop age appropriate multimedia education resources representing ethnically and culturally diverse young people (boys and girls), parents, educators, health care providers, and community-based organizations, available in English and other languages, to help facilitate effective conversations about the sexualization of girls and its impact on girls, as well as on boys, women, and men.
b. Convene forums that will bring together members of the media and a panel of leading experts in the field to examine and discuss a) the sexualization of girls in the United States, b) the findings of this task force report, and c) strategies to increase awareness about this issue and reduce negative images of girls in the media.
c. Develop media awards for positive portrayals of girls as strong, competent, and nonsexualized, for example, the best television portrayal of girls or best toy.
d. Convene forums with industry partners, including the media, advertisers, marketing professionals, and manufacturers, to discuss the presentation of sexualized images and the potential negative impact on girls and to develop relationships with the goal of providing guidance on appropriate material for varying developmental ages and guidance on storylines and programming that reflects the positive portrayals of girls.
2. That school personnel, parents and other caregivers, and community-based youth and parenting organizations, and local business and service organizations encourage positive extracurricular activities that help youth build nurturing connections with peers and enhance self-esteem based on young people's abilities and character rather than their appearance.
D.(22) Council voted to allocate $3,000 from its 2007 discretionary fund to help support two one-day meetings of the Task Force on Sexual Orientation and Military Service.
E.(23) Council voted to allocate $13,500 from its 2007 discretionary fund for two meetings in 2007 of the Task Force on Guidelines for the Assessment and Treatment of Persons with Disabilities so the Task Force can continue its work to develop the guidelines.
F.(24) Council voted to allocate $16,500 from its 2007 discretionary fund to support two meetings in 2007 of the Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice with Children and Adolescents during 2007.
G.(25) Council voted to allocate $15,100 from its 2007 discretionary fund for two meetings in 2007 of the Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion.
H.(26) Council voted to allocate $7,500 from its 2007 discretionary fund to support the establishment and one meeting in 2007 of the Working Group on Cultural Competency in Geropsychology.
I.(32B) A new business item “Resolution in Support of Ethnic Minority Training in Psychology” was referred to BAPPI, APAGS, BEA, BPA and BSA.
J.(32D) A new business item “APA Resolution to Promote Well-being and Alleviate Psychological Risk Factors for Immigrants” was referred to BAPPI, BEA, BPA, BSA, CAPP, CIRP and COLI.
K.(37) Council received an update on the business pending item “Proposed Resolution on Families of Incarcerated Offenders.”
L.(53) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Addendum to Resolution on Anti-Semitic and Anti-Jewish Prejudice.”
M.(54) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Emancipating and Rehabilitating Enslaved Persons and Prevention of Future Slavery.”
N.(55) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Proposed Task Force on the Psychosocial Effects of War on Children.”
XIII. Ethnic minority affairs
XIV. International affairs
A.(27) Council voted to approve the initiative International GOALS (Global Opportunities and Long-Term Strategies) and the inclusion of $75,000 in the 2007 Final Budget for partial funding of the initiative.
B.(56) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “United Nations-University Partnerships.”
XV. Central office
A.(43) Council received as information the 2006 Report on Environmental Issues.
XVI. Financial affairs
A.(28) Council voted to approve the Long-Term Investment Policy statement.
B.(29) Council voted to approve the 2007 Final Budget calling for a 2006 year-end probable surplus of $312,800 and a 2007 Final Budget surplus of $23,200.
C.(44) Council received as information a report from Standard & Poor’s on the Association’s new Bond Rating.
D.(45) Council received as information the December 1 & 2, 2006, minutes of the Finance Committee meeting.
Council held Thematically Based Breakout Groups on Saturday afternoon.
On Sunday morning, reports from each breakout group were shared with Council.