Newsletter - APA Division 51 - Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity

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DIVISION 51 NEWSLETTER, Spring 2003
volume 8, number 3

Table of Contents:
Presidential Message

Editorial
SPSMM Division 51 Election Results
NOMAS Conference
Levant to Run for APA President
Psychology of Men and Masculinity
Nominations for Fellows |Special Focus Section: Mentoring Students Interested in Men and Masculinity
Psychology Mentoring: A Student's Perspective
Reflections of a Mentor
Mentoring African American Men
Mentoring Asian American Men
Aspiring to be a Mentor in Academia
References for the Special Focus Section
Listserv |Mission Statement | Div. 51 Central Office
Div 51 APA Programs in Toronto
Membership Application | Policy on Book Reviews
Web Site | Cookbook | | Governance

SPSMM Bulletin Deadlines: January 31, April 30, July 31, October 31


 

PRESIDENTIAL MESSAGE

On-Line

Corey Habben, Psy.D.

Who would have thought that Terry Bradshaw and HBO could have unknowingly outdone SPSMM in achieving part of our mission. In a recent surf through cable channels, I settled upon a piece on the weekly HBO show RealSports which chronicled Hall of Fame NFL star quarterback and current network football analyst Terry Bradshaws long-standing battle with depression. In this piece, which was probably seen by a few million men and women who have never read a psychology journal, he describes how his early-developed rules of boys dont cry and coping through self-medication no longer helped him out of a seemingly bottomless pit of isolation and depression. He goes on to the herald the life-changing benefits of seeking professional therapeutic help and facing and expressing deep emotions.

As I watched this, I thought about how many depressed men may have been reached by this former professional athlete and that the first sentence of our mission statement states that we are committed to an enhancement of mens capacity to experience their full human potential. I was humbled to realize that Terry Bradshaw did more to meet that goal in a fifteen-minute piece than I probably could in an entire year of work with SPSMM. This made me consider the tremendous role sports plays in shaping masculinity. For better or for worse, sports has done more to shape masculinity than psychology ever has. And yet, there seems to be a professional disdain for sports. It is often viewed solely as an expression of all the so-called evils of masculinity: aggression, competition, even violence. Many see it as pointless and insignificant when there are so many other things in the world on which to focus our energy. Others see some of the ego-absorbed athletes or drunken and obsessive shirtless fans and turn up their nose at the very thought of sports as crass and uncouth. Have you ever known psychologists to make quick generalizations about sports enthusiasts as being homophobic, or intellectually shallow, or bourgeoisie, or (dare I say) a traditional male? I have known several. Incidentally, this is the same sort of stereotyping and generalizing that we are supposed to oppose. For whatever reason, psychology does not seem to place the same value on sports that the rest of our culture does. If we are trying to understand, reach, and influence positive change upon masculinity, then that is a problem. Before I continue, please realize that I did not grow up an athlete and I certainly have never painted my face in team colors as a crazed fan. But I did grow up with an enjoyment of various sportsan appreciation that I gained from my mother. Although my father appreciated sports, my mother loved sports. She helped me to see beyond statistics and physical actions and helped me to appreciate the human drama and emotion and unity that can be played out in the course of a sporting event. And although I do not have the time to watch much television, one of my favorite programs is the Sportscentury series on ESPN Classic. Each show provides a look into the life of a single athlete, both on and off the playing field. You do not need to be a fan of sports to appreciate some of these incredible human stories. The same can be said for Ken Burns nine-part PBS documentary series simply entitled Baseball. It goes beyond the statistics and box scores of a sport and examines how America and our culture not only changed along with the game baseball; baseball was often ahead of the curve with the rest of America in changing cultural norms.

Some (many athletes included) will advance the notion about sports that it is just a game and, in light of so many more pressing issues one could devote energy and passion to, a game with a score and rankings is relatively insignificant. And yet, in small communities all throughout the country, something as simple as a high school basketball game can bring together and energize communities in a way that other local institutions (churches, politics, local organizations) can not.

One can say that a sporting event is just a game. But consider how many people are influenced by sports. Every year, the most widely-viewed television shows are sports events such as the Super Bowl or the World Series. Because of this, social and cultural norms can actually be affected by a singular event in sports. Jackie Robinson, whose entry into major league baseball in 1947 as the first African-American ballplayer pre-dated the civil rights advancements of the 1960s, caused millions to reconsider their own racial views. Jim Abbott, a man born without a right hand, challenged traditional views on disability when he pitched a rare no-hitter for the New York Yankees in 1993. Today, female athletes are challenging sexist and homophobic norms in sports such as golf and basketball. Sports has done so much to positively influence and shape our culture that it would be short-sighted to refer to it as meaningless.

While cultural norms can be shaped through sports, individual rules can also be written and reinforced through sports. We often talk about the damaging effects of the boys dont cry and play through the pain axioms, often learned in sports. Yet, boys and girls today are still learning tremendous life lessons about teamwork and cooperation, about respecting rules and fairness, about winning with grace and losing with dignity, about struggling with adversity and self-doubt, about setting and achieving personal and communal goals. Whether you are a boy or a man, or a girl or a woman, spectator or participantsports can (and often does) have the same kind of sweeping positive effect on masculinity that we have set out to accomplish in our work.

Can you be a non-traditional male and still be a sports fan? I certainly hope so. Being a non-traditional male should not mean an across-the-board rejection of any and all traditional male norms and values. And even if you are not a sports fan in any sense of the word, you should still consider that sports has probably done more to shape masculinity than psychology ever has. Whether this is for the better or the worse is debatable. I believe it has been for the better, and I also believe that we could learn a lot about reaching men and shaping masculinities if we placed the same value on sports that the rest of our culture does.

I look forward to the day when a psychologist can have the same positive influence over a mass audience of men that Terry Bradshaw did.

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EDITORIAL

Fred Rabinowitz, Ph.D.


I saw an article the other day that reminded me again of the important work we have ahead of us. It was written by Thomas Bonk (L.A. Times, June 11, 2003) about Davis Love III, a 39 year old professional golfer who was playing in the U.S. Open over Father’s Day weekend. This wouldn’t be much of a story normally since Love is one of the top 10 golfers in the world and would be expected to try to win this tournament. What makes it unique is the fact that a few weeks ago, Love’s brother in law and business manager, Jeff Knight, committed suicide, apparently after embezzling money from Love’s accounts and telling Love about it. Love found his sister’s husband dead at one of the family’s houses.

While most of us might take off time from golf, Love has pushed on, “believing that the most difficult challenge is to show people who love someone vital to their lives that you are strong and you can help.” Love lost his father in a plane crash in 1988. His family was on vacation in Florida with his sister’s children. Love was living for the week by himself in a motor home in the parking lot of the Olympia Fields Country Club. The scenario seems to fit almost perfectly, the strong, “sturdy oak” stereotype of masculinity in which a man continues to work in the face of loss and adversity. Maybe this is his way of working out the loss or distracting himself from depressing thoughts and emotions that might haunt him otherwise. Maybe golf allows him to stay in the present and not think about the dark side of life. Certainly men use distractions to keep themselves from ruminating.

What about Knight, whose shame, guilt, and depression, allowed him to take his own life, even though he had a family with two children, ages 4 and 15? From a traditional masculine lens, Love is being strong and stoic, while Knight was weak and broken. Perhaps Knight was feeling pressured by the need to provide for his family and stole from his brother in law, knowing it was wrong, but not feeling that he would be loved and accepted if he admitted his dire financial straights. This example of traditional male gender role strain reminds me that many men are still hampered by the internalized rules of masculinity that say you are more of an honorable man if you kill yourself than one who shows weakness, admits confusion and vulnerability, and asks for understanding from those who love him. I’m not sure Knight’s family, in their grief, will see his death as honorable, but rather as tragic.

By the way, Love had a harder time distracting himself than he thought he would at the U.S. Open. He was eleven over par and missed the cut. On this Father’s Day, Love did get to be with his family, and begin to work through some of his pain partly through being a supportive husband, brother, and father to those who have been affected by this human tragedy.

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SPSMM Division 51 Election Results

 

FRED RABINOWITZ, PH.D.  PRESIDENT

 

MICHELE HARWAY, PH.D., TREASURER

 

KURT A. DEBORD, PH.D.    MEMBER-AT-LARGE  GLBT SLATE

 

MICHAEL MOBLEY, PH.D.  MEMBER-AT-LARGE  ETHNIC MINORITY SLATE

Congratulations to all newly elected officers and special thanks for all those who ran for office.

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NOMAS CONFERENCE

NOMAS
National Organization for Men Against Sexism
28th National Conference on Men and Masculinity (M&M28)
Gender, Violence, and Power: Making the ConnectionsUniversity of Wisconsin Campus _ Madison, WI
Friday August 1 ˆ Sunday, August 3, 2003
A conference for men and women working for
gender equality, social justice, and an end to violencePre-Conference Institutes

Friday August 1, 2000
15th Annual Men‚s Studies Association Meeting -- David Greene
EMV-Net Institute ˆViolence & Substance Abuse -- Tony Porter
(certification hours available)
Undoing the ISMs (Diversity Training)

Keynotes
® Tony Porter ˆ Violence and Substance Abuse
® Paul Kivel ˆ Preventing Teen Violence
® Luoluo Hong ˆ What Men Can Do to End ViolenceRegistration and information visit

www.nomas.org
or Contact
masculinityconference@hotmail.com
Heather Logghe ** 2141 Commonwealth Ave. ** Madison, WI 53726
or
NOMAS ** P.O. Box 455 ** Louisville, CO 80027-0455 ** 303-666-7043


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LEVANT TO RUN FOR APA PRESIDENCY

Co-founder and first President of Division 51 Ronald F. Levant is a candidate for APA President. He received the largest number of nomination votes in history (2344). Division 51 has endorsed his candidacy.

During these uncertain times, psychology is increasingly called upon for its scientific knowledge and professional skills. Psychology needs an experienced leader who has a history of working with all of psychology’s constituencies, and who can bring us together to effectively respond to these challenges.

Dr. Levant has served as professor, research investigator, clinical and academic administrator, clinical supervisor, public and private practitioner, author, political advocate, and public communicator. Through this experience, he has developed a broad perspective on the discipline and profession of psychology. He knows that psychology’s strength derives from its rich scientific and professional traditions, that the students in APAGS are our future, that our future will be affected in unexpected ways by technological change as the 21st century evolves, and that APA, despite all of our differences, is one family.

He has a vision for psychology’s future in which the growing integration of the science and practice of psychology will expand opportunities for knowledge generation and service delivery aimed at addressing society’s most pressing problems, and thus make psychology a household word.

He stated: “I want to make psychology a household word. As one of the learned professions, we have much to offer society. Building on the Decade of Behavior and Talk to Someone Who Can Help campaigns, I would seek to raise the visibility and perceived relevance of psychology to solving society’s most difficult problems. Public education would bring the best of psychological science and practice to the center of the public eye. Legislative advocacy would aim at significantly enhancing funding for psychological science and effectively positioning psychology to emerge as a top tier health profession in the coming integration of healthcare.”

He is committed to:
1 .advocating for a prominent place for psychologists in the health care arena and expanding the scope of psychological practice.
2. positioning psychology to emerge as a top-tier health profession/discipline in the coming integration of behavioral health with physical health in the health care system.
3. enhancing the inclusiveness and diversity (in all of its dimensions, including race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and age) not only of the profession but also of its leadership and its students, and to promoting the multicultural competence of the membership.
4. addressing the problems with Institutional Review Boards, enhancing the public perception of psychological science, increasing psychological research funding, and bringing scientists back to APA.
5. creating a voice for education in APA and addressing the need for reliable and valid tools to measure student learning outcomes, at all levels of psychology education.

Ron Levant’s Experience
Proven Leader: Ron Levant is currently serving a second term as the APA Recording Secretary, and is Associate Editor of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. He has previously served a term on the APA Board of Directors, two terms on the APA Council of Representatives, as member and chair (each for two terms) of the APA Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice, President of the Massachusetts Psychological Association and of Division 43 (Family Psychology), former Editor of the Journal of Family Psychology, and co-founder and first President of Division 51 – the Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity. He represented APA at the White House Summit Meeting and the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health.

Recent Accomplishments: As a member of the Board of Directors he chaired the Task Force that resolved the long-standing issue of representation of small state psychological associations and divisions on the APA Council of Representatives through the creation of the "Wildcard Plan." Most recently he co-chaired the “Wildcard 2” effort that now seats all State, Provincial and Territorial Psychological Associations. He co-chaired the Commission on Education and Training Leading to Licensure, is currently chairing the APA and American Psychological Foundation Task Force on Promoting Resilience in Response to Terrorism.

Academic Experience: Dr. Levant has served on the faculties of Boston, Rutgers, and Harvard Universities. He is currently Dean and Professor, Center for Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern University. He has authored, co-authored, edited or co-edited 13 books and over 120 refereed journal articles and book chapters in family and gender psychology and in advancing professional psychology. One of Dr. Levant’s contributions is in the new psychology of boys and men. He has been developed theory and conducted a fifteen-year research program on masculinity ideology in multicultural perspective. In addition to his writing, Dr. Levant has served as guest editor for special issues of several journals (The Counseling Psychologist, Psychotherapy, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, and The Journal of African American Men), and serves on the Editorial Boards of eleven journals. He has also received many awards for his work, including the Distinguished Professional Service Award from APA Division 51, the Jack Krasner Memorial Award from APA Division 29 (Psychotherapy), the Heiser APA Presidential Award for Advocacy, the Ezra Saul Psychological Service Award from the Massachusetts Psychological Association, and the Harold Hildreth Award from APA Division 18 (Psychologists in Public Service). He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, a Diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology in both Clinical and Family Psychology, and a Distinguished Practitioner of the National Academies of Practice.

For more information, please visit Ron’s website: http://www.DrRonaldLevant.com
Please vote # 1 for Ron Levant for APA President. The ballots go out on October 15, 2003 with a 45 day balloting period.

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Psychology of Men and Masculinity  

Psychology of Men and Masculinity is among the world’s first scholarly publications devoted to the dissemination of research, theory, and clinical scholarship that advance the discipline of the psychology of men and masculinity. This discipline is defined broadly as the study of how men’s psychology is influenced and shaped by gender, and by the process of masculinization, in both its socially constructed and biological forms. We welcome scholarship that advances our understanding of men’s psychology, across the life span, across racial and ethnic groups, and across time.  

Examples of relevant topics include, but are not limited to, the processes and consequences of male gender socialization, including its impact on men’s health, behavior, interpersonal relationships, emotional development, violence, and psychological well-being; assessment and measurement of the masculine gender role; gender role strain, stress, and conflict; masculinity ideology; fathering; men’s utilization of psychological services; conceptualization and assessment of interventions addressing men’s understanding of masculinity; sexuality and sexual orientation; biological aspects of male development; and the victimization of male children and adults.  

Submitted manuscripts must be written in the style outlined in the 1994 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (fourth edition). Psychology of Men and Masculinity will accept both regular length submissions (7,500 words) and brief reports (2,500 words). Submitted manuscripts must not have been previously published and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Four copies of the manuscript should be mailed to: Sam Cochran, PhD, 3223 Westlawn, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1100, Phone: (319) 335-7294, Fax: (319) 335-7298, Email: sam-cochran@uiowa.edu.

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Nominations for Fellows

Nominations for Fellow Status in divisions 51, APA are presently being accepted. If you are aware of a member who has been exemplary in the areas of Research or Service for the Psychology of Males and Masculinity (or if you yourself fit the mold), please forward names by September 1 to Marty Wong, Ph.D.; Fellows Chair; 15 Elizabeth St.; Charleston, SC 29403 (email: barbatwong@aol.com).

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Special Focus Section

MENTORING STUDENTS INTERESTED IN MEN AND MASCULINITY

Special Focus Editor: Matt Englar-Carlson, Ph.D.
California State University, Fullerton

This special section of the bulletin focuses on mentoring those interesting in the growing field of the psychological study of men and masculinity. Johnson (2002, p. 88) defined mentoring as “a personal relationship in which a more experienced (often older) faculty member or professional acts as a guide, role model, teacher, and sponsor of a less experienced graduate student or professional.” The mentor looks to provide the protégé with knowledge, experience, guidance, advice, and most of all, support as the protégé works to enter a chosen profession or field. Further, the mentor is committed to providing upward support and mobility to their protégés’ careers (Ragins & Scandura, 1997). Clearly, mentorship is a unique and distinctive relationship between two people within a field of study.

Mentoring relationships are important determinants in career success and advancement (Ragins & Scandura, 1997). The benefits of mentorship are well documented in the literature for both those who are mentored and for the mentors themselves (Clark, Harden, & Johnson, 2000). Through mentoring, protégés develop their professional skills and awareness within their chosen field, gain exposure to networking circles, often experience greater satisfaction with graduate work and research, enhance their professional identity, experience growing levels of support, and often develop a vision of the bridge from student to professional through real-life experience (Clark et al., 2000; Mellot, Arden, & Cho, 1997). Graduate students believe that having a mentor is a critical component of graduate training (Luna & Cullen, 1998). Mentors gain intrinsic benefits such as enhanced career satisfaction, an infusion of energy from the often younger protégé, and a sense of generativitiy (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee, 1978). When protégés succeed, mentors often receive increased research productivity, further opportunities to network, and enhanced professional recognition (Ragins & Scandura, 1994).

Like any relationship, mentoring relationships are influenced by multicultural issues such as gender and race. Although most graduate students are women, the majority of faculty (particular senior faculty) are men. Within Division 51, it must be noted that men comprise a majority of the membership. Although women report being mentored at a rate equivalent to men (Clark et al., 2000), mentors must be aware of gender differences so that within Division 51 and the psychological study of men and masculinity, men and women both see the potential for mentoring. It is not required, preferred, or even possible for students to be mentored by someone of the same sex or race. Atkinson, Neville, and Casas (1991) note that 73% of ethnic minority psychologists mentored by a White professor report mentor satisfaction equal to those with a same race mentor. Because ethnic minority faculty are underrepresented in most academic fields (Brinson & Kottler, 1993), nonminority faculty should intentionally recruit and mentor ethnic minority students. Similar to counseling, mentors should consider culturally appropriate and relevant ways to interact and mentor. As Division 51 looks to become more diverse in representing and addressing all forms of masculinity, potential mentors should look to intentionally provide opportunities for all students.

Within the business field, many organizations have recognized the value of mentoring programs and thus created formal mentoring programs (Ragins & Cotton, 1999). Bragg (1989) noted that one third of the major companies have formal mentoring programs. That number has no doubt only increased. The literature on mentoring has identified that within the field of psychology, however, most psychologists rarely received training in the process of mentoring. Instead, an underlying belief is that mentoring “just happens” without formal instruction or guidance. To address the need for guidelines in mentoring, a small but growing body of literature on the process of mentoring has been appearing (see Johnson, 2000). Further, some organizations (i.e., APA Division 35- The Psychology of Women, the Association for Black Psychologists) have created formal mentoring programs for students within their organizations.

As Division 51 continues to grow in both numbers of members and scope of psychological study, new professionals in the division will most likely find entry via a mentoring relationship with current division members. Mentoring within the field of the psychological study of men and masculinity presents many unique aspects and opportunities. Division 51 is still small enough so that students and new professionals can “be known” relatively quick and feel like a part of the division. The scholarly study of men and masculinity is also relatively new which provides many areas of investigation for students. When considering aspects of gender and race, however, mentoring within this field can get more complex. The articles below represent different perspectives on mentoring that address the experiences of being a student, reflections on mentoring within a clinical training setting, perspectives on mentoring African-American and Asian-American men, and mentoring students in research. Each contributed piece is both scholarly and personal in nature. My hope for the reader is that this section serves as an opportunity to reflect on both experiences as a protégé and as an ever-developing intentional mentor.

On a personal note, I am finishing this section on the eve of my doctoral mentor’s retirement after 42 years as a child psychologist and 32 years of teaching at the university level. Together we traveled the path from mentor/protégé to colleagues, and ultimately, close friends. Besides all the benefits and aspects of the mentoring relationship previously mentioned above, what strikes me the most about my mentoring relationship has little to do with research, teaching, or scholarly work. With all the stress and strain of being a doctoral student, I remember my mentor more for the caring, compassion, and sincerity embodied in leading and teaching by example rather than directing or expectation. I believe it is rare for a graduate school mentor to emphasize the importance of music, food, basketball, literature, love and friendship over scholarly production, yet that is what has transformed and helped me most. Comments or questions about this section can be addressed to me via email: mattec@fullerton.edu

 

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PSYCHOLOGY MENTORING: A STUDENT'S PERSPECTIVE
Iverson M. Eicken, M.Ed.
Oklahoma State University

Among participants in the mytho-poetic men's movement it has long been the belief that many of our culture's ills can be traced to the lack of appropriate mentors for young men. Some believe that there is too much competition between fathers and sons for a father to mentor his son, and that our homophobic society causes us to look with suspicion upon older men who try to form close relationships with younger men (Moyers & Bly, 1991). As a result, there is bereft of mentoring relationships. Fortunately, the empirical evidence does not entirely support this gloomy hypothesis (Mintz, Bartels, & Rideout, 1995), and even more fortunately, it has not been true for me. Mentoring relationships are especially critical in psychology, which I recently heard characterized as "a profession that eats its young".

Students feel psychology taking bites as we sell homes and use proceeds to finance tuition, move to strange towns to attend school, only to move again for internship, and once again for a job or post-doc. More bites are consumed as we leave relationships for academic settings, form bonds with classmates and faculty which are doomed to be short-lived, only to become close to intern cohorts whom we will ultimately leave. We are dined on while being stewed in the crucible of an academic program skewered by entrance exams, a dissertation proposal defense, comprehensive exams, final dissertation defense, and internship application processes, all of which are overlaid by intense practicum experiences. We call the intense and constant evaluation that accompanies training "supervision" and recognize it as an intervention; but I don't seem to remember signing an informed consent document.

Histrionic? Well, maybe but I sometimes felt that way, and the literature indicates that many other students do too, at least in the area of supervision (see Gray, Landany, Walker, & Ancis, 2001; Nelson & Friedlander, 2001). I am surprised that a profession that characterizes itself as "healing" treats its developing members this way. It is been my experience that supportive and nurturing mentorship has not only enhanced my education and ability to practice psychology, but it has enabled me to survive the grueling process of training. I'm still not sure how it is that I was able to find good mentors. The process through which mentors and protégé's select each other is somewhat mysterious. In psychology training we often assume that the dissertation director also serves as mentor. I feel fortunate that this worked for me, yet in talking with my colleagues, I find that this is often not the case. In addition, two of my most valuable mentoring relationships developed from the supervisory relationship.

The carnivorous nature of psychology training guarantees that students seeking support and nurturing will hope for parental characteristics in mentors. My best mentors gracefully accepted the transference I heaped upon them and in the early part of our relationship used my "need to please" to not only help me learn, but to move us into a more genuine relationship. In one case, a mentor overtly let me know that it was all right to be angry with him; and used working through the conflict in our relationship to help me into a more egalitarian space. With another mentor I shared a love of fountain pens. To celebrate my success, and to signal the next phase in our relationship, he created a ritual for me during which he carefully selected a special fountain pen with which to sign each letter of recommendation.

In supervisory relationships, I was consistently shocked by the inconsistency of letters of recommendation. Letters were consistently in sharp contrast to the course of supervision and accompanying evaluations. Conversations and evaluations from the majority of my supervisors seemed to focus on criticism, while letters of recommendation from them seemed to indicate that I am an advanced trainee and one of their best students. Criticism also seems to be the norm in toxic mentoring relationships (Johnson, & Huwe, 2002). This conflicting information is difficult to reconcile, and may indicate that supervision has yet to replace the pathology-based medical model with strength based counseling techniques. Literature indicates that I'm not the only student to struggle with the sting of the supervisory or harsh mentoring relationships (Gray et al., 2001; Nelson & Friedlander, 2001; Johnson & Huwe, 2002). My experience with people whom I consider mentors are quite different. While I have been moved to tears by their letters, the information never surprised me. It was affirming and seemed more real to have it in writing, and yet I had heard it from them before. Both invitations to change and the accolades found in the letters were reinforced throughout the course of our work together.

Since I am a WASP, straight, male in my late '40s, it was almost inevitable for me to find mentoring experiences with people who are similar to myself. The literature indicates that there are not enough minority psychologists for all students to have a mentor with whom they share similar demographics (Johnson, 2002). However, my experience informs me that these characteristics are not the heart of the mentoring process. Indeed, several of my most cherished mentoring relationships are with people who are different from me. I have found that the depth of conversation depends on the connection; the breadth of conversation is sometimes greater with those who are of different cultures or races. The validation from mentors who are different than I has the potential for feeling even more genuine, and can better speak to a student's ability to work in a multi-cultural setting. In all cases, my best mentors were those who encouraged me to seek additional support outside of our relationship.

Because of the power differential inherent in the student/faculty system, it was important for me to discover mentors who are also not faculty. Some were off campus psychologists. They provided a distanced perspective that helped keep my feet on the ground while my head was in the top of the ivory tower. Psychologists in private practice often have a more "real world" viewpoint and are invaluable in helping students understand how they may fit when the students leave the academic world. In addition to off campus psychologists, other students were an incredible source of support and guidance. Gram (1992) suggested that peer relationships could serve as an alternative to mentor - protégé associations. While I would not go so far as to say that close peer relationships can replace mentors, but for me they were essential. For every one "freak out" moment that my mentors walked me through, my student mentors walked me through five.

Finally, and perhaps most importantly, there is a "something else" which passes between mentor and protégé. It is the courageous man or woman who allows themselves to get close enough to a protégé, risking the ethical dilemmas inherent in such intimacy, to let this "something else" flow. The "something else" is the result of the intersection between education and relationship, affirms the mentor in the role of tribal elder, and helps move the protégé into the role of esteemed colleague. The initiation rites of graduation help, but it is a mentor whose feet are firmly planted in their own professional and personal identity, as well as in the profession of psychology, that hauls the student onto the same solid ground. This "something else" is what feeds the soul of the student and replaces some of the bites taken out by the process of training a new psychologist. Many have tried with varying success to identify this food that nurtures the student's sprit. I am not the first to name it as blessing (Johnson, 2002). I would encourage all of those who are in position to do so, to watch closely for opportunities to pass on this "something else."

Now please help me honor those who provided the mentoring I needed. Thank you Don, Jeff, Jennifer, Leslie, Lesley, Marie, Peggy, Rex, Rob, and Rocky.

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REFLECTIONS OF A MENTOR

Mark Stevens, Ph.D.
University of Southern California

Twenty-seven years old, married and a father of a seven-month-old daughter, I started my pre-doctoral internship at the San Diego State University Student Counseling Center. In graduate school I started reading about feminist theory and about male gender roles. I went to workshops on male identity issues. Consciousness Raising groups for men were forming and I joined a weekend group. Issues of male competition, homophobia, sexism and fathers were often the center of discussion. Large questions were swirling in my mind: What type of father did I want to be? How was I going to balance studies, work and family life? Money, time, dissertation, being a new father, marital satisfaction, learning to be a therapist…how was I going to negotiate the demands and stress of this stage in my life?

Dr. Sam Gange was the training director at the center and I asked him if he would be interested in co-facilitating a men's therapy group. What first started as lunchtime planning meetings, turned into a fairly regular and casual lunchtime connections and conversations. He became my mentor. More specifically, he was a male mentor. As we started to plan the men's therapy group our conversations quite naturally were both professional and personal. How could we talk about planning a men's therapy group without personal sharing of our own experiences as a male. Sam was quite open. He also had very good boundaries. I remember being so impressed with how my training director, with so much authority and status, could be so open and vulnerable as he shared about his personal background and present experiences. I also shared about my life, with seemingly more discomfort than Sam, and held onto his words as he reacted with support and kindness. Once or twice a week, during lunch we had our own "mini" men's group. It was not therapy, but it was tremendously therapeutic for me, and most likely Sam.
In 1986, five years after my internship experience, I became the coordinator of internship training at the University of Southern California Student Counseling Services. My professional identity and interests, by that time, was clearly associated with the rapidly growing field of men's studies. I had facilitated several men's therapy groups, presented at national conferences and published articles and co-edited a book on counseling and psychotherapy with men.

Personally, I participated in a wonderful on-going men's group, went to several men and masculinity conferences and my wife and I were expecting our third child. I knew that I was interested in mentoring interns about men's issues. But I also had several reservations. Was I old enough to be a mentor to an intern? Many of the interns were around my age and older. Could I be a mentor to female interns? The closeness that I had felt with Sam was not the closeness I wanted with a female intern. Would I be perceived as playing favoritism with a male intern who was interested in learning about men's issues? I did not really know my new staff and how they would respond to my relationship with my interns. As a new coordinator of training, I was understandably concerned about forming good working relationships with my staff.

Seventeen years later, I sit in front of my computer having been asked to reflect upon and write about my experiences and approaches to mentoring interns who are personally and professionally interested in men's issues. First, a couple general observations. While I do remember reading and being impacted by Levinson et al.’s (1978) Seasons of a Man's Life, particularly the comments about the mentoring relationship, my approach or paradigm to mentoring interns about men's issues has been primarily learned through modeling and experience. Mentoring is often viewed as a critical ingredient of a teaching relationship and subsequent learning, yet there seems to be an absence of intentional discussion about the process and strategies of effective mentoring for those interested in men's issues. Mentoring has become easier as I get older and become more comfortable within my role as Coordinator of Training. All interns who come through our training program have to a certain degree shown an interest in men's issues, regardless of their sex or other demographic backgrounds. Then there are those interns (always been males) who make explicit their desire to become more familiar and develop an expertise in counseling and/or researching the psychology of men and masculinity. I am not certain why it has only been males who have shown that degree of interest. I suspect it has to do with some implicit behaviors and attitudes on my part.

Lastly, it goes without saying, I learn a tremendous amount from the men that I have mentored and at times there is blurring of who is the teacher and who is the student.

Mentoring Issues
Issues involved in mentoring are important to consider and may be different depending on the training site and situation. Here are some of the general issues I have addressed and thought through over the years. After briefly describing the issues, I will discuss more specific ways of formally and informally mentoring interns around men's issues.

Clear Boundaries
There is a definite line in mentoring and sometimes that line can be thin and other times it needs to be thicker. I have found that trusting my "gut" about where to set the line is most useful. Some interns can tolerate a more personal type relationship, while others need more professional distance. If it is suspected that I may need to wear more of an "administrative cap" with an intern, the boundary line will be thicker. Clear boundaries also include not talking about staff or intern business while away from the work setting or giving information to the intern that other interns do not have access to.

Perception of Others-Staff
I attempt to be open with staff about any special mentoring involvement with an intern. Whether that is a professional conference, bike ride or lunch time conversations. I have found that my staff has different comfort levels and opinions about the types of interactions they have with their supervisees or interns. Secrets about mentoring involvement can corrupt staff moral and set up triangulated relationships. Clear communication with staff regarding worries and theoretical differences about mentoring is important part of the process.

Perception of Others-Interns
I attempt to keep the pulse of how other interns may be reacting to my relationship with a specific intern who may be getting additional attention/time from me. Typically I address this upfront, with the interns as a group, how my relationship with one of the interns may be perceived and felt and brainstorm ways those feelings can be brought up. I address such issues as letters of recommendation, evaluation and perceived favoritism. Mentoring relationships, in the shadow of a secret, can have a negative impact on the overall system.

Power Differential- Evaluations
As the Coordinator of Training, involvement in the overall evaluation of each intern is essential. I have found that while the mentoring relationship at times can feel rather personal, it is critical to maintain and intentionally provide a professional distance. Both parties should feel this distance. How this distance is communicated may vary, but usually it is apparent in interpersonal behaviors and attitudes. For example, I have found it useful to process and bring attention to fact that while the mentoring relationship has a "personal feel" to it, there is still an essential evaluative nature. If the relationship becomes uncomfortable or unclear for either of us, we might want to talk about the uneasiness.

Knowing and Anticipating What Can Go Wrong
Anticipating potential glitches in the relationship can help create solid boundaries. Understanding your motivations as a mentor is also important to consider and helps to create healthy boundaries. Mentoring is a dynamic relationship and when solid boundaries and clear motivations are acted upon; both parties can grow and be rewarded.

Transitioning Out of the Training Director/Evaluator Role
Mentoring is a process and has infinite developmental stages. One of the most interesting phases is what develops after the formal training has ended. How does one transition from the role of evaluator to more of a colleague and peer? Rituals can be one important way to develop that transition. It may be participating in activity of mutual interest or just deciding to spend time together. What seems key, is acknowledging the change in relationship and sharing feelings and thoughts associated with the transition.

Formal Methods of Mentoring
Supervision with a male intern
The supervisory relationship is a wonderful avenue to offer training and mentoring about men's issues. Male clients can be discussed within a male gender role perspective. Articles and chapters about men's issues can be discussed. Supervision offers a special environment where a unique type of personal/professional connection occurs within the context of authority and evaluation. Negotiating this type of relationship can offer experience and interpersonal learning around issues of male power and homophobia.

Co-facilitating a men's group
Often I co-facilitate a men's group with another male intern. This experience is usually one of the highlights for me (and hopefully the intern), during the training year. A great opportunity to plan, discuss and acknowledge the uniqueness of facilitating a men's group. Often, the male intern is already interested in men's issues but has not had much experience putting that interest into practice. Something special happens as we prepare for the group, run the group and debrief. Theoretical interests about men's issues are brought to life. There is an excitement as I watch the interns start to integrate the personal with the professional. Co-facilitating a men's group offers lots of room for personal reflections to emerge.

Seminars
How many internship training sites offer seminars on counseling men? I have found that many interns have not had much exposure to a comprehensive seminar on men's issues and the unique aspects of male gender role counseling. I attempt to give a full picture of the history and issues connected with the study of men and masculinity. For example, I discuss the development and issues associated with the various men's movements. I bring in songs and poems of some of the "men's movement cultural workers". An overview of the history of men's studies is presented. A sociological-political-psychological model of understanding the issues that men bring into counseling is also presented accompanied with the unique treatment considerations while counseling men. Often times these seminars create an added interest in the topic, especially for those that have not had much interest or exposure before.

Presenting together on topics related to men's issues
Planning and presenting workshops is another way to help bridge the gap between book knowledge and experience. I used to do a lot of rape prevention workshops for college men and would often bring along another male intern to help present. Usually, it was the post workshop debriefing that offered the most "grist for the mill." The debriefing offered an environment where we would not only connect and learn by replaying the highs and lows of the workshop, but it provided an opportunity to professionally and personally connect through our own personal sharing around issues of pornography, sexuality and relationships. It appeared to me that the interns who joined me often enhanced their professional identity as someone interested in men's issues. Of course opportunities to co-present at professional conferences may enhance even more their interest and identity as someone connected to the field of men's issues and studies. The key concept of this type of mentoring is invite, invite and invite.

Informal Methods of Mentoring
Conversations and interactions
The process of mentoring other men about men's issues is often enhanced by unplanned conversations that show interest and respect. Sharing personal stories, taking appropriate risks not only builds the relationship, it also models how men can relate to one another and negotiate power differences.

Invitation to join professional organizations, events, meetings and networking
Introducing and welcoming students/interns and younger colleagues into the professional world of men's issues is essential. Division 51 of APA is one such organization. And there are several other organizations including ACA (American Counseling Association), ACPA (American College Personnel Association) and NOMAS (National Organization of Men Against Sexism). Opening doors for networking with other students and younger colleagues interested in the professional world of men's issues is also useful. The network of professionals interested in the psychological study of men and masculinity is growing, but it is still relatively small and isolated. Welcoming is a key. I have several stories of interactions with students who are interested, yet intimidated to talk and correspond with some "well known" names in our men's studies communities. The students have always been delighted and surprised to find out how approachable and excited these "senior folks" are to talk about their research and lend a helping hand.

Closing Thoughts
This has been a fun article to write. It has given me a better appreciation of how much I have enjoyed being mentored and how mentoring other men has been an important part of my professional life and identity. Several questions have emerged that might be useful to further explore. How are female students mentored around issues of men and masculinity? How is it different than how male students are mentored? Do female mentors approach the mentoring of students differently than male mentors?

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MENTORING AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN

Mark C. Fleming, Ph.D.
University of Delaware

As an African American man in the academy, I constantly sought after role models and appropriate mentors to help me navigate both my academic and professional lives. I often encountered, through my life journey, different individuals who would serve as supervisors, advisors, and teachers, but never really mentors. Though I attempted to develop a mentoring relationship with a few of my clinical supervisors, I soon recognized that the type of mentoring relationship I needed could only come from being in a mentoring relationship with another African American man. This was quite a daunting task. Since I began school at the age of five, I have only had three African American male professors/teachers. The classes I had with these men took place during my high school and undergraduate career. Unfortunately, it was a time in my professional and academic career that I was not looking for the type of mentoring that I so strongly desired in my graduate training. When I joined my fraternity, I was surrounded by older, African American men who were able to provide mentoring in surviving and thriving as an African American man in my community and beyond. However, I still was unable to find an African American male who had gone through the process of becoming a licensed psychologist while attending predominately white institutions of higher learning. It was not until I began my doctoral training at Penn State that I was to engage in the first mentoring relationship with another African American male who would serve as one of my academic advisors. Three years later, I would meet another African American male who would supervise, train, and mentor me throughout my pre-doctoral internship. Both of these men have become both life long mentors and friends. It is through the relationship with my fraternity brothers, my advisor at Penn State, and my clinical supervisor during my internship that I can speak fully about the concept of mentoring African American men.

The most profound piece when mentoring an African American male is helping him cope with stereotype threat. Both at work and especially in my graduate training, I was always concerned with what others thought of me. Do they think I am a quota? Do they think I need special attention? Do they want to be in the same group with me? This type of rumination often fed a belief that was instilled by me from my first mentor, my father. He always told me that in order to survive as a black man in this society; I had to work twice as hard to be equal to my white counterparts. As a result, I found myself in school and at work doing much more than needed. I worked full time while going to school, I served on several boards of directors in the community, and I was generally the first person in my class finished. In fact, I was the first person in my class to complete my master’s thesis as well as the first person in my class to complete my dissertation. Through my relationships with my advisor at Penn State and my clinical supervisor at my pre-doctoral internship, I was affirmed for my struggles and, for the first time, given permission to slow down. I found it much easier to allow myself to listen to these men because they had literally gone through the process. It was even different from speaking with African American women because of the real gender issues that are a part of being a black man in this country. By learning to free myself of this stereotype threat and make goals that were for me and not others, I was able to navigate my life in a way that there was much less pressure. The openness of my relationships with my two supervisors, their willingness to appropriately disclose some of their struggles, and their ability to create an environment of safety that allowed me to explore my issues and how they affected both my clinical and professional work was the most helpful part of our mentoring relationship.

Another important aspect to consider when mentoring African American men is that it must go beyond professional development and include personal issues and challenges that African American men face daily. The most relevant piece of this mentoring included learning how to negotiate myself in a bi-cultural society. Being able to speak with another African American man helped me deal with pressures I was feeling from my black friends and my white colleagues. I struggled with not being black enough, or man enough, or masculine enough because I was a black man getting an advanced degree. At the same time, my white colleagues refused to accept my life as a black man because they experienced me so differently than what they had come to know black men to be in our society. I needed a relationship where I could discuss these issues as well as issues that were more institutional in nature. For example, simply because I challenged students on issues of multiculturalism, I was accused in teaching evaluations of hating whites and being racist. Another example included supervising a white woman’s clinical work. In the middle of supervision, she stated that she did not take my advice and decided to speak with her uncle who was a psychologist. Further, I had colleagues who actually asked me to tell them when they were being multiculturally incompetent. The only place I could really discuss my anger and frustration with these issues were with my mentors. The most critical piece was not my anger, but rather my fear. What would my supervisors do with this? If I talked about it, will it be seen as my issue? How do I address this in a way that is real but does not endanger my livelihood? These were all very real issues that often kept me up at night. It was not until I had a place to really talk about these issues without fear of being judged or shut down that I was able to successfully move ahead in my graduate level training. In fact, during my internship year, I experienced issues that singled me out as the only black intern. Due to the mentoring I received from my supervisor, I was able to take a very tense situation and integrate in a way that it did not interfere with both my personal and professional goals for the year.

I have focused this article on my personal mentoring relationships and how they have helped me survive as a black professional in America. Though I have never had a mentor who was not an African American male, I am not convinced that someone who does not fit that description cannot be a mentor for an African American male. I think, however, that there are things that need to be put into place in order for that to occur in a real way. The mentoring relationship must be able to deal with the real issues of the black man living in a bi-cultural society. The relationship must deal with not only clinical skill development, but also other areas of professional development including both personal and professional issues, challenges, and concerns. The relationship must be bi-directional in that the mentor is willing to teach, but also learn from the protégé in the form of feedback and encouragement. The mentor must be willing to openly discuss his or her own racism in a way that the black man feels affirmed, appreciated, and understood. This type of openness can only help create a relationship less like that of supervisor/supervisee and more like that of mentor/protégé. Issues that are difficult to discuss but must be a part of the relationship include black-white issues, gender issues, issues of masculinity as they are defined by the dominant culture and the African American community, stereotype threat, implicit and explicit forms of racism black men may encounter from people in society, within academic departments, and from other colleagues.

I continue to be mentored by my former advisor at Penn State and my former clinical supervisor at my pre-doctoral internship. They continue to offer advice, support, and mentoring in a very meaningful way. They are not just former advisors/supervisors, but also esteemed colleagues and good friends. As I begin to take on the role of mentor for both my younger fraternity brothers and for black men who have sought me out as they pursue advanced studies in psychology, I use my relationships with my former advisor and supervisor as the basis for forming this new mentoring relationship.

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MENTORING ASIAN AMERICAN MEN
William Ming Liu, Ph.D.
University of Iowa

Asian Americans represent one of the most diverse communities in the U.S. Within this community, Asian Americans vary according to acculturation level (Sodowsky, Lai, & Plake, 1991), racial identity (Liu, 2002), social class (Sue and Sue, 1990), and gender roles and attitudes (Kim, O’Neil, & Owen, 1996; Liu, Pope-Davis, Nevitt, & Toporek, 1999; Sue, 1990), to name a few. And yet, Asian Americans are often racialized as the model minority, and perceived as not having significant mental health issues. Consequently, counselors may not consider Asian Americans as a group in need, experiencing conflict, or adjustment difficulties.

One group, in particular, that may be overlooked within the Asian American community is Asian American men. Even though mental health services have been sensitive to the cultural needs and values of Asian Americans in counseling (e.g., more direction in counseling), counseling has yet to address the intersection of race, culture, and masculinity among Asian Americans. Cultural prohibitions to seeking counseling on top of masculine expectations that exhort men to “handle their own problems” and “show no weakness” may present Asian American men with multiple barriers that may hinder, restrict, or retard health. Thus, to provide effective service for Asian American men, the intersection of multiple identities needs to be considered.

While it is difficult to overcome the cultural and masculine stigma attached to counseling, it has been my experience that Asian American men may be willing to seek out counseling services or other help from other venues, if they have an opportunity to discuss options, figure out their internal conflicts about seeking services, and ease into counseling. Many of these issues can be discussed through mentoring relationships.

Mentoring, like executive coaching, may be an alternate to stigma-inducing counseling and mental health services, or at least, a bridge to counseling. Mentoring relationships can be formal or informal, and may not always be a one-on-one relationship but might happen in groups. My experience across various campuses has shown me the importance of such mentoring relationships. My work with, and mentoring of, Asian American men comes from a wide array of experiences. To begin, I was a member and president of my Asian American fraternity at the University of California at Irvine. I was an advisor to Asian American students and a teacher of Asian American studies at the University of Maryland. When I went to the University of Southern California, I was an advisor for another Asian American fraternity, and now, at the University of Iowa, I serve as the faculty advisor for the Asian American Coalition. From these experiences, I provide the following recommendations about mentoring Asian American men that are personally relevant for me. These may appear to be over-generalizations and stereotyping of Asian American men, but I believe there may be some applicability among the three suggestions I provide.

Silence is an important value within Asian American families.
I believe, in general, Asian American families do not typically talk about racism, and hence, do not necessarily address the complexities of navigating masculine expectations, racism, racial identity, acculturation, or other pertinent socializing experiences. As such, when faced with a difficult situation that they are not able to explain or cope with, Asian American men often find themselves looking toward other Asian American men, whom they believe have negotiated life situations successfully. Sometimes, Asian American men find mentors in the non-Asian American community members. Sometimes, mentors are found among problematic groups (e.g., gangs). And sometimes, if lucky, they find an Asian American mentor who is willing to discuss important masculine issues in a caring but challenging manner. In mentoring Asian American men, it is important to remember that Asian American men may not be familiar or comfortable with the discourse surrounding masculinity issues. Similarly, they may not be able to articulate their experiences and feelings around racism, their own racial identity, or masculine socialization. This is not to say that Asian American men are mute on issues, but mentors may need to listen for clues given by Asian American men on various life experiences, and help label and identify common masculine and race-based experiences.

Mentoring may be a culturally congruent style of relating among Asian American men.
One of the strains not addressed in the new psychology of men theories is the notion of “looking after those younger than you.” Of course this is only anecdotal, but it is my impression that family-like relationships and patterns are often formed among non-relatives. Younger Asian American men may refer to those who are older as “big brother” or “older brother.” The role of the older man is to show the younger how to be a “man” in the world. Sometimes guidance leads to healthy behaviors and attitudes, but sometimes there may be detrimental effects. For instance, alcohol is often a factor in many of these relationships since drinking is a socially sanctioned means of “bonding” as well as coping with problems associated with negotiating racism or dominant masculinity. One of the strains that may occur within this community of Asian American men, consequently, is the strain of “trying to do the right thing” or “be a good mentor.” Of course, the strain experienced by older men, as they try to “do the right thing” is based upon the possibility that they also had poor or no mentoring themselves. Consequently, the older Asian American man’s capacity to negotiate the dominant demands of masculinity may be through trial and error.

The importance of mentoring as a culturally congruent masculine relationship among Asian American men is that for many men, there already exists a culturally sanctioned mechanism for a “mentoring-type” relationship. Although the relationship tends to be hierarchical such that, the younger one will take confrontation and be deferent to the older man, it does not mean that the hierarchical relationship necessarily needs to be “bad” or detrimental to the younger man. There is space and flexibility for collaboration and reciprocity that is expected and negotiated within the relationship.

Saving face
Shame can be interpreted as an individualized emotion, wherein the individual wants to hide from the evaluation of others. In saving face, the shame induces action to ameliorate or alleviate the impact of a shame-inducing event or its consequences on oneself or on another person considered an intimate (Szeto-Wong, 1997). The issue of action, as it is related to shame, is the problem. While good intentioned, sometimes, the face-saving actions are deleterious or dangerous. Couple the notion of saving face with the potential masculine bravado of “doing the right thing” and you may encounter a problem situation where the Asian American man believes there are only limited options for action.

The importance of understanding saving face among Asian American men is that first, this is a culturally ingrained value and is constantly operating. Second, for many Asian American men, a breach of the social agreement around saving face (i.e., when someone does not reciprocate the face-saving ethic) could potentially lead to violence, aggression, and alcohol/drug use as a means to cope. Take for instance the recent brawls between two Asian American fraternities in San Jose where one member was left dead. I can understand their fight as a type of masculine aggression, gang-like behaviors, and maintaining fraternity pride. Having been in similar situations, I also understand the importance of saving face as a cultural value and the masculine concerns that propelled two groups of men into, what they believed, was an inevitable conflict. To them, maintaining honor, saving face, and group pride worked in concert because they were not only Asian American values, but also masculine norms and values. Consequently, the lack of mature mentorship and leadership within the groups and the need to maintain honor and save face left one man dead. It is important to understand that saving face is an actionable emotion that operates at a collective level.

In closing, the three concepts that I touched upon - silence, mentorship, and saving face - were derived from my own experiences working with and mentoring Asian American men on college campuses. It has been my experience that there is a tremendous need and demand for mentorship within this community, and that integrating cultural notions of masculinity and mentorship into the new psychology of men will potentially improve mental health services for this group, and also provide multiple avenues for masculine expression. Asian American men are diverse and dynamic, and terrific to work with, and it is my hope that some of my suggestions will facilitate future mentor relationships.

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ASPIRING TO BE A MENTOR

Aaron Rochlen, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

While trying to describe the qualities and characteristics of a mentor, my thoughts inevitably turned to my own experience as a doctoral student at the University of Maryland. In doing so, I realized how fortunate I was to have been mentored by two of the best (and nicest) researchers in counseling psychology, Drs. Clara Hill and Karen O’Brien. Now in the role of trying to be a mentor myself, I try to consider some guiding principles to use in my relationships with advisees. Below, I’ll describe these principles that that may be of use to other faculty members beginning their careers in academia. In this effort, no specific references are provided to mentoring students with interests in men’s studies. Although this is my specialization area, I see few considerations that apply exclusively to students with these interests as opposed to other areas of research in psychology. In addition, despite having some parallels to writing in the academic mentorship literature (Hollingsworth & Fassinger, 2002), these principles are drawn primarily from my own experiences.

The Big Picture
As an advisor seeking to be a mentor, it is important to help students grasp a sense of where their classes, research, clinical work, and other responsibilities fit into the “big picture” of their training and ultimate career goals. When an aspect or hurdle of graduate school (i.e. comprehensive exams, thesis, etc.) is not going well, it is easy for students to feel stuck and to become frustrated. A mentor should be able to provide the support needed in various stressful situations while simultaneously helping students to “see the forest through the trees.” Ideally this communication will help students recognize and ideally overcome the multiple hurdles they will inevitably face in their training.

The Push for Research
Ideally, students in graduate level programs will enter with high levels of enthusiasm and excitement for research. In these instances, mentors need to match that excitement level for research that is already present and at work for the student. In other situations, mentoring may involve showing students that despite the challenges and occasional frustration involved with research, it can also be a fun, exciting, and rewarding process.
In addition, it is imperative for advisors to communicate high expectations for graduate students in terms of research. Particularly in research-oriented programs, an advisor seeking to be a mentor needs to reiterate the central importance of quality student-initiated research at the graduate level. Although providing support is a critical variable leading to research-related success, trying to “stretch” and challenge an advisee is equally important. Essentially, graduate school should be a rigorous, challenging and rewarding experience. Advisors seeking to be mentors have a critical role in communicating these expectations and challenging students to excel in multiple areas of their training, including research.

Flexibility
Being flexible as a mentor has relevance at several different levels. For one, students have different mentoring needs including emotional support, direct guidance, help with goal setting, and career planning. Second, flexibility is essential in considering the long-term career objectives of a particular student. A student with the goals of becoming a psychologist in a counseling center will have considerably different mentoring needs than a student pursuing an academic appointment. Third, flexibility plays a role in helping students develop their own research plans. At times, faculty members may need to flex their own interest areas to find common ground for students to independently pursue.

A look in the mirror
Good mentors, like good therapists, will know themselves well. They will be aware of the types of students they may be more drawn to and those who might be more challenging. Understandably, faculty members may find it easier to serve as a mentor for the students who are more similar to themselves (i.e., similar personality, professional goals, developmental background, etc.) Yet it is critical for advisors seeking to be mentors to adapt and challenge themselves to be maximally beneficial to different types of students. In addition, a mentor should take time to reflect upon and discuss their relationships with students. This may include considering how to adapt one’s interpersonal style to meet a student’s individual needs and personality. As it is imperative in counseling to discuss the relationship and re-visit the goals of therapy, advisors seeking to be mentors should talk openly with their advisees about how to improve and build upon mentoring relationships.

Recognize the boundaries
In some situations, the relationship between an advisee and advisor can naturally and ethically lead to a meaningful and long-lasting friendship. In other instances, a transition from a professional advisor role to a more “two-way” friendship can be problematic at best, unethical at worst. In situations that have the potential of stretching the boundaries of an advising relationship beyond the academic setting, advisors need to carefully consider the power dynamics and possible ethical dilemmas that may surface.

Mentorship – A title earned not given
While I am a teacher, advisor, and researcher, I am not necessarily a mentor. The former titles are given to me based on the responsibilities of my position. Being a mentor, however, is a title earned and not given. For me, this is not simply an intellectualized debate of the meaning of the word, but rather a reminder that I need to strive towards being a mentor. Although at times difficult to do, recognizing the potential impact I can have on a student’s graduate school training and beyond makes this quest particularly rewarding.


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Sue, D.W. (1990). Culture in transition: Counseling Asian-American men. In D. Moore & F. Leafgren (Eds.), Problem solving strategies and interventions for men in conflict (pp. 153-165). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice. (2nd Ed). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Szeto-Wong, C. (1997). Relation of race, gender, and acculturation to proness to guilt, shame, and transferred shame among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.

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Join SPSMM-L

Participate in SPSMM-L, the listserv for SPSMM members. It is a place to share current psychology of men and masculinity news, as well as updates regarding organizational aspects of SPSMM. If you have access to the Internet, you can subscribe to SPSMM-L at no cost. Send your request to spsmm@lists.apa.org—Michael E. Addis, PhD.

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SPSMM Mission Statement

The Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity (SPSMM) promotes the critical study of how gender shapes and constricts men’s lives, and is committed to an enhancement of men’s capacity to experience their full human potential. SPSMM endeavors to erode constraining definitions of masculinity which historically have inhibited men’s development, their capacity to form meaningful relationships, and have contributed to the oppression of other people. SPSMM acknowledges its historical debt to feminist-inspired scholarship on gender, and commits itself to the support of groups such as women, gays, lesbians and peoples of color that have been uniquely oppressed by the gender/class/race system. SPSMM vigorously contends that the empowerment of all persons beyond narrow and restrictive gender role definitions leads to the highest level of functioning in individual women and men, to the most healthy interactions between the genders, and to the richest relationships between them.

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Division 51 Central Office

Has your address changed?
Do you have a question about your membership?
Are you missing copies of the journal or newsletter?
Do you need a membership application sent to a friend?

Contact: Keith Cooke
Division 51 Administrative Office
American Psychological Association
750 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242

Phone: 202-336-6197 • Fax: 202-218-3599
Email: kcooke@apa.org
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Div 51 APA Programs in Toronto

August 7 - August 10, 2003
Toronto, Canada

THURSDAY, August 7th
11:00-11:50 a.m. - Symposium: Boys to Men...Masculinity and Boys’ Socio-emotional and Academic Development
(Chair: Judy Y. Chu). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 717B12:00-12:50 - Workshop: Showing Is Better Than Telling - Using Psychodrama to Enhance Research and Practice with Men
(Co-Chairs: Vicki Putz and Christopher Kilmartin). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 717B

1:00-2:50 p.m. – Symposium: Men and Media…Portrayals of Men in Film and Television (Co-Chairs: David S. Shepard and Edward J. Tejirian). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 717B

3:00-3:50 p.m. – Symposium: Gay Men, Straight Men, Real Men…Sexual Orientation in Identity and Culture
(Co-Chairs: Douglas C. Halderman and Gary R. Brooks). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 701A

FRIDAY, August 8th

9:00-9:50 a.m. - Prostitution…A Perspective on the Customer’s Domination of Women (Chair: Ronald F. Levant). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 701A

1:00-1:50 p.m. – Division 51 Poster Session. In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Exhibit Hall.
Authors Titles
Stephen R. Wester, David L.Vogel & Rodney McLain African-American Men, Gender Role Conflict, Psychological Distress and Racial Identity

Stephen R. Wester, David R. Pionke& David L. Vogel Male Gender Role Conflict and Gay Men's Relationship Satisfaction

Linda M. Fleming & David J. Tobin Popular Child Rearing Books: Where's Daddy?

Matthew J. Breiding Spousal Criticism: Mediation of Gender Role Conflict-Marital Adjustment

Melanie A. Morrison, Todd G. Morrison, Christine Hopkins & E. Tyler Rowan Muscle Mania: Drive for Muscularity in Canadian Men

Scott J. Duggan & Donald R. McCreary The Influence of the Media on Men’s Body Image

Todd G. Morrison, Melanie A. Morrison & Christine Hopkins Exploring the Drive for Muscularity in Canadian Men

Stephen S. Chow & Matthew H.T. Chu Boys At Risk Of Underachieving In A Collapsing Patriarchal Culture

Jana E. Frances-Fischer, Owen Richard Lightsey, Jr. & Sara K. Bridges Male Infertility and Constructions of Masculinity: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations

Max Belkin & Jacqueline Mattis Ideals of Manhood and Empathic Orientation Among African-American Men

Rebekah T. Ridgeway & Tracy L. Tylka A Qualitative Analysis of College Men’s Body Image

Usha Kapoor, Karen S. Pfost & Alvin House Prediction of Rejection of Those in Non-traditional Careers

James R. Mahalik, Samuel S.C. Wan, & Martin R. Pierre Racial Identity, Masculinity, and Psychological Well-being in Black Men

Stephen C. McConnell & Stephen A. Hall A Group Psycho-educational and Support Program for Single Custodial Fathers

Audrey M. Ervin & Suzanne H. Lease Gender Role Conflict, Internalized Homonegativity, and Psychological Well-Being in Gay Men

Ronald F. Levant, Carol Philpot, Katherine A. Richmond, Stephen Cook & Glenn E. GoodValidation of the Femininity Ideology Scale

Jennifer M. Lane & Michael E. Addis Gender Role Conflict and Men's Self-Disclosure About Substance Abuse and Depression

Melissa M. Santos & Susan S. Hendrick Body Image Development: The Role of Parents, Partners and the Media

Garrett A. Gilchrist & Elisabeth Bennett Current and Ideal Body Images of Males: a Fitness Setting

Douglas Thomson & Glenn E. Good Masculine Role Conflict, Shame-Proneness, and Adjustment: Testing a Mediational Model

Eros R. DeSouza & Joseph J. Solberg Man-to-Man Sexual Harassment: Does Sexual Orientation Matter?

David M. Lawson, Minette Beckner, David M.Lawson, Dawn VandenBouch, Lee Shefferman,Nels Seatrom & Saori Rivera Male Abusers and Ethnicity: Masculinity, Ego Strength, and Self-Esteem

Abigail K. Mansfield, Michael E. Addis & Will Courtenay Men's Barriers to Seeking Help for a Physical Problem

Matthew C. Jakupcak & Matthew Tull Masculine Gender Role Stress and Shame: An Examination of the Construct Validity of the Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale

Nicholas C. Larma & William M. Liu Dysfunctional Autonomy as a Barrier to Psychotherapy for Men

Mariola Magovcevic & Michael Addis Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Perceptions of Problems in Living

Richard S. Cimbalo Security and Sex: Gender Differences in Motivational Weighting

Scot Boespflug, William M. Liu, Sam V.Cochran, Kwesi Dunston, Cisco Sanchez & Samuel Z. Lewis Male Masked Depression: Correlating the MMPI-2, Rumination, Alexithymia, and Externalizing Behaviors

Anthony L. Chambers & Melvin N. Wilson Using IRT Methodology to Examine Meaningful Characteristics That Comprise Low- Income Fathers' Relationship Satisfaction

Roderick D. Hetzel & Joshua L. Swain Religious Faith, Gender Role Conflict, and Masculine Ideology

Roderick D. Hetzel, A. Brook Gregory, Religiousness and Spirituality as Predictors of Health-Protective Behavior in Men
David C.L. Runyon & Geoffrey Lightsey

2:00-2:50 p.m. – Symposium: Gender Role Conflict Research…Innovative Uses, Applications and Directions
(Chair: Aaron Rochlen). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 206C

3:00-3:50 p.m. - Roundtable Discussion: Difficult Dialogues About Men of Color and Masculinity - Challenges and Opportunities for Division 51 (Co-Chairs: William D. Parham and William Liu). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Reception Hall 104B

4:00-4:50 p.m. – Invited Address by Frederic E. Rabinowitz and Sam V. Cochran: Reconnecting with the Relational - The Power of Psychotherapy with Men (Chair: James R. Mahalik). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Reception Hall 104B

SATURDAY, August 9th

8:00 - 9:50 a.m. - Division 51 Executive Committee Meeting (Chair: Corey J. Habben). In Confederation Room 3, Fairmont
Royal York Hotel.

9:00-10:50 a.m. – Symposium: Psychological and Physical Health Correlates of Gender Role Conflict--Five Empirical Studies
(Co-Chairs: James M. O’Neil and Glenn E. Good). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 803A

3:00-3:50 p.m. – Invited Address by Ross Gray: Men, Sex and Illness - The View from Mars (Chair: James R. Mahalik). In Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Manitoba Room

4:00-4:50 p.m. - Division 51 Presidential Address by Corey J. Habben. In Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Manitoba Room

5:00-5:50 p.m. - Division 51 Business Meeting (Chair: Corey J. Habben). In Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Manitoba Room

6:00-6:50 p.m. – Social Hour. In Fairmont Royal York Hotel, Alberta Room

SUNDAY, August 10th

9:00-9:50 a.m. – Workshop: Developing and Implementing Innovative Interventions for Men on College Campuses
(Chair: Jon Davies). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Room 718A

10:00-11:50 a.m. – Workshop: Gender Issues and Actions…A Community (Co-Chairs: Holly B. Sweet and Rory Remer). In Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Meeting Rooms 203C and 203D

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Application for Membership in SPSMM
Share this with a friend!

Name:_____________________________________  

Address:_________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

Home Telephone:___(_____)_________-_______________

Office Telephone:___(_____)_________-_______________

Email:_________________________@_________________________

APA Membership Status:

Member/Fellow      Associate Member

Student Affiliate     Non-APA Member 

APA Membership No.:____________________

SPSMM Membership Status Desired:

Member (Psychology Doctorate, APA Member/Fellow) • $25

Associate Member (Associate Member of APA) • $25

Student Affiliate (Student Affiliate of APA) • $5

Affiliate (Interested in SPSMM & Non-APA Member) • $25

Sex: Male  Female

Race/Ethnicity:

European-American  African-American   Hispanic/Latino

Asian/Pacific Islander   American Indian/Alaskan   Other

Education:

PhD   EdD   PsyD   MA/MS   MD   Other

Make check payable to Division 51, SPSMM. Send application & check to Division 51 Administrative Office, American Psychological Association, 750 First St., NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.

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SPSMM Policy on Book Reviews  

SPSMM provides book reviews for members to learn about the latest books in the field. Currently, book reviews are published in the SPSMM Bulletin because page space in the Division’s journal Psychology of Men and Masculinity (PMM) is at a premium with priority being placed on publishing manuscripts. This policy could be revisited once additional pages are allocated to PMM.

Persons interested in reviewing books or having their books reviewed in the Bulletin should contact the SPSMM Book Review Editor. The SPSMM Bulletin Book Editor will exercise his or her discretion as to which book will be reviewed in any given issue based on his or her judgment about the interests of the membership and mission of SPSMM. The current SPSMM Book Review Editor is Dr. Jay Wade, Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Dealy Hall, 441 E. Fordham Rd., Bronx, NY 10458.

Book reviewers must assert in writing that they do not have a conflict of interest or personal relationship that would interfere with providing an objective review. The Book Review Editor will select reviewers in response to an author’s request, and the author will provide a copy of the book to the Book Review Editor.

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Visit Our Website

The Division’s website is under revision through the efforts of Dr. Robert Rando. When it is completed, please visit it for information about all the activities of the Division: position statement, bylaws, officers, task force information, membership information, discussion list information, important links, convention programming, newsletter archives, election information, information on submitting cookbook recipes, and a research project page that facilitates the process of planning research, linking colleagues, and organizing presentations. Visit it today! www.apa.org/divisions/div51.

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Come and Get It!

The Division’s Cookbook is ready for release and people are raving about it. In the words of Sam Cochran, “This is a spectacular collection of recipes and stories, truly distinctive in the world of cookbooks . . . I will treasure this book for many years to come. After all, in what other cookbook will you find Lenore Walker’s Holiday Turkey, David Lisak’s inspirational recipe for red chile sauce, Murry Scher’s ‘best blueberry muffins in the world’ recipe, Ron Levant’s couscous-stuffed green pepper recipe, or David Rose’s Teppanyaki Pancake recipe (yum). All the recipes in the book are clearly ‘family favorites’ that are conveyed with a loving and charming sense of personal history. This is a cookbook that everyone must own!” The Division’s Cookbook is now available by sending a $20 check to Larry Beer at Child and Family Psychological Services, 5380 Holiday Terrace, Kalamazoo, MI 49009. Make your check payable to “Larry Beer.”

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Psychological Student of Men and Masculinity

Division 51 of the American Psychological

GOVERNANCE

January-December 2003


PRESIDENT
Corey Habben, PsyD
Behavioral Health Clinic
Walter Reed Army Medical Center
Building
6, Rm 3054
Washington, DC 20307-5001
Phone: 202-782-8034
Fax: 202-782-8379
E-mail: chabben@juno.com

PRESIDENT-ELECT
John Robertson, PhD
Kansas State University
Lafaene Student Health Room 238
Manhattan, KS 66506
(Will soon change to Lawrence, Kansas)
Phone: 785-532-6927
E-mail: jrobertson@sunflower.com

PAST PRESIDENT
Sam Cochran, PhD  
3223 Westlawn
University
of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1100
Phone: (319) 335-7294
Fax: (319) 335-7298
E-mail: sam-cochran@uiowa.edu

SECRETARY
Lawrence B. Beer, EdD
6101 Rothbury Street
Portage, MI 49024-2390

Phone: (616) 372-4140
Fax: (616) 372-0390
E-mail: lbbkzoo@aol.com  

TREASURER (2002-2003)
Michele Harway, PhD
Antioch University
801 Garden Street
Santa Barbara, CA 93101

Phone: 805-962-8179 x320
Fax: 805-962-4786
E-mail: mharway@antiochsb.edu

MEMBERS-AT-LARGE
Doug Haldeman, PhD
2910 E. Madison St., #302
Seattle, WA 98112

Phone: (w) (206) 328-6025; (h) (206) 364-8276
Fax: (206) 860-2411
E-mail: 76043.520@compuserve.com  

Marty Wong, PhD
Counseling Psychologist
15 Elizabeth street
Charleston, SC 29403

Phone: 843-452-7516
E-mail: BarbatWong@aol.com

Neil A. Massoth, PhD (2001-2003)
Psychology
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Teaneck, NJ 07666
Phone: (201) 692-2300
Fax: (201) 444-7201
E-mail: nmassoth@aol.com

Holly B. Sweet, PhD (2001-2003)
Room 24-612, MIT
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02135

Phone: (617) 253-7786
Fax: (617) 258-9500
E-mail: hbsweet@mit.edu

COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE
Glenn E. Good, PhD
16 Hill Hall, University of Missouri
Columbia, MO 65211
Phone: (573) 882-3084
Fax: (573) 884-5989
E-mail: edcogood@showme.missouri.edu

POLICY ADVISOR
Ron Levant, EdD, ABPP
Office of the Dean
Center for Psychological Studies
Nova Southeastern University
3301 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314
Phone: (954) 262-5701
Fax: (954) 262-3859
E-mail: RLevant@aol.com

LEGISLATIVE ADVOCACY COORDINATOR
Taleb Khairallah
62 East 200 South 123-3
Ephram, UT 84627
Phone: (435) 253-8078
E-mail: talebk@iname.com

CODAPAR LIAISON TO DIVISION 51
Gloria Behar Gottsegen, PhD
5011 West Oakland Park Blvd—#210A
Lauderdale Lakes, FL 33313
E-mail: GGottsegen@aol.com
Phone: (954) 733-1685
Fax: (954) 733-1685

COMMITTEES

AWARDS
Lawrence B. Beer, EdD

BULLETIN EDITOR
Fred Rabinowitz, PhD
Psychology Department
University of Redlands
1200 E. Colton Avenue
Redlands, CA 92373-0999

Phone: 909-793-2121 x3863
Fax: 909-335-5305
Email: fredric_ rabinowitz@redlands.edu

CONTINUING EDUCATION
Gary Brooks, PhD
Baylor University
Pager: (800) 752-3307 (ID#3988730)
E-mail:  Gbrooks300@aol.com  

FELLOWS
Marty Wong, PhD
15 Elizabeth Street
Charleston, SC 29403

Phone: (843) 853-2818
E-mail: BarbaWong@aol.com  

MEMBERSHIP AND RECRUITMENT
 

NOMINATIONS AND ELECTIONS
John Roberston, PhD

PROGRAM
Jim Mahalik, PhD
Campion Hall 312
Boston College
Chestnut Hill
, MA 02467

Phone: (617) 552-4077
Fax: (617) 552-1981
E-mail: Mahalik@bc.edu  

DIVISION 51 WEB SITE COORDINATOR
Robert Rando, PhD
Director, Center for Psychological Services
Associate Professor, School of Professional Psychology
Wright State University
Dayton, Ohio 43435
E-mail: robert.rando@wright.edu

DIVISION 51 LISTSERV FACILITATOR
Michael Addis, PhD
Department of Psychology
Clark University
950 Main Street
Worchester, MA 10610

E-mail: maddis@clark.edu

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Division 51 Webmaster: Robert A. Rando, Ph.D.

Last modification on: March 11, 2003