Project goals

Goal and background

The compelling question among educators today is how to enhance teaching and student learning in order to increase academic achievement. Many solutions are being offered to respond to this question in schools throughout the nation. Committed to science-based answers, the American Psychological Association applied for and received a grant from the McDonnell Foundation to organize a collaborative to investigate the effect of learning the Other 3 Rs on student academic achievement and life skills. The goal of the pilot project conducted with Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools was to examine not only whether teaching the skills of reasoning, resilience and responsibility had an impact on student learning and efficacy, but on teacher self-efficacy as well.

Why the Other 3 Rs?

Recent research points to the importance of life skills or character education in enhancing teaching and student learning. This focus rests on the notion that a student's success in academics is augmented by strong problem solving skills.

Experts have identified reasoning, resilience and responsibility as key problem solving skills that, when learned, can benefit student achievement and general life success strategies. The prevailing view among scientists is that teachers can teach these skills and students can learn them.

Designing the teacher training
Defining the Other 3 Rs

The learnable attributes of reasoning, resilience and responsibility are defined as follows:

  • Reasoning
    Thinking that utilizes explicit and/or implicit rules, with this program focusing on effective problem solving particularly in regard to academic challenges.

  • Resilience
    Competently surmounting challenges, both inside and outside of school.
    Challenges & difficulties are a normal part of life:
    "Challenges are normal. We all have them."

    Persistence/Determination
    "If at first I don't succeed I will try again."

    View obstacles as challenges to be overcome (approach challenges by keeping things in perspective and seeing them as opportunities for learning).
    "What can I learn from this?"
    "How can I approach this challenge?"

  • Responsibility
    Being accountable for one's own actions and inactions and the consequences of those actions and inactions.
    Academic responsibility
    "Good grades result from my efforts."
    "If I want to learn it's up to me."

    Personal responsibility
    "It's up to me to make it happen."
    "How I act matters."

    Social responsibility
    Concern for the common good.
    "I care about what is good for all of us, not just for me."

    Giving help and seeking help.
    "I will help you."
    "I need help."

  • The Other 3 Rs Problem Solving Model
    Printable Flow Chart (PDF, 384KB)

Implementing a study of the Other 3 Rs model

To conduct this study we designed the Other 3Rs training for teachers and compared it to a rigorous and well-researched instructional program on enhancing memory developed at Yale University. This comparison program was selected because it has been shown to be effective in increasing achievement of students at various grade levels.

Both the Other 3 Rs and the Memory trainings were five sessions, each 3 hours in length, and were conducted every 2 weeks from late October 2004 to the end of January 2005. Teachers learned skills and content that they then incorporated into their daily instruction.

The Other 3 Rs training was designed with lessons that infused reasoning, resilience and responsibility into the already existing curriculum. The centerpiece of this training was a new problem-solving model that encourages students to reason well, be resilient in the face of challenges and take responsibility for their learning. Session 1 was an overview and introduction to the concepts as an academic and life skills model. In sessions 2 through 5, teachers practiced applying the Other 3 Rs Problem Solving Model to two subject/interpersonal areas each session as follows:

  • Session 2 Mathematics Reading

  • Session 3 Mathematics Interpersonal

  • Session 4 Mathematics Science

  • Session 5 Mathematics Social Studies

Each session of the trainings included the same four components:

  1. Review and discussion

  2. Hands on practice

  3. Application

  4. Taking the lessons into the classroom

Who was involved?

A noteworthy feature of this project is that it was designed and implemented by a team of people representing a broad range of expertise including:

  • Researchers on reasoning, resilience and responsibility

  • Professional development experts

  • Curriculum developers

  • Teacher trainers

  • Program implementation experts

  • Design and evaluation consultants

  • Elementary school teachers

Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools teachers, administrators and other staff individuals played a key role in every step of the process from designing the curriculum, to teaching it, to successfully implementing the project.

Who participated

Students

724 students participated. This number reflects a 91 percent participation rate from all students who received a parent permission slip. This is an exceptionally high student participation rate.

 

Race/ethnicity
  Sample breakdown MCPS total breakdown
White 33.9 %

44.6%

African American 23.2 %

22.1%

Hispanic   8.9 %

18.7%

Asian 11.0 %

14.3%

American Indian   2.9 %   0.3%
Alaska Native
Other
  0.4 %
19.9 %


Girls
Boys
386 (53.3%)
338 (46.7%)
Average age = 8.10

Race/ethnicity
White
African American
Asian American
Multiple races
Other
72.1%
11.6%
  7.0%
  7.0%
  2.3%
Gender
Female
Male
42 (97.7%)
  1 (2.3%)
Average years of teaching experience = 9.61
Illustrated presentations
Project results
What the results showed

Teachers attending the Other 3 Rs training in comparison to teachers in a mnemonics training:

  1. Expressed greater perceived self-efficacy in their ability to influence children’s learning, even in the context of countervailing forces.

  2. Had greater confidence than teachers in the comparison condition in their ability to help children use reasoning skills to solve problems, to become more resilient learners and to be more socially responsible.

  3. Had greater beliefs than teachers in the comparison condition that resilience can be taught.

Students
  1. Students of the Other 3 Rs teachers had higher scores in self-efficacy than the children in the mnemonics group, though for both groups self-efficacy scores dropped from pre to post.

    In considering these findings, perhaps participating in the Other 3 Rs training served as a buffer against the trend for a decrease in self-efficacy for 3rd graders. Third grade is a swing year, where the expectations of students change. Instead of learning to read they are expected to read to learn. Students also shift from printing to cursive. The importance of testing is introduced and emphasized for the first time. Another plausible explanation for the drop in self-efficacy across both experimental and control groups was the timing of the second survey administration, which occurred right after standardized testing. Further studies will explore this interesting outcome.

  2. There were no significant group differences for students on either reading or math scores on the Maryland School Assessment (MSA) test. The unit of analysis was percentage of grade proficient for the entire grade, which is not a very sensitive unit of analysis (but was all that we had available from the school district). Additionally, not all the students in the grade participated in the study.

Project collaborators
Our collaborators
  • Carol A. Dwyer, PhD
    Educational Policy Leadership Institute
    Educational Testing Service

  • Rose Furr
    Garrett Park Elementary School
    Montgomery County Public Schools System, Garrett Park, Maryland

  • Linda Jarvin, PhD
    Center for Psychology of Abilities, Competencies and Expertise
    and the Department of Psychology, Yale University

  • Suzanne Morrow, MA
    Boston Connects
    James A. Garfield Elementary School in Brighton, MA

  • Robert J. Sternberg, PhD
    Center for Psychology of Abilities, Competencies and Expertise
    Yale University

  • Vivian S. Sonnenborn, EdD
    Greenville School
    Edgemont School District, Scarsdale, New York

  • Mary E. Walsh, PhD
    Center for Child, Family, and Community Partnerships
    Boston College

  • Roger P. Weissberg, PhD
    Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning
    University of Illinois at Chicago

  • Barry J. Zimmerman, PhD
    Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York


APA staff
  • Rena Subotnik, PhD
    Director

  • Jeanine Cogan, PhD
    Assistant Director


Consultants
  • Diane Blyler, PhD
    Evaluation Consultant
    Vanderbilt Center for Evaluation and Program Improvement, Washington, D.C.

  • Debra J. Rog, PhD
    Evaluation Consultant
    Institute for Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University, Washington, D.C.

  • Sandy Shmookler
    Montgomery County Public Schools

  • Joanne Steckler
    Montgomery County Public Schools

  • Priscilla Waymant, EdD
    Trainer
    EduTec Unlimited

  • Russell Wright, EdD
    Educational Consultant
    Event Based Science

For information about this project contact Jeanine Cogan

Collaborator biosketches
Jeanine C. Cogan, PhD

Jeanine C. Cogan served as Assistant Director of the Other 3Rs Project at the Center for Psychology in Schools and Education at the American Psychological Association. Before joining APA, Dr. Cogan was founder and director of her own consulting business, Action Based Consulting, focused on research and policy analysis as well as organizational development. A sample of clients included the Harvard Eating Disorders Center, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Health, and the American Sociological Association. As a consultant, Dr. Cogan worked with other eating disorder leaders and was the founding Executive Director of the Eating Disorders Coalition for Research, Policy & Action. Under her leadership the coalition of five founding organizations grew to more than 20 in three years, led to the introduction of four new bills promoting eating disorder relevant policies in Congress and identified key champions of the cause such as Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Jeanine completed her PhD in Experimental/Social Psychology at the University of Vermont in 1993. Since then Dr. Cogan has conducted research, published in professional journals and spoken nationally and internationally at nearly 100 professional conferences, community talks and seminars on a range of topics with a recent emphasis on public policy. Dr. Cogan was recognized for her outstanding contributions in the policy arena and awarded Fellow Status of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Division 9 of APA. In 1996, she was awarded the James Marshall Public Policy Fellowship from SPSSI. In 1998 she received a highly competitive policy award from the American Psychological Association as the Bailey Congressional Fellow. In 1999 Dr. Cogan was nominated for the Raymond Fowler Outstanding Mentoring Award for her commitment to mentoring students and young professionals. Most recently she received the 2005 Wings of Hope award for her ability to inspire others.

Jeanine is also trained as an executive and professional coach. She has coached a wide array of professionals one-on-one including CEOs, small business owners, government employees, teachers, independent consultants, musicians, artists, employees of nonprofit organizations and professors.

Carol A. Dwyer, PhD

Carol A. Dwyer is currently vice president of the Educational Policy Leadership Institute and Distinguished Presidential Appointee at the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J. Dr. Dwyer's work focuses on assessment and equity as they relate to teaching and learning in both higher education and elementary/secondary school settings. She has published extensively in the field of test validity, with an emphasis on using construct validity theory in test design to promote test fairness and appropriate test use. She was the architect and overall leader of the Praxis series of national teacher licensing tests, and personally directed the innovative teacher performance assessment effort known as Praxis III. She was also a major contributor to the ETS study, Gender and Fair Assessment, writing about gender issues in grading practices, educational competitions and other nontest indicators of achievement.

Dr. Dwyer has been active in professional associations having served as President of the American Psychological Association’s Divisions of Educational Psychology (15), and Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics (5). She is a Fellow of APA's divisions of Educational Psychology; the Psychology of Women; and Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics, and has for two terms served as chair of APA’s Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessments. She received her bachelor's degree in psychology from Barnard College in New York City and her doctoral degree in educational psychology from the University of California at Berkeley.

Rose Furr

Rose Furr is the Staff Development Teacher at Garrett Park Elementary School for the Montgomery County Public Schools System (MCPS) in Garrett Park, Maryland. She has been an educator for 21 years — a teacher of grades 3, 4 and 5, an academic support teacher, and a staff development teacher. For years Ms. Furr was the lead 4th grade trainer for the MCPS New Teacher Program where she trained and mentored new teachers. She facilitated staff development training for the MCPS Office of Curriculum and Instruction, and the Office of Staff Development. Ms. Furr also was an Inquiry Group Facilitator for the Professional Development School Network for the University of Maryland. Ms. Furr developed curriculum for several disciplines, (e.g., social studies, reading and math), designed activities for the field trip database available online from MCPS homepage, reviewed and designed lessons for the United States Mint 50 State Quarters Program, and created lessons published for “The American Spirit Posters” in celebration of the 200th anniversary of the Bill of Rights for the National Council for the Social Studies.

One of Ms. Furr’s most notable honors was receiving the 1995 Montgomery County Teacher of the Year Award. She was also a state finalist for the 1995 Maryland State Teacher of the Year. She served as an educational consultant for Maryland Public Television and for MCPS Electronic School Bus videos (field trips on videos). She was a member of the Maryland Department of Education Educational Talent Consortium, is currently a member of the MCPS Social Studies Advisory Committee, and was on the development team for the framework of the new and revised MCPS math and social studies curriculum K-5. She has served on the teacher advisory board for Oxon Cove Park sponsored by the National Park Service to design lessons for exploring the past at Mount Welby. She was selected as a panelist for the 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Writing Achievement Levels-Setting pilot study in St. Louis, Mo.

Linda Jarvin, PhD

Linda Jarvin is a research scientist in the Department of Psychology at Yale University and associate director of the PACE Center at Yale. She has extensive experience working with teachers and applying psychological theories to the classroom. She is the project director for the current $3 million IERI grant, under which over 300 teachers have been trained and curriculum materials have been developed and implemented with several thousand students. She is also the co-principal investigator of a currently funded U.S. Department of Education program looking at the impact of practical contexts on teaching mathematics: Understanding Students Mathematical Competencies: An Exploration of the Impact of Contextualizing Mathematical Problems.

Suzanne Morrow, MA

Suzanne Morrow is currently a Boston Connects Site Coordinator at the James A. Garfield Elementary School in Brighton, Mass. Boston Connects is a partnership between Boston Public Schools, Boston College and the YMCA. The program's goal is to increase academic achievement, reduce barriers to learning and expand enrichment opportunities by creating a comprehensive, coordinated student support system with generalized services for all students and focused services for some. Suzanne works with students, school staff, families and community agencies to accomplish these goals. Previously, Suzanne worked with the Boston Public Schools, serving as a clinical consultant and doing direct service, advocating for students and their families. Originally, Suzanne is from Philadelphia. She earned a BA from Tufts University and a masters degree in social work from Washington University in St. Louis, Mo.

Debra J. Rog, PhD

Debra J. Rog is a senior research associate with Vanderbilt University's Institute for Public Policy Studies, and directs the Washington office of the Center for Mental Health Policy. Having received her PhD in social psychology from Vanderbilt, Dr. Rog has over 20 years of experience in program evaluation and applied research. She has directed numerous multi-site evaluations and research projects involving a range of issues, including homelessness, housing, services and violence prevention. Currently, she is the principal investigator of a Coordinating Center for the Centers for Mental Health Services and for Substance Abuse Treatment's Homeless Families Initiative, and two foundation-funded cross-site evaluations of local collaboratives focused on violence prevention.

Dr. Rog has to her credit numerous publications on evaluation methodology, housing, homelessness, poverty, mental health, and program and policy development. She is co-editor of the Applied Social Research Methods Series and the Handbook of Applied Social Research Method and an editor of the Encyclopedia of Evaluation and the Encyclopedia of Homelessness. She has served on the Board of Directors of the American Evaluation Association, and is a member of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society and the American Public Health Association. She has been recognized for her evaluation work by the National Institute of Mental Health, the American Evaluation Association, the Eastern Evaluation Research Society and the Knowledge Utilization Society.

Vivian S. Sonnenborn, EdD

Vivian S. Sonnenborn is currently teaching students with learning disabilities at the Greenville School, Edgemont School District in Scarsdale, N.Y. Dr. Sonnenborn works with students in a variety of settings, including the Resource Room, Inclusion Classes and Special Classes. In addition to 20 years of teaching both special education and mainstream students, Dr. Sonnenborn has taught preservice and in-service courses for teachers at Teachers College, Columbia University, and more recently, through the Scarsdale Teachers Institute (STI). Such courses have focused on the development of reading and writing skills in elementary school age children. For many years, Dr. Sonnenborn has served on the Policy Board of the STI, a vibrant resource for in-service teachers and community members in the Scarsdale and Edgemont School Districts, promoting continuing education in a wide variety of areas. Dr. Sonnenborn also serves on a steering committee at Greenville School devoted to planning and implementing activities that promote positive behaviors (e.g., respect and responsibility) in the school community.

Joanne Steckler

Joanne Steckler has worked in the field of education for more than 35 years. She taught grades 1 through 5 in four elementary schools over 17 years as an elementary school teacher. Ms. Steckler earned a masters degree in Education in Human Development at the University of Maryland in 1980 and earned Maryland state certification as Elementary School Principal — Supervisor through additional coursework at the University. Ms. Steckler worked as a staff developer with a specialty in interdisciplinary instruction while working as a classroom teacher. She then became a Curriculum Specialist in 1988 with responsibility for staff development and curriculum implementation at Rolling Terrace, a high poverty Title I school in Montgomery County, Maryland. Two years later Ms. Steckler became assistant principal then principal intern at Rolling Terrace. In 1992, Ms. Steckler was appointed as principal at Highland View Elementary School in Silver Spring, Maryland. Highland View is a Title I school with a high percentage of children eligible for the Free and Reduced Meals program, many of whom are also English Language Learners. During her 12 year tenure at Highland View, the school received recognition for implementation of a bilingual Spanish program, a large reduction in student mobility and increased student achievement. After leaving Highland View prior to her November 2004 retirement, Ms. Steckler worked to establish Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) as a provider of Supplemental Educational Services under the No Child Left Behind legislation. 

During her career Ms. Steckler was named ESOL Principal of the Year (1999), was nominated for the Superintendent’s Mark Mann Excellence and Harmony Award (1997), the Washington Post Distinguished Educational Leadership Award (1997) and the Silver Spring Business & Community Award for Educator of the Year (2004), and was selected to attend the Washington Post Leadership Institute in 1998. In addition, under her leadership, Highland View was awarded a number of Maryland State Department of Education awards for achievement including a cash award in 2004 in recognition of performance for achievement on the Maryland School Assessments.

Since her retirement from Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS), Ms. Steckler continues to work as an educational consultant. She has acted as on-site coordinator in MCPS for The Other 3 Rs. Ms. Steckler serves as training consultant to several aspiring school administrators in Montgomery County, advising them on professional issues and assisting with their development programs. In addition, Ms. Steckler works with the Deputy Superintendent’s office to host foreign visitors to MCPS.   She also serves on the board of the MCPS Retiree’s Association as Special Projects chair. In this capacity, she directs an annual project to provide learning materials for students and parents in twenty MCPS Title I schools.

Robert J. Sternberg, PhD

Robert J. Sternberg is Dean of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and was President of the American Psychological Association at the time that this program was conducted. He is most well known for his theory of successful intelligence, investment theory of creativity (developed with Todd Lubart), theory of mental self-government, balance theory of wisdom, and for his triangular theory of love and his theory of love as a story. Dr. Sternberg is the author of approximately 950 journal articles, book chapters, and books, and has received some $15 million in government grants and contracts for his research. In addition, he has consulted for hundreds of educational organizations on projects related to teaching and testing for intellectual skills. Dr. Sternberg is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association (in 12 divisions), the American Psychological Society (APS), and the Society of Experimental Psychologists. He has won many awards from the APA, American Educational Research Association, APS and other organizations. Among these are the Early Career Award and Boyd R. McCandless Award from APA; the Palmer O. Johnson, Research Review, Outstanding Book, and Sylvia Scribner Awards from AERA; the James McKeen Cattell Award from APS; the Award for Excellence of the Mensa Education and Research Foundation; the Sidney Siegel Memorial Award of Stanford University; and the Wohlenberg Prize of Yale University. Dr. Sternberg has served as president of the APA Divisions of General Psychology, Educational Psychology, Psychology and the Arts, and Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, and as editor of the Psychological Bulletin. He is editor of Contemporary Psychology.

Rena F. Subotnik

Rena F. Subotnik began her position as Director of the Center for Psychology in the Schools and Education at the American Psychological Association in January 2002. Before she came to APA, Dr. Subotnik was Professor of Education at Hunter College, where she coordinated the secondary education program and served as research and curriculum liaison to the Hunter College laboratory schools (grades PK-12). In 1997-1998, Dr. Subotnik was an APA Congressional Fellow in child policy with U.S. Senator Jeff Bingaman, a member of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions committee. Her fellowship assignment involved drafting and promoting legislation related to teacher quality, which led to passage of Title II of the Higher Education Act in 1998. Since the fellowship, Dr. Subotnik has been actively involved in the community of scholars and practitioners concerned about federal policy related to teacher education.

Dr. Subotnik has been awarded grants from the McDonnell Foundation, the Institute for Education Sciences, Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, the American Psychological Foundation, National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Education Javits program and the Spencer Foundation.

She is co-editor (with Robert Sternberg) of "Optimizing Student Success with the Other Three R’s" (in press), (with Herbert Walberg) "The Scientific Basis of Educational Productivity" (in press), (with Kurt Heller, Franz Monks, and Robert Sternberg) "The International Handbook of Research on Giftedness and Talent" (2nd Edition) (2000), (with Karen Arnold and Kathleen Noble) "Remarkable Women: Perspectives on Female Talent Development" (1997), (with Karen Arnold) "Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent" (1994), and the author (with Lee Kassan, Alan Wasser, and Ellen Summers) of "Genius Revisited: High IQ Children Grown Up" (1993).

Mary E. Walsh, PhD

Mary E. Walsh is a clinical-developmental psychologist and the Kearns Professor of Urban Education and Innovative Leadership in the Department of Counseling, Developmental and Educational Psychology at the Lynch School of Education at Boston College. She also directs the Boston College Center for Child, Family and Community Partnerships which joins the resources of the Schools of Education, Social Work, Nursing, Law and Management in order to promote university-community collaborations that enhance the life chances of youth and families. For the past several years, she has been a leader in a school-community-university partnership among Boston College, the Boston Public and Catholic Schools in the Allston-Brighton/Mission Hill section of Boston, and community agencies and resources. This partnership addresses barriers to learning and promotes academic achievement by fostering strong connections between schools and community resources/agencies. The partnership's efforts to build new linkages between schools and community are highlighted in a single-school project — the Gardner Extended Services School - as well as a systemic partnership across Cluster 5 schools known as the "Boston CONNECTS" Initiative. In both of these projects, the YMCA serves as a lead agency. Dr. Walsh has presented and published widely in the area of school-community supports for schoolchildren and their families. Her most recent book, published as a yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, and co-authored with Mary Brabeck, is titled “Meeting at the Hyphen: Schools-Universities-Communities-Professions in Collaboration for Student Achievement and Well Being.”

Dr. Walsh obtained her PhD in psychology from Clark University. She is a member of the Board of Registration of Psychologists in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and is active in local and national committees that address the intersection between education and psychology.

Roger P. Weissberg, PhD

Roger P. Weissberg is a professor of psychology and education at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and executive director of the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), an international organization committed to supporting the development and dissemination of effective school-based programs that enhance the positive social, emotional, academic, moral and healthy development of young people. Dr. Weissberg also directs an NIMH-funded Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Prevention Research Training Program in Urban Children’s Mental Health and AIDS Prevention at UIC and is a Senior Research Associate with the Mid-Atlantic Laboratory for Student Success funded by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the U. S. Department of Education. From 1982 to 1992 he was a professor in the Psychology Department at Yale University where he collaborated with the New Haven Public School System to establish New Haven’s kindergarten through grade 12 Social Development Project.

Dr. Weissberg has published some 150 articles and chapters focused on preventive interventions with children and adolescents and has co-authored nine curricula on school-based programs to promote social competence and prevent problem behaviors including drug use, high-risk sexual behaviors and aggression. His Social Competence Promotion Program for Young Adolescents received a model program designation from the Center for Subtonic Abuse Prevention. Recent edited books include "Long-term Trends in the Well-being of Children and Youth" (2003), and "Building School Success on Social and Emotional Learning" (2003). He also co-authored "Promoting Social and Emotional Learning: Guidelines for Educators" (1997) and "Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader’s Guide to Evidence-based Social and Emotional Learning Programs" (2003).

Dr. Weissberg is a past President of the Society for Community Research and Action (APA Division 27: Community Psychology) and co-chaired the APA Task Force on “Prevention: Promoting Strength, Resilience, and Health in Young People” from 1997 to 1999. He is a recipient of the William T. Grant Foundation’s 5-year Faculty Scholars Award in Children’s Mental Health, the Connecticut Psychological Association’s Award for Distinguished Psychological Contribution in the Public Interest and the National Mental Health Association’s Lela Rowland Prevention Award. In August 2000, he received the APA Distinguished Contribution Award for Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. Dr. Weissberg received his PhD from the University of Rochester in 1980.

Russell G. Wright, EdD

Russell G. Wright, EdD is founder and director of the Event-Based Science Project, Montgomery County Public Schools. This NSF funded, science curriculum project, was hailed by NSF as “...a prototype for the nation.” As director, Dr. Wright coordinates all aspects of the project: he is principal author of its 19 modules, manager and liaison with corporate and government partners; and, he coordinates dissemination with Prentice Hall, and training with local and state education agencies. Adapted versions of activities written for several EBS modules have been featured in such publications as the teachers manual to Scientific American Frontiers episode of 1/11/95; Odyssey Magazine March ‘95; and, National Science and Technology Week materials April ‘95. Event-Based Science has been recognized as a Promising Science Program by the United States Department of Education 1/10/01. Web-based activities funded by NASA have been featured by NSTA's SciLinks program.

Dr. Wright has written proposals and obtained grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Awards totaling $2.25 million have supported his curriculum development work for Event-Based Science. In 1997, the Maryland Association of Science Teachers presented to Dr. Wright its 1997 Outstanding Science Supervisor award. In 2001, the U.S. Department of Education selected Event-Based Science for recognition as a promising science program.

In 2002, Dr. Wright created the Total Engagement Learning System (TELS). He has worked with the Cal Ripken, Sr. Foundation, the McKenzie Group and Quantum Simulations, Inc. to develop science and mathematics activities that utilize the TELS approach. He is now working with the American Psychological Association to develop training materials for The Other Three Rs project.

Barry J. Zimmerman, PhD

Barry J. Zimmerman is a Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology and Head of Learning, Development, and Instruction area at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York. Dr. Zimmerman has written more than 200 research articles, book chapters and professional conference papers, and written/edited eight books on social cognitive and self regulatory processes in the learning of children and youth. Dr. Zimmerman has received the APA Division 16 (School Psychology) Senior Scientist Award for sustained and exceptional program of scholarship, the Sylvia Scribner Award of the American Educational Research Association for his exemplary research in learning and instruction, and the New York City Department of Health Award for preventive care of childhood asthma. He is a past President of Division 15 of the American Psychological Association (Educational Psychology), past Chair of the Behavioral Science Assembly of the American Thoracic Association, and former Member of the Board of Directors of the American Lung Association. Dr. Zimmerman serves on the editorial boards of Contemporary Educational Psychology, the Journal of Educational Psychology, Developmental Review, and the School Psychology Quarterly, and is a past member of the editorial boards of the American Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, and Merrill Palmer Quarterly. Dr. Zimmerman has received grants from the National Institutes of Health for his research in childhood asthma and co-directed a program for teaching self regulatory study skills for students at academic risk at New York Technical College in New York City.