Upfront

1in 5

How many older workers took leave or quit their jobs in the last five years due to adult caregiving demands, according to a 2013 AARP survey of workers ages 45 to 74.

75%

Percentage of people with severe psychiatric illness — including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression — who are regular smokers, compared with 33 percent of controls, according to a study in the January issue of JAMA Psychiatry. Compared with the general population, people with mental illness are also more likely to binge drink (30 percent versus 8 percent) and use marijuana (50 percent versus 18 percent).

4x

How many more American men began taking testosterone in 2011 than in 2000, according to a study in press at the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. The increase may be due in part to higher rates of obesity and diabetes, which can lower testosterone levels, as well as more advertising of products that can drive men to treatment.

13.1%

How many middle aged or older adults have experienced depression, according to continuous evaluations of 1,071 people over 24 years, according to a study in the January issue of JAMA Psychiatry. Only 4.5 percent of those participants, however, reported they had ever been depressed when asked to think back, indicating that lifetime prevalence rates of depression and other mental health disorders based on retrospective reports may be underestimates.