Time Capsule

1844 On Jan. 12, Dorothea Dix submitted a memo to the New York state legislature, documenting widespread filthy, brutalizing and degrading conditions suffered by people with mental health conditions. Her public exposure of these practices resulted in new facilities and more humane care in many states.

1895 James McKeen Cattell purchased the then-failing journal "Science" and published its first issue under his editorship on Jan. 4. The journal had been founded in 1883 by Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Hubbard.

1902 On Jan. 28, Andrew Carnegie endowed the Carnegie Institution with $10 million of U.S. Steel stock. The Carnegie Institution was founded to support scientific research, including psychological studies. A committee headed by psychologist James Mark Baldwin was formed to recommend worthy psychological projects.

1908 Sigmund Freud's "Little Hans" had his first phobic attack on Jan. 7. Interviews with Little Hans led to Freud's theories of infantile sexuality and dreams as expressions of wish fulfillment.

1925 The American Psychological Association was incorporated on Jan. 2.

1969 Entered in B.F. Skinner's notebook on Jan. 22: "Utopias are easy to enjoy but not to produce....One can picture a good life by analyzing one's feelings, but one can achieve it only by arranging environmental contingencies."