Time Capsule

1892 Lightner Witmer passed his doctoral oral examination at the University of Leipzig, Germany, under Wilhelm Wundt on July 18, receiving the grade of magna cum laude. His degree was formally awarded on March 29, 1893. Witmer was a founder of APA and an originator of modern clinical psychology. He died on July 19, 1956, APA's last surviving founding member.

1895 On July 24, Sigmund Freud formed the theory that dreams represent wish fulfillments while dining at the Bellevue Restaurant in Vienna. He wrote that a plaque should be placed there to commemorate the occasion.

1938 On July 9, the president of Indiana University wrote to entomologist Alfred Kinsey, authorizing him to offer a course in marriage. Kinsey's famous research on sexual behavior began with interviews of students in this course.

1992 On Aug. 26, President George Bush signed the Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992. The act imposed penalties for attacks on animal-care facilities by animal-rights activists. Instigated by a rash of break-ins and vandalism, the act protected both commercial and academic research facilities.

Source: APA Historical Database, created and maintained by Warren R. Street, Central Washington University, and published as "A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology" (APA, 1994).