Citations were issued in February and April to the following individuals from APA President Philip G. Zimbardo, PhD:

  • Russell N. Cassel, EdD, and Dennis M. Kowal, PhD, who served as research and consulting psychologists in Vietnam from February 1962 to August 1964 and January 1971 to January 1972, respectively.

  • Alan S. Halpern, PhD, Baron Perlman, PhD, and Gary G. Lickfett, who served in Vietnam as clinical psychologists. Halpern served from June 1968 to June 1969, Lickfett served from July 1970 to June 1971, and Perlman served from July 1970 to March 1971.

The citation honors them for the contributions and support they gave to American military personnel and operations and our nation while serving in these roles in Vietnam.

APA wants to recognize all psychologists who served in Vietnam. If you or someone you know served, please contact Robert S. Nichols, PhD, at (301) 926-2952; e-mail: or Janice H. Laurence, PhD, at (703) 695-5658; e-mail: