Time Capsule

1855 Wilhelm Wundt received his MD, summa cum laude, on Nov. 10 at the University of Heidelberg. His doctoral thesis was on touch sensitivity in people with symptoms of hysteria. He subsequently placed first in the state medical board examination.

1884 Hermann Rorschach was born on Nov. 8. His inkblot-style projective personality test has been widely used despite controversies over its validity. Constructed in 1911, the test was not published until 1921. Rorschach's fraternity nickname, "Klex," means "inkblot" in German.

1941 On Nov. 11, 13 women psychologists met at the Manhattan apartment of Alice Bryan to plan a national organization to promote the employment of women psychologists in government during wartime. Theall-male Emergency Committee in Psychology, formed in 1940, had excluded women from its plans. The National Council of Women Psychologists, later named the International Council of Psychologists, grew from this meeting.

1990 In the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 passed on Nov. 5, Congress approved Medicare payments for independent psychological services delivered in any setting. The act expanded on similar legislation passed in 1988 and 1989 that opened the door to Medicare support of services delivered without medical supervision or referral.

Source: APA Historical Database, created and maintained by Warren R. Street, Central Washington University, and published as "A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology" (APA, 1994).