The Final Report

Commision on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology

Prepared by
Bertha G. Holliday, PhD
Richard M. Suinn, PhD

Martha E. Bernal, PhD
Hector F. Myers, PhD
Ena Vazquez-Nuttall, EdD

Diane Adams, PhD
Cheryl Boyce, PhD
A. Toy Caldwell-Colbert, PhD
Victor De La Cancela, PhD
Hector Garza, MPH
Robin J. Hailstorks, PhD
Arthur L. McDonald, PhD
Manuel Miranda, PhD
Edward G. Singleton, PhD
Elizabeth Todd-Bazemore, PhD
 

A publication of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC - January 1997

 

Members


Arthur L. McDonald, PhD
President
Dull Knife Memorial College
Lame Deer, Montana

Manuel Miranda, PhD
Roybal Institute on Gerontology
California State University
Los Angeles, California

Hector F. Myers, PhD
Professor of Psychology
University of California at Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California

Edward G. Singleton, PhD
Consulting Psychologist
Baltimore, Maryland

Elizabeth Todd-Bazemore, PhD
Assistant Professor of Psychology
University of South Dakota
Vermillion, South Dakota

Ena Vazquez-Nuttall, EdD
Associate Dean and Director of the Graduate School and Professor
Bouve College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts

Reginald L. Jones, PhD
Member Emeritus
Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Special Education and
Director of the National Center for Minority Special Education
Hampton University
Hampton, Virginia

* Prior to Dr. Carter's appointment as a member of CEMRRAT, he served as the APA Board of Professional Affairs liaison to CEMRRAT.

Liaisons to the Commission


APA Board of Directors

Alice F. Chang, PhD
Tucson, Arizona

APA Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest

Eduardo S. Morales, PhD
San Francisco, California

APA Board of Educational Affairs

Pamela T. Reid, PhD
City University of New York
New York, New York

John Moritsugu, PhD
Pacific Lutheran University
Tacoma, Washington

APA Board of Scientific Affairs

Merry Bullock, PhD
APA Science Directorate
Washington, DC

APA Policy and Planning Board (on rotating status)

Laura S. Brown, PhD
Seattle, Washington

Gloria B. Gottsegen, PhD
Boca Raton, Florida

Janet R. Matthews, PhD
Loyola University
New Orleans, Louisiana

Dalmas A. Taylor, PhD
Lincoln University
Lincoln, Pennsylvania

APA Committee on Divisions and APA Relations

Paul Leung, PhD
University of Illinois at Urbana
Champaign, Illinois


Liaisons to the Commission

 
APA Committee on Psychology and AIDS

John Anderson, PhD
APA Office on AIDS
Washington, DC

APA Science Student Council

Debra Shapiro Gill
Los Angeles, CA

American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS)

Lawrence Yang
Somerville, Massachusetts

Illinois Psychological Association

Charles Davis, PhD
Oak Park, Illinois

Center for Mental Health Services

Paul Wohlford, PhD
Psychology Education, CMHS
Rockville, Maryland

National Science Foundation

Wanda E. Ward, PhD
The Directorate for Education and Human Resources
National Science Foundation
Arlington, Virginia

Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology

Richard McCarty, PhD
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Virginia

National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP)

Patricia Bricklin, PhD
Wider University
Chester, Pennsylvania

Ethnic Minority Concerns Committee of the American Psychological Society's Student Caucus

Lynyonne Cotton
Washington, DC
 

Resolution


The following APA Resolution was passed
by the APA Council of
Representatives in February 1994.

APA Resolution
Ethnic Minority Recruitment and Retention


WHEREAS the general population of the United States is projected to change within the next generation and become a pluralistic society;

WHEREAS there is a current and projected under-representation of ethnic minority students, faculty,
practitioners, and researchers in the field of psychology;

WHEREAS the educational pipeline requires recruitment and retention efforts across the spectrum of education from pre-college to entry into the field of psychology;

WHEREAS psychologists in education will need to become increasingly conversant on issues relevant to an increasingly diverse student population and pluralistic society; and

WHEREAS the lack of ethnic minority representation and focus impacts the relevance of psychology to prepare students to function in a diversified society and to provide appropriate services;

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that APA places a high priority on issues related to the education of ethnic minorities. These issues include planning appropriately diverse curricula, promoting psychology as a course of study and career option as well as recruitment, retention, advising, and mentoring of minority 

Acknowledgements


The Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology hopes that this Final Report will provide useful information and guidance not only to the governing leadership of the American Psychological Association (APA), but also to individual psychologists involved in teaching, research, and practice and others throughout the nation's academic communities. Consequently, the Commission has continually and aggressively solicited rigorous and critical comment from a wide array of organizations and groups with vested interests in the various effects of diversity on education and training in general, and on the discipline of psychology in particular.

For example, Commission representatives attended and made presentations at meetings of the APA State and Division Leadership Conferences, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology, the American Council on Education, and nearly a dozen state psychological associations. In addition, the Commission sponsored or participated in a total of eight events at the 1995 and 1996 APA Conventions at which various comments and other types of contributions were formally solicited. Numerous Commission items were placed for comment and review in the Consolidated Agenda Books of APA's governance committees and boards, and special conference committees were called to ensure the requested comment was received in a timely manner. Comments also were solicited from all of the national ethnic minority psychological associations. And of course, comments were repeatedly solicited from the Commission's monitors and panels of expert members and from APA's general membership.

Soliciting and receiving the volume of thoughtful comment involved in the shaping of this Final Report require cumbersome and time consuming processes. The Commission wishes to acknowledge the critical role that APA's staff liaisons to the APA governance groups played in ensuring that these processes proceeded in an efficient and timely manner. In addition, from the Commission's inception, APA's Research Office under the leadership of Jessica Kohout, PhD, provided timely research and statistical assistance, which was essential for the development of this Final Report and other CEMRRAT projects.

The Commission wishes to provide special acknowledgement to the following APA staff who graciously assumed the additional responsibility of coordinating the efforts and interests of their office or directorate and constituents with those of the Commission.

American Psychological Association of Graduate Students Office: Todd Mook
Education Directorate: Ed Bourg, PhD, Paul Nelson, PhD, and Jill Reich, PhD
Membership Services Office: Pat Miyamoto
Minority Fellowship Program: Ernesto Guerro and James M. Jones, PhD
Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs: (Primary CEMRRAT Staff): Alberto Figueroa-Garcia,
Bertha G. Holliday, PhD, Debra J. Perry and Sherry T. Wynn

Practice Directorate: Marquette Turner
Public Communications Office: Rhea Faberman and Pamela Willenz
Public Interest Directorate: Henry Tomes, PhD
Public Policy Office: Brian Smedley, PhD
Research Office: Sislena Grocer and Jessica L. Kohout, PhD
Science Directorate: Merry Bullock, PhD

Appreciation also is extended to Angela Miner and Joanne Zaslow, who provided graphic art and editorial assistance.
 

 

The Commissions Vision of Psychology's Future

Our future will be shaped by the nation's increasing racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity. Consequently, educational institutions will be expected to enrich and enhance the academic and socialization experiences of their students by diversifying the cultures of their institutional environments. This will require institutions to develop and implement a plan for recruiting, valuing, and nurturing diverse cultural perspectives and for extending a hospitable environment to all people. Encouraging such diverse perspectives will serve to expand a discipline's ideologies, paradigms, and methodologies, and spark a renaissance of new knowledge.
In anticipation of this future, we envision the following for the discipline of psychology.

In regard to education and training:
we envision a future in which multicultural awareness and competence will be an integral part of all aspects of education and training in psychology, which will be characterized by the following:

  • Training programs in professional areas of psychology that competently address, through coursework and field experience, the diverse psychological and service needs of ethnic minority populations;

  • Students, faculty, and professionals in psychology who are aware, knowledgeable, and skilled in the area of multicultural psychology;

  • Professional and scientific psychology training programs that incorporate multicultural issues in all aspects of curriculm and field training.

In regard to faculty recruitment and retention:
Our vision is that in 5 years, APA will have assumed a major leadership role in the valuing of diversity within academic settings by promoting the expansion of the pool of ethnic minority faculty in psychology and the enhancement of the work environment for all psychology faculty, students, staff, and administrators. In this leadership role, APA will promote the value of diversity and multiculturalism among its own membership and in its organizational and governance structures.

In regard to student recruitment and retention and graduation:
We envision increased numbers and represenation of ethnic minority students at every level of psychology's educational pipeline, resulting in the critical mass of ethnic minority students required for effectively addressing the service and research needs of communities of color. Further, we envision educational and departmental environments where students of color feel valued and empowered to make a contribution.
 

Executive Summary and Recommendations

BACKGROUND

The American Psychological Association (APA) Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT) is a 15-member advisory and governance group. The Commission was established by the APA Board of Directors in 1994 in response to an Association resolution that identified "the recruitment, retention, and training of ethnic minorities in psychology as one of the Association's highest priorities . . . " Members of CEMRRAT, who are representative experts from federal research and mental health agencies and various domains and levels of postsecondary education including student representatives, were appointed in October 1994 by (then) APA President Ronald E. Fox, PhD. President Fox asked the Commission to assess the status of and barriers to the participation of persons of color in American Psychology, and to develop a 5-year plan to guide the Association's efforts in this area.

The Commission's activities were funded primarily by special allocations from the Contingency Funds of the APA Board of Directors and Council of Representatives. Additional funding was provided by the Association's Public Interest Directorate and by the Center for Mental Health Services (#92-MF-01645701D). Still other support was provided by the 15 organizations and APA governance groups who funded liaisons to attend and contribute to CEMRRAT's meetings.

The Commission's efforts were characterized by processes of inclusion and strategic product development. Mechanisms were developed for encouraging substantive and broad-based comment from the Association's

governance boards and committees, staff, and other groups and individuals with vested interests in CEMRRAT's work. For example, the liaisons to CEMRRAT were encouraged to participate fully in the deliberations and other activities of the Commission and its work groups. Strategic product development was the responsibility of the Commission's three work groups on Education and Training, Faculty Recruitment and Retention, and Student Recruitment and Retention.

The Commission seeks to promote creative transformation of psychology's educational pipeline (high school through postdoctoral and continuing education studies) in ways that will ensure that, in the very near future, the proportion of psychologists who are people of color (currently 5% to 6%) will significantly increase, and all psychologists will demonstrate at least minimal multicultural competence in training, research, and practice issues.
 

The Commissions Response to its Charges - Charge #1

When APA President Fox appointed the Commission, he identified six major issues for the Commission to address. At its initial meeting, CEMRRAT reviewed these issues and accepted them as charges to the Commission.

The following constitute the Commission's summary response to those charges.

Charge #1: Review and synthesize existing data regarding ethnic minority recruitment, 1
retention and graduation, and education and training in psychology.

The demographic context

Data on the current status of ethnic minorities in psychology are most meaningful when viewed against historical and demographic contexts. The U. S. Census Bureau estimates that around the year 2050, ethnic minorities will comprise more than 50 percent of the nation's population. In consideration of the nation's emerging majority of color, the historic calls of psychologists of color for increased participation and representation in the discipline have become an imperative. The context of our future dictates that psychology must devise strategies for ensuring there is a cadre of psychologists of color who will provide significant leadership for not only the delivery of behavioral and psychological services and the conduct of research in communities of color, but also for the significant training effort that will be required if all of the nation's psychologists are to possess some minimal multicultural competence. Failure to pursue such strategies is synonymous with the abandonment of future markets for practice, research, and education and training in psychology.

Major findings related to education and training

A more detailed presentation of findings along with appropriate citations are provided in the Final Report's chapter on "Imperatives for Action" in the subsection on "The Current Status."

  • Among the nation's accredited doctoral clinical, counseling, and school psychology training programs,2 the number of required and elective courses on multicultural issues has increased over the last 10 years. However, an estimated 58% of accredited counseling programs and an estimated 74% of accredited clinical programs still do not require even one minority-focused content course for the doctoral degree.

  • Approximately 40% of accredited doctoral clinical and counseling psychology programs do not use off-campus clinical field placements serving ethnic minority populations.

  • More than 50% of clinical and counseling psychology programs have no faculty conducting research on ethnic minority mental health issues.

  • Studies of multicultural curricular and training content have focused exclusively on health provider programs (e. g., clinical, counseling, and school psychology) and not on scientific and applied research training program areas such as developmental, social and personality, educational, industrial and organizational, health, and experimental psychology. Thus, little is known about the preparation of behavioral scientists for research and intervention with multicultural populations. Related research is needed.

  • There are few or no research or education and training materials on providing psychological services to linguistically diverse populations through use of languages other than English.

  • Research is needed on the effectiveness of various models and strategies for integrating multicultural content into existing curricula.

Major findings related to faculty recruitment and retention

  • Ethnic minorities are dramatically underrepresented among psychology faculty in community colleges, 4-year colleges, and graduate training programs in psychology. For example, only 7% of full-time faculty in graduate departments of psychology, and 9% of full-time (4-year) undergraduate department faculty are ethnic minority. Among graduate psychology faculty in health service provider subfields, 10.3% of faculty are ethnic minorities; but in non-health service provider subfields (i. e., scientific areas of psychology), only 6.8% of faculty are ethnic minorities.

  • Partly because of the underrepresentation of ethnic minority faculty in psychology, the development of multicultural content in psychology curricula and research has been limited. This limited multicultural training in turn affects the ability of institutions to attract ethnic minority undergraduate and graduate students.

Major findings related to student recruitment, retention, and graduation

  • Ethnic minority students continue to graduate from high school at a lower rate than White students.

  • Ethnic minority representation among persons enrolled in college is almost the same as their representation in the general population. In 1993, students of color comprised 24.0% of the nation's undergraduate enrollment.

  • The first major underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in psychology's educational pipeline occurs at the point of college graduation. In 1993, ethnic minority recipients of the bachelor degree in psychology comprised 16.2% of all such recipients.

  • In 1991, 12% of all graduate students in psychology (including part-time students) were persons of color, as were 13% of all full-time graduate students in psychology.

  • The award of the master's degree is associated with another constriction in psychology's ethnic minority pipeline. In 1993, ethnic minority recipients of the master's degree in psychology comprised 11.6% of all recipients of such degrees.

  • At the doctoral level, the small number of minority doctoral graduates foretells a severe limitation on the racial/cultural diversity of the pool of academicians, service providers, and scientists in psychology. Between 1975 and 1993, a total of 3,833 ethnic minorities were awarded a doctorate in psychology, representing 7.6% of all such doctorates awarded during that period. In 1993, minority recipients of doctorates in psychology numbered 344 and comprised 9.4% of all recipients of such degrees.

____________________

1 CEMRRAT will utilize as its operating definition of ethnic minorities: African American/Black, Asian American/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic/Latino(a). This definition involves consideration and sensitivity to the diversity within ethnic minority groups to include, but not limit to, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and persons of mixed ethnicity/race.

2 The term 'program' is used throughout this report to characterize any and all psychology training that occurs within schools of psychology, departments of psychology, and psychology programs set in units such as schools of education and medical school campuses.

 

The Commissions Response to its Charges - Charge #2


Charge #2: Describe the components that affect
successful ethnic minority recruitment,
retention, and training for psychology.3

 

  • In regard to education and training

  • The following promote successful ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and training.

  • A sound curriculum in which multicultural issues are integrated throughout;

  • Field experiences that involve culturally, ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse clients or research subjects, and include in-service training in multicultural issues;

  • Knowledgeable and culturally diverse faculty and supervisors;

  • Knowledgeable and supportive mainstream faculty and supervisors;

  • The presence of culturally diverse students;

  • An organizational environment supportive of training and research in multicultural issues; and

  • An evaluation system that measures the basic tenets of multicultural training when assessing students, faculty, and the training program.

In regard to faculty recruitment and retention

The following promote successful ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training.

  • Increased numbers of ethnic minority faculty and supervisors who serve as role models, recruit and train ethnic minority and other students, and provide leadership in scientific work, practice, and curriculum development;

  • Institutional and program administrators who support and promote faculty diversification: (a) in their public pronouncements, (b) by providing assistance to academic programs for identifying ethnic minority candidates and promoting their recruitment, and (c) through support of comprehensive plans for addressing cultural diversity in faculty and in the educational pipeline;

  • An institutional and program climate that (a) values, respects, nurtures, and mentors the applied and scientific interests and perspectives of male and female ethnic minority faculty, (b) provides ethnic minority faculty opportunities for networking and developing collegial relationships with other faculty and students, and (c) encourages their involvement in the institution's mission.

  • A tenure and review system that values cultural diversification of the institution and its scientific knowledge, and accordingly fully credits excellence in the those teaching, service, and research faculty contributions that support diversity; and

  • A culturally diversified program and institutional student body.

In regard to student recruitment, retention, and graduation

Basic requirements for establishing successful ethnic minority student recruitment, retention, and graduation in psychology must include:

  • Effective mechanisms for identifying academically talented ethnic minority students;4

  • Enhanced understanding of the contributions of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) test scores, transcripts, letters of recommendations, and personal statements both in the prediction of graduate school "success" and in the graduate school application/admission process;

  • A committed cadre of faculty to lead aggressive recruitment efforts and to provide mentorship at each stage in the students' academic careers from high school through doctoral and postdoctoral training;

  • Appropriate financial aid resources;

  • Ethnoculturally relevant courses, clinical experiences, and research opportunities; and

  • A supportive academic climate including easy access to ethnic communities.

____________________

3 The following conclusions are derived from four major types of data sources: (a) the reports and proceedings of those 14 federal and professional association task forces, committees and conferences concerned with the ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training issues that occurred some time during the period 1985 and 1992 (see the CEMRRAT Resource Book[Holliday, Figueroa & Perry, 1994]); (b) major national reports on ethnic minority recruitment and retention in postsecondary education, such as those of the American Council on Education (1993), the American Association for Higher Education (Marchese & Lawrence, 1989), the Council of Graduate Schools (1989 & 1992), and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (1995); (c) Academic Institutional reports such as Spann (1988), Justas (1987) and the University of Wisconsin system (1990); and (d) published research reports such as Ponterotto, Burkard, Yoshida, Concelli, Mendez, Wasilewski & Sussman (1995), Suinn & Witt (1982), Suinn (1996), and Tinto (1975). A more comprehensive listing of the research litertaure in this area will be provided in CEMRRAT's forthcoming Annotated bibliography on ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training.

4 Two booklets have been prepared by CEMRATT's Work Group on Student Recruitment and Retention that address the application and recruitment process.

  • How to apply to graduate and professional programs in psychology
  • Minority student recruitment resources booklet 
     

 

The Commissions Response to its Charges - Charge #3

Charge #3: Explore the nature of barriers
and obstacles that prohibit significant ethnic
minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology.

In regard to education and training

Barriers and obstacles to the education and training of ethnic minority students are embedded in the history of the discipline. Psychology traditionally has assumed, more often than not, universal applicability of its theories, research procedures and findings, and interventions. This bias has resulted in a paucity of knowledge, faculty, and programs dealing with multicultural issues and variations in human experience.

This bias, coupled with those racial/ethnic biases historically extant in the broader culture, also undergirds those attitudes suggestive that minority content is justified only from a social advocacy perspective (and not from a scientific perspective), and the often associated failure of institutional and departmental leaders to value multiculturalism and provide leadership for diversity efforts.

In regard to faculty recruitment and retention

Barriers to ethnic minority faculty recruitment and retention arise from the lack of a clear understanding and appreciation of the value of diversity for the discipline and the significant contributions of ethnic minority faculty. Existing attitudes and practices within the discipline often convey the idea that academe is inhospitable to ethnic minorities both as a place to receive training and as a setting for pursuing a career. These attitudes and practices often fail to respect, value, and reward ethnic minority faculty for their ability to expand psychological knowledge, enrich psychology's curricula, and prepare ethnic minority and nonminority students for meeting the scientific and applied needs of our ethnically diverse society. The underrepresentation of ethnic minority faculty will continue until psychology programs reexamine and transform their existing attitudes and practices related to faculty recruitment, retention, and tenure and promotion standards.

In regard to student recruitment, retention, and graduation

A major barrier to effective minority student recruitment and training continues to be the ambivalence or resistance of psychology faculty to the need and value of diversity in the student body, faculty, and curriculum. This ambivalence or resistance is reflected in debates about lowering standards, questions about the scientific merit of ethnic minority-focused research and clinical training, and the lack of creativity and commitment to solving the host of problems that come with diversity and going beyond "business as usual."

Such ambivalence or resistance and absence of creative problem-solving can result in (a) low expectations and hostile judgments of ethnic minority students and an absence of challenge to these judgments, (b) insufficient academic and social support (including mentoring) for ethnic minority students, (c) minimal efforts to institutionalize ethnic minority student retention processes, and (d) an absence of formal program policy on valuing diversity.

Under such conditions, ethnic minority student recruitment, retention, and graduation are further threatened by organized psychology's lack of guidance and procedures for dealing with student grievances-especially those related to diversity concerns-that are not resolved in a timely manner through usual departmental or institutional channels.
 

 

The Commissions Response to its Charges - Charge #4

Charge #4:Recommend the development and implementation
of innovative ethnic minority recruitment, retention,
and education and training models.

Education and training models>

The Commission recommends the promotion and development of five types of models for expanding multicultural education and training in psychology.

  1. Models for ensuring that all future psychologists develop some minimal competence in multicultural issues by infusing or integrating ethnic minority issues into all required coursework at the undergraduate and graduate and professional levels.

  2. Models that seek to prepare professionals to provide services to linguistically diverse populations by improving the quality of related training and professional development and increasing the number of psychologists who can provide such services. For example, a program could provide its students opportunities to learn a second language and provide field training in settings that serve linguistic minorities. In addition, such programs could promote the development in multiple languages of both glossaries of psychological terminology, and guidelines on the conduct of therapy and the application of psychological procedures with linguistically diverse populations.

  3. Models that value ethnic minority professionals and communities by utilizing ethnic minority psychologists as mentors and supervisors, by providing educational training and experiences in ethnic minority communities and clinical settings, and by encouraging psychologists of color to engage in academic and research careers.

  4. Models that promote specialized competence in multicultural issues by providing an organized, coherent body of coursework and field or research experience on multicultural issues that are sufficient to constitute a major emphasis or "track" within a major field of graduate or professional study in psychology.

  5. Models that emphasize applied and community-based research in ethnic minority communities, including interdisciplinary and interorganizational collaboration and consultation, neighborhood and community sampling and assessment, and systemic interventions.

Faculty recruitment and retention model

The following model, which addresses three major processes, is recommended for enhancing faculty recruitment and retention in psychology.5

  1. The decision to recruit diverse faculty
    Prior to initiating minority recruitment activities, the program would actively assess itself and its climate. Based on this assessment, faculty would have a clear understanding of their values of diversity, their expectations for diversification, their vision of how diversity fits within and contributes to the program mission, and of how the contributions of ethnic minority faculty will be assessed and rewarded.

  2. The recruitment process
    The program would recognize that the methods used in recruiting mainstream faculty may not work for ethnic minority faculty. Consequently, the program would write a position announcement that clearly identifies its commitment to diversity, its view as to how diversity intersects with its educational mission, and its efforts to create an environment conducive to success for all faculty.

    Search committees would be sensitive to the fact that ethnic minority individuals may differ from mainstream faculty in a number of ways (e. g., less traditional career paths, more varied potential contributions, etc.), and seek to make the job qualifications as inclusive as possible. The search committee would work to develop innovative personalized strategies and sources for attracting candidates. The screening process would not eliminate ethnic minority candidates based on nontraditional work experiences and publications in ethnic minority journals.

    In the selection process, the search committee would view diversity as a positive contribution to the field and to the faculty. Consequently, in addition to the elements of a good faculty interview, program faculty would attend to those aspects of the visit that express attention to the candidate's ethnic/racial background and the expression of this background in the candidate's personal, social, and professional interests.

    Negotiations would be approached with an emphasis on attracting the ethnic minority candidate to the institution, maximizing opportunities for the ethnic minority faculty member's scientific work and teaching, and building in incentives for retaining faculty over the long term and promoting their careers.

  3. The retention process
    Ethnic minority faculty would be provided proper orientation and access to the resources and opportunities available within the institution for shaping their careers.

    Ethnic minority faculty would be engaged in a formal mentoring process for learning (a) to manage their career in psychology, (b) to utilize career opportunities within the organization, and (c) to maximize their chances to attain promotion, tenure, and higher level jobs.

    Psychology program chairs would make certain that evaluation criteria for promotion, tenure, and career activities of ethnic minority faculty are consistent with expectations for teaching, service, and research goals that were set forth during the recruitment process.

Student recruitment, retention, and graduation model

The Commission recommends a student recruitment, retention, and graduation model that seeks, through use of a systemic approach, to expand the ethnic minority pipeline in psychology by (a) encouraging stronger linkages among institutions at varying levels of the pipeline and with varying missions, and (b) providing technical assistance necessary for encouraging psychology programs to develop multicultural curricula and academic and social climates that are supportive of diversity. Major elements of this model include:

  • Establishing multiple institutional Regional Centers of Excellence in recruitment, retention and graduation, and training and education of students of color interested in psychology, each center consisting of psychology programs at a major research university and two minority serving institutions (community college, 4-year college, or university);

  • Providing to all center participants research-based information related to diversity and multicultural education strategies and outcomes in postsecondary education;

  • Implementing at each regional center a specific methodology involving structured needs assessment and strategic planning procedures for developing and implementing demonstration projects that will strengthen linkages among, and capabilities of, the center's participating institutions, as these relate to ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and training and education;

  • Providing funding and technical assistance (diversity consultation and scientific advisement) to the regional centers and facilitating implementation and evaluation of the centers's demonstration programs and strategies;

  • Documenting and evaluating the impact of the model's systemic approach and its impact on the program's climates and the number of ethnic minority students at participating institutions who maintain an interest in pursing careers in psychology.

____________________

5 Aspects of this model are described in greater detail in the following three booklets developed by CEMRRAT's Work Group on Faculty Recruitment and Retention:
  • Valuing diversity in faculty: A guide describes innovative ways for preparing the program and campus climate for successful recruitment and retention of ethnic minority faculty.
  • How to recruit and hire ethnic minority faculty outlines strategies for recruiting ethnic minority faculty that psychology programs and search committees should consider and implement.
  • Survival guide to academia for women and ethnic minorities suggests strategies for use when searching for faculty positions, dealing with the recruitment visit, negotiating hiring terms, and shaping one's academic career. 
     
The Commissions Response to its Charges - Charge #5

Charge #5: Define the role(s) of organized psychology in influencing
ethnic minority recruitment and retention and
encouraging multicultural education and training.

In regard to education and training

  • APA should state in a strong, clear, and continuous manner that diversity is not a marginal concern, but rather, a central theme of psychological research, practice, and education and training.

  • APA should bring the full influence of its role as accreditor of the nation's professional psychology programs to bear on ethnic minority education and training issues. More specifically, APA's Committee on Accreditation (CoA) should: (a) include more ethnic minorities among its membership, (b) ensure that accreditation site teams are knowledgeable of multicultural issues in training, (c) increase its pool of ethnic minority site visitors, and (d) improve training in multicultural issues at accreditation workshops.

  • State psychological associations, divisions, the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology, and other professional and scientific groups in psychology should assume leadership for ensuring that all psychologists develop some minimal multicultural competence in practice, research, and/or teaching. This might include regularly offering continuing education workshops, conferences, and convention sessions on multicultural issues.

  • State licensing boards should consider the inclusion of didactic and experiential courses in multiculturalism in their licensure and licensure renewal requirements.

  • The Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards should address possible cultural biases in the construction and administration of the national licensing exams and ensure those exams include adequate coverage of multicultural issues.

In regard to faculty recruitment and retention

  • APA, through its award, lecture, continuing education, and other appropriate programs, should both promote the value of faculty diversity and model full acknowledgement of the numerous contributions to psychology that can and have been made by persons of color.

  • APA should provide increased resources and technical assistance in support of ethnic minority faculty recruitment, including consultation services and workshops, job bank services, listings of fellowships and postdoctoral opportunities, and distribution of appropriate written material.

  • APA should take the lead as a role model organization in developing and implementing a plan for maintaining an organizational climate that values diversity among its staff, executive managers, and governance structure. By doing so, APA positions itself to serve as a major resource and model for psychology programs that seek to establish a climate of diversity that facilitates the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority faculty. Specific resources that APA can provide include an array of diversity information and services that cut across all of APA's directorates and departments.

  • APA and other organized education and training entities (e. g. COGDOP, NCSPP) should develop and embrace a more detailed protocol for psychology programs's use in addressing issues related to valuing diversity. Such a protocol should include a well-specified process for assisting programs that fail to address cultural diversity issues├╣especially when such failures result in claims of discrimination and behaviors indicative of a hostile and insensitive work and professional development environment. Such a protocol might involve the coordinated effort of such groups as APA's Board of Educational Affairs (BEA), Minority Fellowship Program (MFP), Committee on Legal Issues (COLI), CoA, and Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA).

  • APA should assist state, regional, and other psychological associations to develop and maintain organizational climates that value cultural diversity, appeal to ethnic minority psychologists, and are responsive to initiatives in support of ethnic minority faculty recruitment and retention.

In regard to student recruitment, retention, and graduation

  • APA should demonstrate the high value it places on effective ethnic minority student recruitment by establishing an award to graduate and professional programs that have distinguished track records in ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and graduation.

  • APA and regional and state psychological associations should seek funding to provide small grants to psychology programs interested in strengthening their ethnic minority student recruitment, retention and graduation efforts. The scope of work could include detailed case studies of the ethnic minority student recruitment and application processes as well as a mechanism for monitoring program outcomes.

  • APA and the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) should forge a shared mission related to the recruitment, retention, and graduation of ethnic minority students and faculty. Perhaps representatives of APA and CNPAAEMI could comprise the continuing committee that would ensure the institutionalization of CEMRRAT's recommendations.

  • APA should develop a media campaign that focuses on the importance and contributions of ethnic minorities to psychology and makes the case as to why more students and faculty of color are needed.

  • APA should produce and disseminate brochure(s) targeted to ethnic minority students interested in psychology at all levels of the educational pipeline.
     

The Commissions Response to its Charges - Charge #6

Charge #6: Develop a five-year plan of action for APA addressing
ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training.

In general

The CEMRRAT Five-Year Plan to guide APA's efforts in the area of ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training is presented at the end of this Final Report. In general, the plan identifies specific tasks, timelines, and responsible entities necessary for institutionalizing ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training efforts at all levels within and outside of APA.

The plan primarily focuses on various systemic issues that the Commission did not address due to its limited authorized tenure. Such systemic issues reflect the negative effects of traditional and often institutionalized attitudes, behaviors, and mores that continuously confront ethnic minority students and faculty in psychology. Thus, issues addressed by the plan tend to be entrenched and resistant to change-but not unyielding. The Commission believes that improvements in a given area addressed by the plan will have major implications for improvements in other areas.

The CEMRRAT Five-Year Plan is structured by the following five major goals:

  • Promote and improve multicultural education and training in psychology.

  • Increase ethnic minority faculty recruitment and retention in psychology.

  • Increase ethnic minority student recruitment, retention, and graduation in psychology.

  • Provide national leadership for diversity and multiculturalism in education, science, and human services.

  • Promote data collection, research, and evaluation on ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation,
    and education and training.

In regard to education and training

The plan's major related objectives are as follow.

  1. Evaluate the quality of treatment given to multicultural issues in textbooks and teaching/learning aids and inform the discipline of the status of the presentation and treatment of minority issues in existing textbooks.

  2. Help psychology trainers, educators, and researchers to become literate in multicultural issues and facilitate the inclusion of multicultural topics in classroom and field experiences through conduct and sponsorship of workshops and convention presentations.

  3. Introduce and/or increase the enforceability of accreditation and licensing standards focused on services to and research with multicultural populations.

  4. Promote the education and training of psychologists for innovative and nontraditional roles to meet the needs of diverse populations.

  5. Affirm and strengthen ethnic minority student interest and talent in statistics, methodology, research design, and scientific areas of psychology.

In regard to faculty recruitment and retention

The plan's major related objectives are as follow.

  1. Improve efforts to identify, recruit, and hire ethnic minority faculty.

  2. Improve the retention of ethnic minority faculty.

  3. Increase the capabilities of the discipline and the Association to promote mentoring of and linkages with psychologists of color.

  4. Develop resources for actively supporting and promoting diversity in psychology programs.

In regard to student recruitment, retention, and graduation

The plan's major related objectives are as follow.

  1. Establish a series of regional networks that would link high school and community college ethnic minority students and psychology faculty.

  2. Facilitate the transition of ethnic minority psychology students at 2-year colleges to 4-year colleges.

  3. Develop pilot networks linking ethnic minority undergraduate students with faculty in graduate and professional programs in psychology.

  4. Institutionalize and expand the mentoring networks.

  5. Provide incentives to psychology programs for ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and graduation activities.

In regard to other diversity efforts

The plan's major related objectives are as follow.

  1. Develop partnerships with other disciplinary and higher education associations to promote the value of and need for diversity in postsecondary education through advocacy, public relations, and public policy.

  2. Identify effective ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and graduation programs and strategies and associated human resources and costs, and disseminate this information to postsecondary institutions and disciplinary organizations.

  3. Develop a procedure, appropriate for use by a variety of accrediting entities and organizations of various disciplines, for responding to complaints and concerns related to diversity in academic and health institutions.

  4. Improve APA's data collection system related to ethnic minorities.

  5. Increase research and evaluation efforts related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and training and education.

  6. Closely monitor the Five-Year Plan. 
     

Recommendations to the APA Board of Directors

 

The work of the Commission proceeded as far as time and funding permitted. Much has been accomplished, and much is left to be achieved. As a Commission of the American Psychological Association, it would be a grievous error in judgment if the long-range vision of CEMRRAT were to gather dust on shelves, if the proposed followup actions are never addressed, and certainly if the American Psychological Association fails to dedicate itself to moving the CEMRRAT plans forward.

What is required is a collaboration of different entities within the infrastructure of APA to complete goals identified by CEMRRAT. At the same time it is recognized that existing governance structures have their own current commitments, budgets, and agenda priorities, which could prevent their devoting full attention to such goals. Therefore, CEMRRAT is requesting action on several motions, aimed at two objectives: The first objective requires the APA Board of Directors to establish a procedure for timely review of CEMRRAT's Five-Year Plan and to approve a formal plan of action; the second objective recognizes the aforementioned difficulty of reorienting existing organizational components and proposes instead the establishment of a new organizational structure that can work collaboratively with existing entities to share responsibilities for the new APA plan of action.

In support of its findings and proposed Five-Year Plan, the Commission respectfully offers the following recommendations to the APA Board of Directors for its consideration.

  1. Move that the APA Board of Directors (B/D) charge the Association's Boards and Committees both to review the CEMRRAT Five-Year Plan and to comment on the feasibility and implications of assuming responsibility for those tasks referred to specific governance groups as outlined in the CEMRRAT Five-Year Plan.

  2. Move that the APA Board of Directors, after receipt and consideration of Board and Committee comments to the CEMRRAT Five-Year Plan, approve an APA Five-Year Plan that will guide the Association's efforts related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology.

  3. Move that the APA Board of Directors establish and support an ongoing committee reporting to the B/D that is charged to monitor and coordinate the Association's approved Five-Year Plan for ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training, to be staffed by the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA).

  4. Move that the APA Board of Directors assign OEMA the responsibility for producing and disseminating CEMRRAT's products and makes available to OEMA the appropriate resources to accomplish this task.

  5. Move that the APA Board of Directors authorize annual funds adequate to support the outlined activities and their estimated costs as proposed in the Five-Year Plan. Funding should begin in 1997.

  6. Move that the APA Board of Directors provide a progress report annually to the Council of Representatives and the APA Membership on the progress of the approved Five-Year Plan. 
     

Imperatives for Action

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
THE INCLUSION OF PEOPLE OF COLOR IN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY

The establishment and building of an academic discipline is a complicated, painstaking process that involves vision and immense labor by generations of the discipline's leaders. As noted in numerous documented histories of psychology, it also involves onerous institution-building that takes the form of developing departments or academic centers for teaching, research, and scholarship in the discipline; establishing scholarly and professional journals and societies; developing numerous standards of professional conduct in such areas as scholarship, research, teaching, ethics; and numerous other efforts.

Once firmly established, disciplines do evolve in response to various changes in social-historical, political-economic, and academic contexts. When such contextual changes are dramatic or buttressed by major economic incentives, the associated changes within a discipline can occur relatively quickly. Within psychology in the United States, such dramatic change occurred in response to the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1949, a mission-oriented research agency with an applied research emphasis. Consistent with this emphasis, applications for NIMH research and demonstration project funding are encouraged on specific targeted topics whose identification is guided by both scientific interests and compelling national interests (National Academy of Science, 1964; York, 1978). As a result of NIMH funding, major research programs and institutes were established within departments of psychology, the financial underpinning of psychology departments was transformed, and clinical psychology ascended as a specialty area within psychology.

More recently, a similar type of relatively dramatic and rapid change occurred in response to the nation's changing and increasingly diverse workforce and occupational structures. During the past 25 years-as women increased their rate of participation in postsecondary education and men increasingly opted for new occupational roles in expanding professional and technical disciplines (e. g., computer science, business, and law)-psychology became "feminized" in its gender composition. In 1971, women constituted 25% of doctoral recipients in psychology; in 1991, they comprised 61% of such recipients (APA Task Force, 1995).

But more often than not, academic disciplines are conservative entities-rooted in tradition, and tending to welcome change only as a slow, incremental, consensual process. This certainly has been the case for change related to the need for psychology to more aggressively address the needs of communities of color-including dramatically increasing its knowledge and efforts related to the recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training of people of color in psychology.

Selected key events during the past 75 years related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology are noted on the following Timeline of Challenge and Progress: The Inclusion of People of Color in Psychology in the United States. This timeline reveals many historical continuities. For example:

  • Psychologists of color, with a few recent exceptions, were not at the table when various critical structures and procedures of their discipline were conceived and developed in the United States. Consequently, psychologists of color, again and again, have initiated "corrective action" strategies for including their perspectives and interests and those of communities of color through revision and reform of extant structures and procedures of psychology in the United States.

  • Even in the face of the minimalist action inherent in incremental change, psychologists of color have been remarkably consistent over time in their statements of needed strategies for increasing ethnic minority participation in psychology and for ensuring that psychology effectively addresses the behavioral, mental health, and empowerment needs of communities of color.

  • Psychologists of color have assumed primary responsibility for constructing structures (organizations, journals, etc.) for ensuring their professional survival and development as psychologists of color.

  • The American Psychological Association-especially its Board of Directors and its Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (Division 9)-while often the target of criticism, nevertheless has served as an enabler and supporter of efforts related to greater racial/ethnic inclusion in psychology.

  • Federal mental health agencies-especially the National Institute of Mental Health and more recently the Center for Mental Health Services-have provided financial support for some of the most critical initiatives related to increased racial/ethnic inclusion in psychology.

But the Timeline also reflects one major shift in the efforts related to the inclusion of people of color in psychology. Those efforts, over time, have become diversified. While efforts in the 1960s focused almost exclusively on African Americans, during the 1970s other racial/ethnic groups found their critical mass-and their voice-within psychology.

As people of color gained their voices within psychology, the various ethnic minority groups continuously demonstrated a most profound understanding of the principles of and interactions among systems intervention, organizational and institutional change, and multicultural dynamics: Psychologists of color exhibited a rock solid commitment to intergroup alliance and cooperation. The 1970s to the present have been marked by an often explicit commitment among psychologists of color to resist attempts to formulate ethnic minority inclusion issues in terms that promote competition for resources among the various ethnic minority groups. Instead, psychologists of color consistently have articulated strategies that are inclusive and pluralistic (both philosophically and politically)-and punctuated with racial/ethnic- and cultural-specificity.

Symbolically, such commitment is most prominently represented by the 1992 establishment of the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI, 1992). This council consists of the presidents of the four national ethnic minority psychological associations as well as the president of APA and the president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 45 of the APA). The council seeks to address public policy issues of importance to psychologists of color and the communities they serve.

The diversification of efforts related to the inclusion of people of color in psychology is directly related to the nation's changing demographics. Currently, African Americans are the nation's largest ethnic minority group. But as a result of birth rates and immigration, the growth rates of American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanics/Latino(a)s are increasing much faster than those of African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Indeed between 1980 and 1992, the nation's White population (not of Hispanic origin) increased 5.5% (from 180. 9 million to 190. 8 million), while the African American population increased 16.0% (from 26. 1 million to 30. 3 million). In contrast, during that same time period, the American Indian/Alaska Native population increased 39.5% (from 1. 3 million to 1. 85 million); Hispanics/Latino(a)s increased 65.9% (from 14. 6 million to 24. 2 million); and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders increased 121.0% (from 3. 6 million to 7. 9 million)

(U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1994, Table No. 18). Indeed, it is estimated that by the year 2055, the United States will be a truly pluralistic nation, with no single racial/ethnic group constituting a majority.

It is the relative swiftness of this contextual demographic change that in the near future-ready or not-will require psychology to undergo radical and rapid change in the direction of dramatically increasing its representation of people of color, and its focus on issues of special import to communities of color. The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology believes that psychology has sufficient resources and resourcefulness to ensure that this change will not be chaotic, disorientating, and threatening, but instead will occur in a planned thoughtful manner that will serve to strengthen and enrich psychology in the 21st Century. To this end, the Commission presents its Final Report.

Timeline of Challenge and Progress: The Inclusion of People of Color in Psychology in the United States


1892 The American Psychological Association is founded by 26 [White] men (Street, 1994).
1920 Francis C. Sumner is the first African American awarded the PhD in psychology from a U.S. institution (Clark University); dissertation title: "Psychoanalysis of Freud and Adler." (Guthrie, 1994; Street, 1994).
J. Henry Alston is first African American to publish a research article (titled "Psychophysics of the spatial condition of the fusion of warmth and cold in heat") in an exclusively psychological journal, The American Journal of Psychology (T. C. Cadwallader as cited by Benimoff, 1995).
1932 George I. Sanchez, EdD, the "founder of Chicano psychology," challenges biased research literature on the intelligence of Mexican American children in a Journal of Applied Psychology article, "Group differences in Spanish-speaking children: A critical review" (Guthrie, 1976; Padilla, 1980; Street, 1994).
1933 Inez B. Prosser is first African American woman awarded a doctorate (EdD) in psychology from a U.S. institution (University of Cincinnati; dissertation title: "Non-academic development of Negro children in mixed and segregated schools" (Guthrie, 1976; Task Force, 1995).
1937 Alberta Banner Turner is first African American woman awarded a PhD in psychology from a U.S. institution (Ohio State University) (Guthrie, 1976; T. C. Cadwallader as cited by Benimoff, 1995).
1943 Robert Chin is first Chinese American awarded a PhD in psychology from a U.S. institution (Columbia University) (Sue, 1994).
1949 The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is established (Street, 1994).
1950 The National Science Foundation is established (Street, 1994).
1951 Efran Sanchez-Hidalgo is the first Puerto Rican awarded a PhD in psychology (Columbia University); dissertation title: "A study of symbiotic relationships between friends" (Roca de Torres, 1994a).
1953 The first InterAmerican Congress of Psychology is convened in the Dominican Republic, with Andres Aviles (of that country) elected as president (Street, 1994).
1954 The Puerto Rican Psychological Association is established with Efran Sanchez-Hidalgo, PhD, as its first president (Padilla, 1980; Roca de Torres, 1994b).
Efran Sanchez-Hidalgo authors first major psychological text, Psicologa Educativa, published in Puerto Rico (Padilla, 1980)
1955 APA Council of Representatives approves its first model legislation for state licensure of professional psychologists (Street, 1994).
1962 Martha Bernal is first Mexican American woman awarded the PhD in psychology (Indiana University) (Bernal, 1994; Street, 1994).
1963

The APA Ad Hoc Committee on Equality of Opportunity in Psychology (CEOP) is established by the APA Board of Directors in response to a proposal from Division 9 (SPSSI) relative to the training and employment of Negroes [sic]. The committee is charged "to explore the possible problems encountered in training and employment in psychology as a consequence of race..." (APA, 1963; Comas-Diaz, 1990; Wispe et al., 1969).  

The Community Mental Health Center Act, which provided funding for construction and operation of community facilities, is signed into law (Street, 1994).
1965

A graduate program in psychology is established at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus (Guillermo Bernal, personal communication, July 24, 1996).

1968

The Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) is established at the APA Convention in San Francisco, with Charles L. Thomas, PhD, and Robert L. Green, PhD, elected as co-chairs (Street, 1994; Williams, 1974).

ABPsi Co-Chair Charles L. Thomas presents a Petition of Concerns to the APA Council of Representatives that addresses three major issues: (a) the extremely limited number of Black psychologists and Black graduate and undergraduate students in psychology, (b) APA's failure to address social problems, such as poverty and racism, and (c) the inadequate representation of Blacks in the APA governance structure (Guzman et al., 1992; Williams, 1974).

1969

The Black Students Psychological Association (BSPA) is established at the Western Psychological Association meeting in Vancouver, BC (Williams, 1974).

 BSPA President Gary Simpkins presents demands to APA related to the recruitment, retention, and training of Black students and faculty (Figueroa-Garcia, 1994; Guzman, et al., 1992; Street, 1994; Williams, 1974).

CEOP issues report of its national survey of 398 Negro psychologists and reports that between 1920 and 1966, the 10 top-rated departments of psychology had produced 24% of all doctorates in psychology, but only 0.5% of the Negro doctorates in psychology. Furthermore, 48.2% of the respondents stated race had limited their professional opportunities. CEOP concludes, "most black psychologists feel themselves, and until recently were, alienated from American psychology because of the totality of what it means to be black" (Wispe et al., 1969).

1970

The Association of Psychologists Por La Raza (APLR) is founded at the APA Convention in Miami (Bernal, 1994).

APA establishes the Commission for Accelerating Black Participation in Psychology (CABPP) composed of representatives of BSPA, ABPsi, and APA and charges CABPP to address BSPA's concerns (Blau, 1970; Williams, 1974).

ABPsi provides all graduate departments of psychology its "Ten-Point Program" for increasing the representation of Blacks in psychology; 35 departments agree to immediately implement the entire program (Williams, 1974).

1970

ABPsi and APA develop a 3-year Black Visiting Scientist program to historically black colleges and universities (Williams, 1974).

BSPA opens offices in the APA Building in Washington, DC, with APA providing 3 years of funding; Ernestine Thomas is the office's director and BSPA national coordinator (Figueroa-Garcia, 1994; Williams, 1974).

First issue of Network of Indian Psychologists is published by Carolyn Attneave, PhD (LaFromboise and Fleming, 1990).

1971

In response to demands of the Black Psychiatrists of America, the NIMH Center for Minority Group Mental Health Programs is established with a focus on (a) funding investigator-initiated studies on the mental health concerns of ethnic minorities, (b) establishing and administering six research and development centers-each of which focuses on mental health needs of a particular racial/cultural group, and (c) initiating the Minority Fellowship Program, which provides funding to five professional associations to administer minority fellowships for research and clinical training in psychiatry, psychology, psychiatric nursing, psychiatric social work, and sociology (Guzman et al, 1992; Parron, 1990).

Kenneth B. Clark, PhD, an African American, becomes the first person of color to be elected APA president (Street, 1994).

An early form of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) is published by Jane Mercer and June Lewis (Street, 1994).

1972

The Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA) is founded with seed monies provided by APA Division 9 (SPSSI); Derald W. Sue, PhD, is elected as president (Leong, 1995; Sue, 1994).

The First National Conference on Asian American Mental Health is convened in San Francisco with funding provided by NIMH's Center for Minority Mental Health Programs (Leong, 1995).

Publication of the first edition of Black Psychology edited by Reginald L. Jones, PhD.

1973

Participants at the Vail Conference on "Levels and patterns of professional training" form a Task Group on Professional Training and Minority Groups and recommend that APA create an office and board on ethnic minority affairs (Bernal, 1994; Comas-Diaz, 1990).

Publication of the first edition of Asian Americans: Psychological Perspectives edited by Stanley Sue, PhD, and Nathaniel Wagner, PhD.

A national conference on Chicano Psychology is convened at University of California at Riverside by Manuel Ramirez III and Alfred Caste├▒eda with funding provided by NIMH (Bernal, 1994; Padilla and Lindhom, 1980).

Jack Sawyer and David J. Senn publish landmark Journal of Social Issues article, "Institutional racism and the American Psychological Association," which describes how APA, through an absence of concern about the employment practices of its printers and other suppliers, engaged in institutional racism (Holliday, 1992).

1974

The APA Minority Fellowship Program is established with funding provided by NIMH and Dalmas Taylor, PhD, as director (Guzman et al., 1992; Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

The Association of Black Psychologists publishes the first issue of the Journal of Black Psychology edited by William David Smith, PhD (Street, 1994). 

1975 

As a result of the California Supreme Court's decision in Larry P. v.Wilson Riles that use of intelligence tests results in racial bias in the placement of students into programs for the educable mentally retarded, the California Board of Education declares a moratorium on the uses of such tests for such purposes. African American psychologist Asa G. Hilliard III served as principal architect and lead expert witness of this challenge of the use of IQ tests (Bowser, 1996; Street, 1994). 

 

The Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP) is established (LaFromboise, 1994). 

1976 

The National Asian American Psychology Training Conference is convened at California State University at Long Beach with a focus on "Models of psychology for Asian Americans" and "Training psychologists for Asian Americans" (Leong, 1995; Street, 1994; Sue, 1994). 

 

The first Symposium on Chicano Psychology is convened at the University of California at Irvine, with funding provided by the Ford Foundation (Street, 1994). 

1977 

Publication of the first edition of Chicano Psychology edited by Joe Martinez, PhD (Bernal, 1994). 

1978 

With the leadership of Dalmas Taylor, PhD, the Dulles Conference is convened by the APA Board of Directors, the APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility, and NIMH on the topic of "Expanding the roles of culturally diverse peoples in the profession of psychology" and recommends the establishment of an APA Office and Board on Ethnic Minority Affairs (Comas-Diaz, 1990; Guzman et al., 1992; Street, 1994; Sue, 1994). 

 

Kenneth B. Clark, PhD, receives the first APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest (Street, 1994). 

 

John Garcia, PhD, is first Mexican American/Latino elected to the Society of Experimental Psychologists (Padilla, 1980). 

 

The APA Ad Hoc Committee on Minority Affairs is established, and later notes that major areas of ethnic minority concern include: (a) psychological and educational testing, (b) APA accreditation criteria and procedures, (c) ethnic minority curriculum issues, (d) licensure/certification issues, (e) publication/editorial activities, (f) underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in APA's governance structure, (g) APA's involvement in court and legislative advocacy (Comas-Diaz, 1990; Holliday, 1994). 

1979 

The APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs is established, with Estaban Olmedo, PhD, as its director (Comas-Dias, 1990). 

 

The National Hispanic Psychological Association (NHPA) is established with Carlos Albizu-Miranda elected as President (Bernal, 1994; Padilla & Lindhom, 1980).  

1979 

The first issue of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science is published, with Amado Padilla, PhD, as editor (Bernal, 1994; Jones & Campagna, 1995; Street, 1994). 

 

The first issue of the Journal of Asian American Psychological Association is published, with Roger Lum, PhD, as editor (Leong, 1995; Street, 1994). 

 

U.S. District Court rules that in regard to Larry P. v. Wilson Riles, California's use of standardized intelligence testing in schools was discriminatory and therefore illegal (Street, 1994). 

 

APA approves revised Criteria for Accreditation of Doctoral Training Programs and Internships in Professional Psychology, one of which (Criterion II) relates to cultural and individual diversity, e.g., "Social and personal diversity of faculty and students is an essential goal if the trainees are to function optimally within our pluralistic society. Programs must develop knowledge and skills in their students relevant to human diversity" (Guzman et al., 1992). 

 

John Garcia, PhD, is the first Mexican American/Latino selected for receipt of a major APA Award-the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award (Bernal, 1994; Padilla, 1980; Street, 1994). 

 

Logan Wright, PhD, is the first ethnic minority and the first person of American Indian heritage elected to the APA Board of Directors. 

1980 

By vote of the APA membership, the APA Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs (BEMA) is established; Henry Tomes, PhD, is elected as chair. 

1981 

BEMA establishes a Task Force on Minority Education and Training. 

1984 

BEMA establishes a Task Force on Communication with Minority Constituents, which is charged to (a) identify and increase ethnic minority membership in divisions and state associations, (b) help divisions and state associations establish ethnic minority-oriented committees, and (c) increase ethnic minority participation in APA governance (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

The APA Publication and Communication (P&C) Board establishes an Ad Hoc Committee on Increasing the Representation of Underrepresented Groups in the Publication Process (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

First issue of the Puerto Rican Journal of Psychology is published by the Puerto Rican Association of Psychologists (Roca de Torres, 1994). 

1985 

BEMA, with the approval of the APA Council of Representatives, establishes the BEMA Committee on Ethnic Minority Human Resources Development (CEMHRD) to address ethnic minority student and faculty recruitment and retention and development of ethnic minority education and training resources, and appoints Martha Bernal, PhD, as CEMHRD's chair. Later, CEMHRD's charge is expanded to include accreditation issues and ethnic minority data resources (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

The first national convention of the Asian American Psychological Association is held in Los Angeles (Leong, 1995; Street, 1994). 

 

NIMH is reorganized; ethnic minority research is "mainstreamed"-all of NIMH's three research divisions assume responsibility for funding ethnic minority-focused research and ethnic minority investigators (Parron, 1990).  

1986 

The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA's Division 45) is established (Comas-Diaz, 1990; Street, 1994). 

 

The Society for the Clinical Psychology of Ethnic Minorities is established as Section VI of APA's Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) (Jenkins, 1994). 

 

Logan Wright, PhD, is the first person of American Indian heritage to be elected President of the APA (Street, 1994). 

1987 

APA Central Office is restructured into three directorates (Science, Practice, and Public Interest); James M. Jones, PhD, an African American, serves as interim director of the Public Interest Directorate (Street, 1994). 

 

The BEMA/BSERP Task Force on the Status of Black Men and Its Impact on Families and Communities is established (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

The BEMA Task Force on the Delivery of Services to Ethnic Minority Populations is established and later issues APA Council-approved Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations under the chair of Joseph Pine, PhD (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

As an outcome of the Publication and Communications Board's Ad Hoc Committee on Increasing the Representation of Underrepresented Groups in the Publication Process, the Journal of Educational Psychology establishes an Underrepresented Groups Project (UGP), whose major activities include creating a position of associate editor for a person of color who, with the assistance of an ethnic minority advisory group, assumes responsibility for both encouraging the publication of research on educational psychology issues of concern to ethnic minorities and developing a mentoring process for ethnic minority scholars (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

 

APA sponsors the Utah National Conference on Graduate Education in Psychology, which incorporates a focus on "Cultural diversity: How do we enhance graduate education in a multicultural world?"-including issues related to curricula and increased participation of people of color as students and teachers (Comas-Diaz, 1990). 

1988 

Publication of the first edition of the Directory of Ethnic Minority Professionals in Psychology, edited by Christine Iijima Hall, PhD (Figueroa-Garcia, 1994). 

1990 

APA governance structure is reorganized; the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs (BEMA) and the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility (BSERP) are sunset and in their stead a Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI) is established with Melba J.Vazquez, PhD, as its elected chair; the APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) is established with Bertha G. Holliday, PhD, as its elected chair (Holliday, 1992; Street, 1994). 

 

Richard Suinn, PhD, is the first Asian American to serve on the APA Board of Directors.  

  The Ethnic Minority Caucus of the APA Council of Representatives is established with Lillian Comas-Diaz, PhD, elected as its chair, and Alice F. Chang, PhD, elected as its secretary/treasurer.
1991 

The National Conference on Enhancing the Quality of Undergraduate Education in Psychology is convened at St. Mary's College of Maryland, with ethnic minority student issues as one of its seven topics of focus, including discussions on such issues as (a) broadening the curriculum to include more ethnic minority issues and researchers, (b) creating a sense of community and managing classes with diverse students and (c) ethnic minority recruitment strategies (Guzman et al., 1992; Street, 1994). 

1992 

APA's Public Interest Directorate sponsors the first APA miniconvention (at the Washington, DC, APA Centennial Convention) focused on ethnic minorities: "Ethnic minorities: Issues and concerns for psychology, now and in the future" (Holliday, 1992). 

 

At the Centennial APA Convention in Washington, DC, the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests is established upon adoption of the CNPAAEMI Governing Rules (CNPAAEMI, 1992). 

 

Joseph Horvat, PhD, an American Indian of the Seneca-Coyuga tribe, is the first ethnic minority person elected president of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association. 

 

Gail E. Wyatt, PhD, an African American, is first person of color to receive an NIMH Research Scientist Career Award (Street, 1994). 

 

Joseph Horvat, PhD, an American Indian of the Seneca-Coyuga tribe, is the first ethnic minority elected as president of the Psi Chi National Honor Society. 

1993 

With the leadership of Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD, and chair of the Massachusetts Board of Registration of Psychologists, Massachusetts becomes the first state to require program and experience related to racial/ethnic basis of behavior for licensure (Daniel, 1994). 

1994 

Alice Chang, PhD, is the first ethnic minority female to serve on the APA Board of Directors. 

 

The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology is established by the APA Board of Directors, with Richard M. Suinn, PhD, appointed as chair by APA President Ronald Fox, PhD. 

1995 

Volume 1 of the AAPA Monograph Series is issued, with Nolan Zane, PhD, and Yoshito Kawahara, PhD, as co-editors. 

 

Jennifer Friday, PhD, is the first African American to be elected president of the Southeast Psychological Association (SEPA). 

 

APA Council of Representatives approves revised Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation of Programs in Professional Psychology, including "Domain D: Cultural and individual differences and diversity," which calls for programs to: make "systematic, coherent and long-term efforts to attract and retain students and faculty [or interns and staff]..." from diverse backgrounds, "ensure a supportive and encouraging learning environment appropriate for the training of diverse individuals," and provide a "coherent plan to provide students [or interns] with relevant knowledge and experience about the role of cultural and individual diversity in psychological phenomena and professional practice" (APA, Office of Program Consultation and Accreditation, 1996). 

1995 

The XXV Interamerican Congress is held in San Juan, Puerto, with Irma Serrano-Garcia as congress president. 

1996 

With funding provided by the Office of Special Populations of the Center for Mental Health Services, APA initiates "HBCU Training Capacity Grant" program through which small grants are competitively awarded to psychology departments at historically black colleges and universities for activities that will strengthen a department's capacity to effectively recruit, retain, and train students of color for careers in psychology (APA/OEMA, February 1996). 

 

Publication of Handbook of Tests and Measurements for Black Populations (two volumes) edited by Reginald L. Jones, PhD. 

 

APA's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs is awarded a $750,000 grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) for the purpose of demonstrating the effectiveness of a "systemic approach" for increasing the number of persons of color in the educational pipeline for biomedical research careers in psychology. 

 

The Nation's Changing Demographics

The designation "ethnic minority" will soon be a misnomer. As noted in Figure 1, in 1995, people of color constituted 26.4% of the nation's population, but soon after the year 2050, this group will be the majority (U. S. Census, 1995, Table No. 19). This rapid growth in the nation's populations of color will not be evenly distributed. In fact, most of this growth will occur in the nation's southern and western regions and in the nation's 40 largest metropolitan areas. This pattern of growth will result in increased human diversity and increased political polarization. The needs and concerns of areas experiencing rapid growth in their populations of color will significantly differ from those of areas without such growth. Increasingly, issues related to behavioral diversity will gain prominence. To respond adequately to such issues, psychology will find it necessary to include in its ranks a dramatically enlarged cadre of persons of color and to ensure that all psychologists demonstrate some minimal level of multicultural competence. 

Fig. 1: US Population by Race/Ethnicity 1995 and 2050
 

The Current Status of Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology

CEMRRAT was established to address issues related to the recruitment and retention and graduation of ethnic minority students and faculty, as well as issues related to curriculum and education and training. Not only are these areas of concern interdependent, but demographic data confirm dramatic underrepresentation in each area. 

The psychology pipeline. Compared to their representation in the U. S. population, ethnic minorities are substantially underrepresented at all levels of the educational pipeline that lead to the doctoral degree in psychology. Figure 2 illustrates the increasing narrowing of this pipeline as the numbers of ethnic minorities become less and less, until the numbers are a bare trickle. Here are the dramatic figures that document this serious state of affairs.

Ethnic minority students continue to graduate from high school at a lower rate than White students. Also, despite an initial trend for ethnic minorities to show increasing numbers who graduate, decreases have occurred in recent years. Thus, even at the start of the educational pipeline, a major constriction is occurring.

According to U. S. Census 1996 Current Population Survey data as reported by the American Council on Education (1995, Table 1), high school completion rates among 18- to 24-year old youth during the 20-year period of 1973 to 1993 demonstrated the patterns depicted in Figure 3.6 

  • Among Whites, rates remained stable during the 20-year period at approximately 83%.

  • Among African Americans, rates showed a moderate increase from 66.8% in 1973 to a high of 77.0% in 1990 and then declined to 74.8% by 1993.

  • Among Hispanics/Latino(a)s, rates fluctuated greatly, ranging from 55.2% in 1973, reaching a peak of 62.9% in 1985, declining to a low of 52.0% in 1991, and increasing again to 60.7% in 1993.

  • Regardless of race/ethnicity, women exhibit higher rates of high school completion than men. In 1993, this gender gap was 5 percentage points for Hispanics, 3.9 percentage points for African Americans and 3.2 percentage points for Whites.

Fig. 2: The Constricting Pipeline: Representation of Ethnic Minorities in Psychology, 1993Fig. 3: High School Completion Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 1973-93 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

College enrollment. Ethnic minority student representation among persons enrolled in college is almost the same as their representation in the general population. Indeed, during the period of 1982 to 1993, ethnic minority student college enrollment increased by nearly 58% (American Council on Education [ACE], 1995, p. 13). This increase is due mainly to the enrollment of women and older students. Figure 4 (on page 24) illustrates the changes in college enrollments across time. 

The following racial/ethnic college enrollment trends existed during the period 1976 to 1993 (ACE, 1995, Table 5; National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 1995, Table 201).

  • The proportional representation of Non-Hispanic Whites in the nation's colleges steadily declined from 82.2% in 1976 to 73.9% in 1993, despite a 17.6% increase in their numbers on college campuses.

  • African Americans's proportional representation increased minimally from 10.0% in 1976 to 10.5% in 1993, despite a 36.6% increase in their numbers in college.

  • Hispanics/Latino(a)s increased their proportional representation at colleges from 3.8% in 1976 to 7.4% in 1993, while increasing their numbers 160.1%.

  • Asian Americans increased their proportional representation from 1.8% in 1976 to 5.1% in 1993, while increasing their numbers by 274.4%.

  • American Indians increased their proportional representation from 0.7% in 1976 to 0.9% in 1993, while increasing their numbers by 61.7%.

Fig. 4: Change in College Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity, 1976-1993 

Such trends are continuing. In 1993, students of color comprised 23.9% of the nation's undergraduate enrollment; non-Hispanic Whites comprised 73.9%, and nonresident aliens comprised the remaining 2.2%. The number of students enrolled in undergraduate studies continues to increase for each of the four major ethnic minority groups. But in 1992, for the first time in recent history, the number of non-Hispanic White college students decreased. The enrollment of these students declined from 9.5 million in 1991 to 9.1 million in 1993-that is, a 4.2% decline during a 2-year period.

Completing the bachelor's degree. The pool of baccalaureate degree graduates is the primary supplier of graduate students for psychology. But it is at this level of the pipeline that one begins to see significant underrepresentation of people of color. During the period of 1976 to 1993, the following racial/ethnic trends depicted in Figure 5 existed for completion of the bachelor's degree in psychology (Commission of Professionals in Science and Technology [CPST], 1994, Table 2-31; Kohout & Pion, 1990, Table 6; NCES, 1995, Table 257).

  • In 1975/76, ethnic minority recipients of the bachelor's degree in psychology numbered 5,691 and comprised 11.5% of all such recipients (N = 49,486). In 1992/93, ethnic minority recipients of such degrees numbered 10,842 and comprised 16.2% of all such recipients (N = 66,728).

  • African Americans' proportional representation varied during the 1976-1993 period-increasing from 6.5% of the bachelor's degrees awarded in psychology in 1976 to 8.1% in 1981, thereafter declining to 5.8% in 1989 and then increasing to 7.1% in 1993.

  • Hispanics/Latino(a)s' proportionate representation among persons granted the bachelor's degree in psychology has slightly increased from 3.4% in 1976 to 4.8% in 1993.

  • Asian Americans' representation, although small, has more than tripled-increasing from 1.2% in 1976 to 3.9% in 1993.

  • Native Americans' representation remained for all practical purposes unchanged during the 1976-1993 period at approximately 0.5%, while their numbers nearly doubled from 192 in 1976 to 344 in 1993.

Fig. 6: Change in Number of Persons Completing a Bachelor's Degree in Psychology by Race/Ethnicity, 1975/76 - 1992/93 

Enrolling in graduate or professional school in psychology. The next constriction in the pipeline involves enrollment in graduate or professional studies in psychology. Related full-time graduate enrollment trends during the period 1981 to 1992 follow (CPST, 1994, Tables 1-36, 1-37, 1-40; National Science Foundation [NSF], 1994, Appendix Tables 6-14 through 6-18). Also, see Figure 6 on page 25. 

  • The proportional representation of African American full-time graduate students in psychology increased from 3.8% in 1981 to 5.3% in 1992, while their numbers increased from 983 to 1,681. In 1991, approximately 23% (or 333) of these students were enrolled at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

  • Hispanic\Latina(o) representation increased from 3.7% in 1981 to 5.2% in 1992, and their numbers increased from 955 to 1,642.

  • Asian American representation increased from 1.3% in 1981 to 3.0% in 1992, that is from 328 to 952.

  • American Indian representation increased from 0.2% in 1981 to 0.7% in 1992, while their numbers increased from 49 to 208.

  • In 1992, 13.6% of all (full-time and part-time) graduate students in psychology were persons of color as were 14.2% of all full-time graduate students in psychology.

Fig. 6: Change in Graduate Enrollment in Psychology by Race/Ethnicity, 1981-1982 

Completing the master's degree. After their enrollment in graduate school, a smaller number of students of color complete the master's degree in psychology. Hence, there is one more constriction in the pipeline. Related trends for the period 1975/76 to 1992/93 are noted in Figures 7 and 8 below (CPST, 1994, Table 2-30; Kohout & Pion, 1990, Table 6; NCES, 1995, Tables 244 & 260).   

  • In 1975/76, ethnic minority recipients of the master's degree in psychology numbered 727 and comprised 9.5% of all recipients of such degrees (N = 7,613). In 1992/93, ethnic minority recipients of the master's degree in psychology numbered 1,267 and comprised 11.6% of all recipients of such degrees (N = 10,957).

  • From 1976 to 1993, the proportional representation of African Americans completing this degree remained relatively constant, varying from 5.5% in 1976 to 4.8% in 1989, and then increasing to 5.3% in 1993.

  • Hispanic/Latina(o) representation increased from 2.7% in 1976 to 3.9% in 1993.

  • Asian American representation increased from 1.2% in 1976 to 1.9% in 1993.

  • American Indian representation increased from 0.2% in 1976 to 0.6% in 1993.

Fig. 8: Change in Number of Persons Completing a Master's Degree in Psychology by Race/Ethnicity, 1975/76 - 1992/93Fig. 7: 1992/93 Master's Degrees in Psychology by Race/Ethnicity 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Completing the doctoral degree. At this end of the educational pipeline, the picture is that of very small numbers of persons of color. This small number of ethnic minority doctoral graduates from U. S. institutions foretells a severe limitation on the racial/cultural diversity of the pool of academicians, service providers, and scientists in psychology. The related racial/ethnic trends during the period of 1975 to 1992/93 are noted below and in Figures 9 and 10 on pages 26 and 27(CPST, 1994, Tables 2-4, 2-5, 2-9, 2-10, 2-11, 9-1; NCES, 1995, Tables 263 and 245).  

  • Between 1976 and 1993, a total of 3,833 ethnic minorities were awarded a doctorate in psychology, representing 7.6% of all such doctorates awarded (N = 50,763) during that period.

  • In 1976, ethnic minority recipients of doctorates in psychology numbered 134 and comprised 4.2% of all recipients (N = 3,157) of such degrees. That same year, 430 non-U. S. citizens received doctorates in psychology from U. S. institutions and comprised 13.6% of all such recipients. In 1993, ethnic minority recipients of doctorates in psychology numbered 344 and comprised 9.4% of all recipients of such degrees (N = 3,651). That same year, 182 nonresident aliens received doctorates in psychology and comprised 5.0% of all such recipients. See Figure 10 on page 27.

  • Between 1976 and 1993, the proportional representation of African American recipients of doctorates in psychology varied minimally. In 1976, 86 African Americans received a doctorate in psychology. In that year, these persons represented 2.7% of all recipients of doctorates in psychology and 7.9% of all African American 1976 recipients of a doctorate degree in any field. In 1993, 134 African Americans received a doctorate in psychology, representing 3.7% of all such recipients and 9.9% of all African American 1993 recipients of doctorates in any field. (In comparison, non-Hispanic White 1993 psychology doctorate recipients comprised 11.7% of all same race 1993 recipients of a doctorate in any field.)

  • Hispanic/Latino(a) doctorate recipients steadily increased their number and proportional representation. In 1976, 27 Hispanics/Latino(a)s were awarded a doctorate in psychology (representing 0.9% of such recipients and 7.9% of all Hispanic/Latina(o) 1976 recipients of a doctorate in any field). In 1993, 125 Hispanic/Latino(a)s received a doctorate in psychology (representing 3.4% of all such recipients and 15.1% of all Hispanic/Latino(a) 1993 recipients of a doctorate in any field).

  • Asian American doctorate recipients also increased their numbers and proportional representation. In 1976, 17 Asian Americans received a doctorate in psychology (representing 0.5% of all such recipients and 5.1% of all Asian American 1976 recipients of a doctorate in any field). In 1993, 63 Asian Americans received a doctorate in psychology (representing 1.7% of all such recipients and 4.0% of all Asian American 1993 recipients of a doctorate in any field).

  • In 1976, 4 American Indians received a doctorate in psychology (representing 0.01% of all such recipients and 10.0% of all American Indian 1976 recipients of a doctorate in any field). In 1993, 22 American Indians received a doctorate in psychology (representing 0.6% of all such recipients and 20.8% of all American Indian 1993 recipients of a doctorate in any field).

Fig. 9: 1992/93 Doctoral Degrees in Psychology by Race/Ethnicity

Fig. 10: Change in Number of Persons Completing a Doctoral Degree in Psychology by Race/Ethnicity, 1975/76 - 1992/93

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Entering the faculty workforce. When all psychologists in the workforce are examined, it becomes clear that ethnic minorities comprise an extremely small percent. And when those who are identified as "academicians" are counted, the number becomes even smaller. Approximately 5,000 of the nation's doctoral psychologists are persons of color. Persons of color constitute 5.1% (N = 3,763) of APA's membership (APA Research Office, 1994b). Among APA's members of color, 16.8% identify their primary role as "academician" (APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, 1994), and only about 10% of new ethnic minority doctorates are likely to become faculty (Russo, Olmedo, Stapp, and Fulcher, 1981).

The following were other trends in the representation of ethnic minorities on psychology faculties during the period 1984 to 1993 (APA Research Office, 1994(a), 1995; NCES, 1995, Table 222).

  • The proportional representation of ethnic minorities in full-time faculty positions in U.S. graduate departments of psychology barely increased from 6.6% in 1984 to 8.0% in 1993. In that same year, 9.0% of full-time faculty in U.S. undergraduate departments of psychology were ethnic minorities. Among such institutions, 2-year colleges demonstrated the highest ethnic minority full-time psychology faculty representation with 13%.

  • Among graduate psychology faculty in health service provider subfields, 10.3% of faculty are ethnic minorities; but in non-health service provider subfields (i. e., scientific areas of psychology), only 6.8% of faculty are ethnic minorities.

  • The representation of full-time African American faculty in graduate psychology departments remained virtually unchanged at 3% during the 1984-1993 period. Among full-time undergraduate psychology faculty, African American representation was 4% in 1993.

  • Representation of Hispanics/Latino(a)s as full-time graduate faculty increased from 1% in 1984 to 2% in 1993. Also in that year, Hispanics/Latino(a)s comprised 2% of full-time undergraduate psychology faculty.

  • Asian Americans' full-time graduate faculty representation increased from 1% in 1984 to 2% in 1993. In that year, Asian Americans also comprised 2% of full-time undergraduate faculty in psychology.

  • Throughout the 1984-1993 period, in both graduate and undergraduate faculties of psychology, American Indian representation was less than 1%.

Other pipeline characteristics. Not only is the representation of ethnic minority students increasingly reduced at each level of the psychology educational pipeline, but their educational choice patterns do not follow traditional directions.

  • Students of color are more likely than others to attend community colleges. In 1991, 46.8% of all students of color engaged in postsecondary education were enrolled in community colleges (compared to 38.2% of White students). At community colleges, ethnic minorities comprised 24.4% of enrollments in 1991 (CPST, 1994, Table 1-28).

  • Students of color are more likely than others to attend minority colleges (i.e., Historically or Predominantly Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-Serving Institutions, and Tribal Colleges). In 1991, minority institutions awarded nearly 29% of all baccalaureate degrees granted to African Americans, and 19% of all baccalaureates awarded to Hispanic/Latino(a)s (American Council of Education, 1993).

Producing the multicultural curriculum. Ethnic minority curriculum content attracts students interested in diversity and helps all students attain some minimal level of multicultural competence. Faculty interested in diversity are needed to formulate ethnic minority curricula. With the constricted pipeline of students and faculty, it is not surprising to discover that ethnic minority curricula development and research efforts also have been limited. Although some studies do offer some insights with one replication offering some trend information, the relative paucity of information on ethnic minority curricula makes a study of related trends difficult. Moreover, the multicultural curriculum research that has been reported has focused almost exclusively on health provider programs (i.e., clinical, counseling, and school psychology), with almost no existing research on multicultural curricular and pedagogical issues in scientific psychology programs. Some of the major existing findings related to multicultural curricula in clinical, counseling, and school psychology are noted below and in Figure 11 on page 27.

Fig. 11: Percentage of Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychology Programs with Multicultural Course Requirements 

  • In 1982, the report of an APA survey indicated that only 4.3% of U.S. departments of psychology (17 of 398 responding departments) required a course or practicum training on psychological assessment of ethnic minorities, and 9.5% had an elective multicultural assessment course or practicum (APA, 1982).

  • Bernal and Padilla (1982) conducted a survey in 1980 of multicultural training in APA accredited doctoral clinical psychology programs. And approximately 10 years later in 1990, a followup of this survey was conducted (Bernal and Castro, 1994). Some of the changes suggested by comparing findings of the two surveys are as follow.

1) The percentage of programs offering minority content courses increased from 41% (or 31) to 62% (or 64) of the responding programs.

2) The number of minority content courses offered by the 76 programs surveyed in 1980 and the 104 programs surveyed in 1990 increased from 57 to 138.

3) The percentage of programs requiring any minority-focused course increased from 9% (or 7) to 26% (or 24) of the responding programs. Thus the 1990 survey suggests that 74% of programs do not require even one minority course for the doctoral degree.

4) The 1990 survey findings suggest that off-campus clinical settings serving ethnic minority populations were not fully utilized by the programs as practicum sites; 40% of programs still do not use such settings.

5) Faculty mentors on multicultural issues are few: According to the 1990 survey, 47% of programs have no clinical faculty conducting ethnic minority mental health research; 54% have no faculty coordinating ethnic minority student training.

6) According to the 1990 survey, minority-focused courses are still minimally available: 39% (n = 41) of the surveyed programs had no minority course in the program or department; 35% (n = 36) had one course; 14% (n = 15) had two courses; 6% (n = 6) had 3 or 4 courses; 3% (n = 3) had 5 or 6 courses; 3% (n = 3) had 9 or 10 courses.

  • In 1990/91, Quintana and Bernal (1995) surveyed all accredited training programs in counseling psychology and compared their findings to those on clinical psychology programs as reported by Bernal and Castro (1994). This comparison suggests that the 41 (out of 61) counseling programs who completed the survey had made more progress in diversifying their curriculum than had clinical programs. Nevertheless, as the study's following major findings suggest, the majority of accredited counseling programs do not require a single course related to ethnic minority issues:
    1) 87.8% (n = 36) of the accredited counseling psychology programs offered minority-focused content courses.

2) 41.5% (n = 17) of programs required a course focused on ethnic minority issues, leaving 58.5% of programs that did not have such a requirement.

3) Community settings serving ethnic minority populations were used as practicum sites by 65.8% of programs (n = 27).

4) Ethnic minority faculty were few: 41.5% of programs had no ethnic minority faculty; 48% had no faculty conducting research on ethnic minority issues.

  • Ponterotto (1996) surveyed both accredited and nonaccredited programs in counseling psychology. Compared to accredited counseling programs, this group of accredited and nonaccredited programs were more likely to require a minority-focused course and less likely to use practicum sites serving ethnic minority populations.

1) 89% of the programs (n = 59) required a minority-focused course.

2) Off-campus settings serving ethnic minority populations were used as practicum sites by 35% of the programs (N = 23).

  • Rogers, Ponterotto, Conoley, and Wiese (1992) surveyed multicultural training in 121 school psychology programs offering doctoral, master's, and specialist degrees. Their major findings included the following:

1) One or more minority-focused courses was offered by 60% (N = 72) of surveyed programs, with 40% (N = 48) of the programs offering no courses.

2) At least one course focused on ethnic minority issues was required by 45% of the programs (N = 55).

3) Student exposure to ethnic minority clients was reported by 69% of the programs (N = 83); however, in nearly one-third of these programs, students spent only 0% to 5% of their time with ethnic minority clients.

Summary and conclusions. Demographic data suggest a dramatic change in the racial and ethnic composition of our nation's population. From being "minorities," persons of color will rapidly become the majority population. A number of reasons exist for seeking improvements of ethnic minority representation in psychology's educational pipeline, in the profession of psychology, and in the psychology curriculum. Expanding the educational pipeline would guarantee that a major segment of our youth would receive the training all students deserve to receive. Increasing the numbers of students of color in graduate programs in psychology would increase the availability of the numbers of faculty, research scholars, and service providers needed to close the "underrepresented" and "underserved" gap between the current limited psychological personnel of color and the needs of rapidly growing ethnic minority populations. Increasing the coverage of ethnic minority topics in the curriculum would strengthen psychology's stature in the 21st Century by promoting its investigation and acquisition of substantive knowledge about the behavior of diverse populations and by supporting that kind of training necessary for ensuring all future psychologists are culturally competent as scientists, educators, administrators, and practitioners.

The current status of ethnic minorities in psychology is grim. Despite increases in some areas, the total profile is that of a pipeline that has major constrictions at every level. Already, the numbers of qualified psychological scientists and professionals have failed to keep pace with what would be expected from the increased growth of the nation's ethnic minority populations. Without commitments to innovative actions, the current crises will become an irreversible catastrophe.


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6 Comparable data are not available for American Indians and Asian Americans.

Procedures and Accomplishments

The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT), a 15-member advisory and governance group, was established by the APA Board of Directors in 1994. The Commission was charged to explore and develop mechanisms that will significantly improve the recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training of ethnic minorities in psychology.

Nominations for membership on the Commission were widely and nationally solicited. The Commission members and its chair (Richard M. Suinn, PhD, of Colorado State University) were appointed by APA President Ronald Fox, PhD, after nominations were screened by the APA Central Office Work Group (COWG) on Ethnic Minority Recruitment and Retention. COWG is composed of staff representatives of all the APA directorates as well as APA's Research Office, Minority Fellowship Program, Public Communications Office, and Public Policy Office. This group, which meets 2 to 4 times per year, seeks to ensure that ethnic minority recruitment and retention efforts are coordinated and integrated throughout APA.

In 1994, CEMRRAT was awarded $8,000 from the APA Board of Directors Contingency Fund. In 1995, CEMRRAT received $27,400 from the APA Council of Representatives Contingency Fund. Later that year, the APA Board of Directors extended CEMRRAT's tenure to December 1996 and awarded CEMRRAT an additional $4,700 from the Board's 1995 Contingency Fund to support initial product development efforts. The board also authorized the addition of $18,700 to the OEMA 1996 budget for costs associated with convening one meeting of the full Commission and one meeting of CEMRRAT's Executive Board in 1996. In addition, CEMRRAT also received contract funds (#92-MF-01645701D) in the amount of $6,800 from the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency (SAMHSA) that were used to help fund CEMRRAT's 1994 and 1995 meetings.

At its first meeting, the Commission reviewed existing data and reports on ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training in psychology. Based on this review, the Commission defined its focus and the framework of the methodology and approach to its work. The review effort indicated a need for CEMRRAT to take actions that would have some immediate impact. Prior efforts to facilitate the progress of ethnic minorities in psychology illustrate the history of extremely slow changes that have been effected to date. As an initial commitment, therefore, the members of the Commission agreed to focus on the short-term goal of developing products that could have some immediate impact on the pipeline and curriculum and to engage in long-term strategic planning needed for continued activities required to monitor, maintain, and press forward changes in systemic problems of ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training.

To achieve its goals, Commission members and liaisons (i.e., designated representatives of interested groups and agencies who attended CEMRRAT's meetings) were divided into three work groups: Education and Training, Faculty Recruitment and Retention, and Student Recruitment and Retention, chaired respectively by Drs. Ena Vazquez-Nuttall, Martha Bernal, and Hector Myers.

The Commission's methodology and approach to its goals were guided by formal statements and covenants developed by the Commission related to: (a) The CEMRRAT Charge, (b) Definitions of Subject Areas, (c) Goals and Objectives, and (d) Operating Principles. (A copy of each of these is provided in this report's Appendix A.) Major tenets of CEMRRAT's Operating Principles included:

  • Summarize existing knowledge that pertains to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training and make it available to the general public.

  • Involve many specialists with diverse expertise.

  • Keep the APA membership informed about the Commission's activities and progress.

  • Work with other organizations.

  • Disseminate information and products developed by the Commission.

  • Influence legislation and pubic policy related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training issues.

  • Clarify implications for research and program evaluation. 
     

Activities and Accomplishments

The following is a summary of the Commission's activities and accomplishments.

1. Established in October 1994 for an 18-month term (i.e., through May 1996) by the APA Board of Directors with members appointed by APA President Ronald A. Fox, PhD. CEMRRAT's tenure was later extended through December 1996 by the APA Board of Directors.

2. Conducted four full Commission meetings (December 9-11, 1994; May 12-14, 1995; October 27-29, 1995; June 28-30, 1996) and one Executive Meeting (February 16-18, 1996) in Washington, DC. Copies of the agenda books for the meetings were widely disseminated, as were the minutes of the meetings.

3. Organized itself into three working groups: (a) Education and Training, chaired by Ena Vazquez-Nuttall, EdD; (b) Faculty Recruitment and Retention, chaired by Martha Bernal, PhD; (c) Student Recruitment and Retention, chaired by Hector Myers, PhD.

4. Developed formal statements of its goals and work plans, with short-term and long-term objectives, that served to guide the efforts and progress assessments of each working group.

5. Established mechanisms for ensuring broad-based participation, comment, and support, including a primary network of 18 liaisons, 8 monitors, 39-member panel of experts, and a 14-member Central Office work group.

6. Developed a corporate grantsmanship strategy and submitted pre-proposal letters to over 25 private and corporate foundations.

7. Established a grants subcommittee to develop a federal funding strategy. Under the leadership of the Science Directorate, initiated coordinated efforts with other behavioral and social sciences professional associations and societies for developing a multidisciplinary federal grant proposal on ethnic minority recruitment and retention.

8. Requested 1996 funding from the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) to help defray some of CEMRRAT's 1996 printing and dissemination costs.

9. Secured a $60,000 HBCU grant award to APA's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) from CMHS "to strengthen the institutional capacities of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) to recruit, retain and graduate, and train students of color for careers in psychology." Other grant applications to expand this initiative have been submitted and await a funding decision. In June 1996, a first cohort of small grants totaling approximately $43,000 was awarded to:

  • Morehouse College in Atlanta, GA, for implementing activities that will strengthen psychology research training opportunities for high school and undergraduate students (Principal Investigator: Jann Adams, PhD).

  • Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, NC, for implementing activities that will strengthen the department's capacity to mentor students for research and professional development-beginning with their freshman year (Principal Investigators: Ruth Greene, PhD, and Michael Kidda, PhD).

  • Fisk University in Nashville, TN for implementing a psychology honors program (Principal Investigator: Donna J. Rawls, PhD).

10. Assisted OEMA to successfully secure a 3-year grant (9/96-9/99) for $750,000 in direct costs from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) on "Developing Ethnic Minority Talent in Psychology." Funds will be used to create five Regional Centers of Excellence in the Recruitment, Retention, and Training of Ethnic Minority Students. Each center will be composed of a major research institution and two predominantly minority institutions. Grants to the participating institutions will total over $500,000. It is anticipated the products derived from project efforts will be of national significance and appropriate for use by other biomedical disciplines.

11. Encouraged the APA Public Communications Office to develop a comprehensive three-phase Media Plan for the Commission, resulting to date in the publication of nearly two dozen articles on CEMRRAT in newspapers and newsletters across the nation and broad dissemination of information in psychology news and media outlets.

12. Established a collaborative relationship with APA's Committee on Accreditation (CoA) that involved CEMRRAT in conjunction with APA's Division 45 (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues) in designing a module on "ethnic diversity" for APA accreditation site visitor training. More recently, CoA has agreed to include in its Site Visitor Workbook the statement, "Suggested questions and factors site visitors should consider when assessing degree of compliance with Domain D: Cultural and individual differences and diversity," which was developed by CEMRRAT's Education and Training Work Group.

13. Reviewed accreditation standards and recommended to CoA ways for ensuring compliance with standards affecting multicultural practice including: expanding the pool of site visitors of color, requiring that one member of each accreditation team be knowledgeable in multicultural issues; and encouraging programs and intern sites to ensure that students obtain field work experience with multicultural clients and take at least one course in multicultural issues.

14. Conducted a mail survey of all APA accredited programs and internship sites (with the assistance of APA's Research Office) for the purpose of identifying those APA members with expertise in multicultural issues and interest in serving as an accreditation site visitor or program consultant on multicultural issues. Approximately 400 completed surveys were returned. Data from these surveys will be statistically analyzed.

15. Conducted a survey of programs to identify multicultural resource materials used in core graduate psychology courses.

16. Established collaborative relationships with the Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology (COGDOP) and the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP), both of which sent liaisons to CEMRRAT's meetings. In 1995, CEMRRAT provided an invited presentation at COGDOP's annual meeting. In 1996, CEMRRAT provided invited presentations at the annual meetings of both COGDOP and NCSPP.

17. Participated in the 1995 annual meetings of those State Psychological Associations with the largest numbers of members and populations of color (i. e., CA, FL, TX) in order to describe CEMRRAT's goals and objectives and solicit state association involvement.

18. Participated in the 1995 Division Leadership Conference.

19. Provided articles on CEMRRAT's activities to all APA directorate newsletters.

20. Presented information on CEMRRAT at the American Council on Education's "Fifth Annual Educating One-Third of a Nation Conference" in 1995.

21. Developed or participated in six events at the 1995 APA Convention:

  • Open Forum I: CEMRRAT Update

  • Open Forum II: Ethnic Minority Faculty Recruitment

  • Symposium: Multicultural Curriculum Development

  • Conversation Hour: Links and Shoulders (with Division 45; about mentoring)

  • Participated in the CEMA Breakfast for Presidents of State Associations and Chairpersons of State and Division Committees on Ethnic Minority Affairs at which CEMRRAT members were invited speakers on the topic of "How state associations and divisions can support ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training efforts".

  • Participated as mentors/speakers in the Psi Beta Diversity Project 2000 Summer Institute Project-a mentoring project for students of color in community colleges interested in pursuing careers in psychology.

22. Developed two events for the 1996 APA Convention:

  • Symposium: Model Multicultural Training Programs in Psychology

  • Symposium: Implementing Multicultural Issues: The Role of Accreditation and Licensing Boards

23. Provided diversity consultation/technical assistance to the University of Rhode Island.

24. Urged that APA's $1 million/year public education campaign include messages targeted to communities of color.

25. Reviewed and commented on the initial draft of the APA publication Careers in Psychology.

26. Developed a listing of postdoctoral opportunities for persons of color, which was forwarded to APA's Education Directorate.

27. Supported efforts by the APA Membership Services Office and Membership Committee to develop targeted strategies for recruiting and retaining members of color in APA.

28. Developed initial or final drafts of the following publications:7

  • Commissioners' professional biographies. This 150+ page book was prepared by the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) and issued in November 1994.

  • Resource book on ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology. This 500+ page book, which was issued in November 1994, includes: summaries of major reports and conferences on ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training; vital national demographics and statistics on the status of ethnic minorities in psychology; key research papers on the topic, etc.

  • How to recruit and hire ethnic minority faculty. This booklet is a nuts and bolts how-to booklet with self-study questions. It outlines strategies for recruiting ethnic minority faculty that psychology programs and search committees should consider and implement. It was prepared by CEMRRAT's Faculty Recruitment and Retention Work Group and was published in November 1996.

  • Valuing diversity in faculty. This booklet, prepared by CEMRRAT's Faculty Recruitment and Retention Work Group and issued in September 1996, provides a conceptual background for understanding the value of diversity in academia and describes innovative ways for preparing the program and campus climate for successful recruitment and retention of ethnic minority faculty.

  • Survival guide for ethnic minority and women faculty. This booklet suggests strategies for use when searching for faculty positions, dealing with the recruitment visit, negotiating hiring terms, and shaping one's academic career. The booklet is a collaborative effort of CEMRRAT's Faculty Recruitment and Retention Work Group and the APA Committee on Women in Psychology, with an expected publication date in 1997.

  • Suggested questions and factors site visitors should consider when assessing degree of compliance with Domain D: Cultural and individual differences and diversity, which was developed by the Education and Training Work Group for inclusion in CoA's site visitor workbook.

  • Suggested questions and actions directors of professional psychology programs should consider when assessing the degree to which their programs comply with Domain D: Cultural and individual differences and diversity, which was developed by the Education and Training Work Group as a companion to the preceding document for distribution to chairs of graduate departments and professional programs and directors of psychology internship sites; to be published in early 1997.

  • How to implement a "Psychology Day Program." This pamphlet, for use by community colleges, is being prepared by CEMRRAT's Student Recruitment and Retention Work Group with an expected publication date in 1997.

  • How to apply to graduate programs in psychology. This booklet has been prepared by the Student Recruitment and Retention Work Group with an expected publication date in early 1997.

  • Ethnic minority student recruitment resource guide. A revised draft for use by graduate and professional programs in psychology is under preparation by the Student Recruitment and Retention Work Group with an expected publication date in early 1997.

  • Annotated bibliography on ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training. A third draft is under preparation by OEMA with an expected publication date in early 1997.

  • Guidebook for students of color interested in education and careers in psychology: Tips for high school students. A third draft of this booklet is in progress in OEMA with an expected publication date in 1997.

  • Directory of multicultural experts in professional psychology. The directory's listings are based on the approximately 400 responses to the CEMRRAT Education and Training Work Group's survey of multicultural experts. Publication is expected to occur in 1997, with expected dissemination to psychology programs, CoA, textbook publishers, and others.

____________________

7 The commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology is committed to developing products that will be actively used by psychologists involved in teaching, research, and practice and by others throughout the nation's academic communities. Consequently, the Commission sought rigorous and broad comment on, and engaged in repeated revision of its draft products. This included conducting symposia of the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, where Commission members described the rationale for various products and handed out hundreds of draft copies of products with comment sheets. Based on these comments, draft products were revised and placed on the meeting agendas of all APA governance boards and committees with a request for comment. At APA's semiannual consolidated governance meetings, conference committees were conducted at which representatives for interested governance groups provided comment from their various groups. Comments also were solicited conference committees were conducted at which representatives from interested governance groups provided comment from their various groups. Comments also were solicited from the Commission's monitors and panels of experts. Soliciting and receiving thoughtful comment is a cumbersome and time consuming process. The commission wishes to acknowledge the critical role that APA's staff liaisons to the various governance groups played in ensuring that this process proceeded in an efficient and timely manner.
 

The Commission's Five-Year Plan

The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training seeks to promote creative transformation of psychology's educational pipeline (high school through postdoctoral and continuing education studies) in ways that will ensure that, in the near future, the proportion of psychologists who are people of color will dramatically increase, and all psychologists will demonstrate at least minimal multicultural competence in training, research, and practice issues. The Commission believes that actualization of this vision of our future will require all entities of organized psychology to demonstrate a fundamental commitment to diversity that is evidenced by:

  • the strengthening of linkages among departments, schools, and programs of psychology with varying institutional missions and at all levels of the educational pipeline;

  • the creation of educational and professional environments that are inclusive and where diversity is valued as integral to the pursuit of excellence and the vigor of psychology in the 21st Century;

  • the infusion of multicultural considerations into all areas and procedures of psychological research, curriculum, training, and practice;

  • the strengthening of individual efforts and organizational and institutional strategies for increasing the number of people of color who are recruited and retained in psychology's educational pipeline;

In support of these goals, the Commission presents the following Five-Year Plan for deliberation and review. It, like the Commission's work to date, is characterized by a strategic focus and an emphasis on inclusiveness in participation and responsibility.
 

A Five-Year Plan For Transformation: Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, And Training in Psychology
Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology August 1996 1

 

MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Promote and Improve Multicultural Education and Training in Psychology
1. Evaluate the quality of treatment given to multicultural issues in textbooks and teaching/learning aids, and inform the discipline of the status of the presentation and treatment of ethnic minority issues in existing textbooks. BEA/TF on Diversity
  • Develop procedures and identify participants for the textbook review activity (e.g. by contacting Divisions 2, 45, and others).
8/97 Minimal2
  • Devise guidelines to evaluate the multicultural appropriateness of psychology textbooks through use of an expert panel.
5/97 $5,000
  • Review major psychology textbooks according to defined multicultural guidelines; publish the results of the review in a major APA journal; disseminate information to publishers, editors, and reviewers.
1/98 $40,000
  • Design an initiative to encourage publishers to include multicultural content in psychology textbooks at all educational levels (e.g., develop a resource bank of continually updated multicultural research findings).
1998 $10,000

2. Help psychology trainers, educators, and researchers to become literate in multicultural issues and facilitate the inclusion of multicultural topics in classroom and field experiences through conduct and sponsorship of workshops and convention presentations.

BEA/TF on Diversity
  • Develop a grant proposal to support a meeting of experts to define guidelines and procedures for introducing multicultural content into high school and college textbooks and to identify resource materials (videos, tapes, workbooks, books, etc.)
1997 Solicit grant
for est. $25,000
  • Develop standards for good practice and minimal multicultural competencies related to student and faculty issues, including but not limited to:
    Course content and culturally sensitive practices in the classroom.
1998 $15,000
  • Inform high school and college teachers of appropriate textbooks and resource materials through work shops and presentations at the APA convention.1997-2001 Minimal
1997-2001 Minimal
  • Conduct an annual APA workshop on multicultural issues in teaching, including information on how to manage a culturally sensitive classroom.
1996-2001 Minimal
  • Facilitate the incorporation of ethnic minority materials and issues in college and graduate/professional school curricula; collect and disseminate model multi-cultural curricula and descriptions of procedures for presentation of these curricula.
1997-2001 Collection:$5,000
Production and Dissemination:$35,000
  • Produce a book on multicultural issues in psychologythat is conceptualized around competencies in basic areas of practice and research and that will include annotated lists of readings, syllabi, films, and videos, case studies, critical incidents, and other teaching tools.
Revised book proposal: 3/98
Submit final manuscript: 1/99 Publication: 2000
$25,000
  • Conduct a mail survey of internships listed in the APPIC Directory to determine the extent to which they provide clinical experiences with multicultural clients and supervisors, and offer workshops/seminars in multicultural assessment and intervention.
1996-1997 $3,000

1 The plan's estimated costs must be adjusted for inflation each year in determining funding levels. Also, the plan's estimated costs do not include cossts of any extraordinary (unbudgeted) staff support that might be required.

2 "Minimal costs" are defined as $500 or less.

Major Objective: Promote and Improve Multicultural Education and Training in Psychology (continued)
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Promote and Improve Multicultural Education and Training in Psychology
3. Introduce and/or increase the enforceability of accreditation and licensing standards focused on services to/research with multicultural populations. BEA, BPA, CAPP, State Psychological Associations and Licensing Boards
  • Conduct a mail survey of APA members with interests and experience in multicultural issues and assess their interest in serving as an accreditation site visitor and/or multicultural consultant; compile a directory of such persons for use by the APA Accreditation Committee and others.
12/96 Survey Completed by CEMRRAT $5,000
  • Contact state psychology boards, state associations, state CEMAs, APPIC, and other pertinent bodies to assess their receptiveness to advocacy related to requiring: (a) knowledge of minority issues on state licensing exams, (b) continuing education on diversity issues for license renewal, and (c) minority issues courses including multicultural training in practicum or internship as a prerequisite for sitting for state licensing exams.
1997 Minimal
  • Conduct a mail survey of psychologists serving on state licensing boards to determine their degree of knowledge and experience in multicultural assessment and intervention, with a report of findings to the National Association of State Psychology Boards.
1996-1997 $2,000
  • Organize symposia for the APA Convention on multicultural issues in licensing and accreditation.
1997-2001 Minimal
  • Conduct an annual workshop at the State Leadership Conference to encourage state associations to offer programs on multicultural issues.
1997-2001 Minimal
  • Ensure ethnic minority concerns are represented at every state psychological convention.
1997-2001 Minimal
Major Objective: Promote and Improve Multicultural Education and Training in Psychology (continued)
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Promote and Improve Multicultural Education and Training in Psychology
4. Promote the education and training of psychologists for innovative and nontraditional roles to meet the needs of diverse populations.
  • Develop and promote a strategy for improved service delivery to historically underserved rural ethnic minority populations.
1998 $25,000 BPA,CEMA, and TF on Rural Health
  • Develop a plan for proposing multicultural psychology as a specialty or proficiency.
1997 $5,000 CEMA, CNPAAEMI, and Interested Divisions
  • Develop curriculum, research, and training models that address prevention and intervention of behaviors that place ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities at risk.
1997-2001 $50,000 BSA, CEMA, and Interested Divisions
  • Promote the need to develop programs (and associated professional development for faculty) to improve services to linguistic minorities, including opportunities for learning a second language and practicum training in settings serving linguistic minorities.
1997-2001 $10,000 BEA and BPA
5. Affirm and strengthen ethnic minority student interest and talent in statistics, design,methodology, and scientific areas of psychology.
  • Identify, demonstrate, document, and disseminate math, science, and research education and training procedures and strategies (including "distance learning technology") that result in increased retention at all levels of the educational pipeline of ethnic minority students in psychology-especially in the scientific research areas.
1997-2001 Small demonstration grants: $20,000/yr.x 5 yrs. Dissemination: $5,000
Major Objective: Increase Ethnic Minority Faculty Recruitment and Retention in Psychology
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Increase Ethnic Minority Faculty Recruitment and Retention in Psychology

1. Improve efforts to identify, recruit, and hire
ethnic minority faculty.

BEA and BSA
  • Prepare a list of postdoctoral fellowships to encourage academic career entry by ethnic minorities.
1997 Minimal
  • Provide technical assistance (e.g. workshops, campus consultations, convention consultation service) and resources (e.g., job clearinghouse, written materials) for encouraging departments and schools of psychology to recruit ethnic minority faculty.
1997-2001 $2,500/yr. X 5 yrs.

2. Improve the retention of ethnic minority faculty.

BEA and BSA
  • Develop and pilot a model for providing consultation to departments and schools of psychology concerned about ethnic diversity issues affecting the retention of faculty and students of color.
Development: 1998
Pilot: 1999-2001
Development: $15,000
Pilot: $10,000/yr. X 3yrs.
  • Provide technical assistance to psychology departments and schools of psychology on effective ethnic minority faculty retention strategies.
1997-2001 $2,500/yr X 5 yrs
3. Increase the capabilities of the discipline and the Association to promote mentoring of and linkages with psychologists of color. BAPPI, PSA, BEA, Division 2 and Membership Committee
  • Develop an interactive computerized database/network for jobs, networking, exchange of course/curriculum materials, professional support, etc.
1/98 Unknown
  • Establish a CEMA in Division 2 (Teaching of Psychology).
1997 Minimal
  • Present annual workshops at APA Convention for new ethnic minority faculty on writing for scholarly publication and research grant applications.
Begin: 1997 Minimal
  • Advocate ethnic minority access to grant/research review boards.
A continuing effort Minimal
  • Continue and strengthen support for ethnic minority participation in both APA and the national ethnic minority psychological associations.
A continuing effort Minimal
4. Develop resources for actively supporting and promoting diversity in psychology programs. BEA and BSA
  • Develop for psychology program chairs a professional development program and related consultation and technical assistance packages on "valuing diversity" to include but not be limited to information on:
Operational by 1999 Development: $20,000
  • Dealing with faculty resistance to diversity
Implementation:
$10,000/yr. x 3 yrs.
  • Defining the Diversity Planning Process
  • The process for conducting a departmental assessment of diversity issues related to faculty, students, staff, course content, cultural sensitivity in the classroom, and faculty\students attitudes and beliefs.
  • How to achieve diversity and the capacity-building processes needed to effect change
  • Curriculum audit
  • Faculty roles and rewards and the tenure process
  • Promoting multiculturalism at the department level
Major Objective: Increase Ethnic Minority Student Recruitment, Retention, and Graduation in Psychology
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Increase Ethnic Minority Student Recruitment, Retention, and Graduation in Psychology

1. Establish a series of regional networks that would link high school and community college ethnic minority students with psychology faculty.

BEA/TOPSS and Psi Beta
  • Develop local and regional networks that link community college students and ethnic minority high school students interested in the discipline of psychology, and foster mentoring and role model experiences for community college students through the conduct of "Psychology Day Programs."
1997-2001 Pilot Programs: $5,000/yr. x 5 yrs.

2. Facilitate the transition of ethnic minority psychology students at 2-year colleges to 4-year colleges.

BEA, Psi Beta and Psi Chi
  • Select a sample of 4-year colleges with large ethnic minority enrollments that are located in the five geographic regions of Eastern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Southeastern, and Rocky Mountain/Western.
Completed 11/95 none
  • Identify faculty and advanced undergraduate ethnic minority students (e.g. seniors in MARC/MBRS programs, etc.) who are willing to serve as mentors for community college students in their local area.
1997-2001 Minimal
  • Identify community college students wishing to participate in mentoring programs.
1997-2001 Minimal
  • Develop a packet of materials for use by potential ethnic minority transfer students in psychology.
Publication Development and production: $10,000 Dissemination: $5,000
Major Objective: Increase Ethnic Minority Student Recruitment, Retention, and Graduation in Psychology (continued)
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Increase Ethnic Minority Student Recruitment, Retention, and Graduation in Psychology

5. Provide incentives to departments and schools of psychology for ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and graduation activities.

Science, Education, and PI Directorates
  • Provide small grants to undergraduate and graduate and professional psychology programs to develop innovative strategies for recruitment, retention, and graduation of ethnic minority students (e.g., over a 5-year period, provide 2-year grants in the average amount of $5,000/yr. to 50 schools and departments).
Initiate small grants: 1998

9/95: OEMA secured from CMHS a $60,000 grant to strengthen the capacity of HBCU's-small grants provided to 3 HBCU's.

9/96: OEMA secured from NIGMS a 3-yr. grant for $750,000 for small grants (i.e., $15,000/yr./dept. x 2 yrs.), to five (each comprised by 3 psy. depts.) Regional Centers of Excellence in ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in biomedical research.

Initiate small grants for program evaluation: 1998

$500,000 To be grant-funded
  • Provide seed money to develop program evaluation components of recruitment, retention, and graduation programs. Special emphasis could be placed on improved mechanisms for the graduate application process and evaluation of the relationship between components in the application process and prediction of successful retention and graduation outcomes. Follow-up of program graduates should be encouraged.
$75,000 ($5,000/dept.)- To be grant-funded (perhaps through request for supplement to NIGMS award).
Major Objective: Provide national leadership for diversity and multiculturalism in education, science, and human services
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Provide national leadership for diversity and multiculturalism in education, scince, and human services

1. Develop partnerships with other disciplinary and higher education associations to promote the value of and need for diversity in postsecondary education through advocacy, public relations, and public policy.

  • Develop broad resolutions and standards of good practice related to diversity, affirmative action, and multicultural curricula.
Unknown APA Governance and Executive Managers
  • Develop and initiate a national public relations campaign on diversity in postsecondary education.
APA contribution: $50,000 PIC
  • Develop and monitor federal legislation in support of student and faculty diversity in postsecondary education.
Minimal PPO

2. Identify effective ethnic minority recruitment and retention programs and strategies, and associated human resources and costs, and disseminate this information to postsecondary institutions and disciplinary organizations through comprehensive consultation/technical assistance programs.

1997-2001 $10,000/yr. x 5 yrs. BEA, BSA, BAPPI, and Membership Committee

3. Develop a procedure, appropriate for use by a variety of accrediting entities and disciplinary organizations, for responding to complaints and concerns related to diversity in academic and health institutions.

Implement by: 2000 APA contribution: $25,000 BEA
Major Objective: Promote Data Collection, Research and Evaluation on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Graduation, and Education and Training
MAJOR OBJECTIVES COMPLETION DATE EST. COSTS RESPONSIBLE PARTY
Promote Data Collection, Research and Evaluation on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Graduation, and Education and Training

1. Improve APA's data collection systems related to ethnic minorities.

CEHR and Research Office
  • Develop data collection procedures and systems for ongoing monitoring of the number, status, and concerns of students and professionals of color in psychology.
Begin development: 1997 $10,000/yr. x 5 yrs.

2. Increase research and evaluation efforts related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training.

CEHR, Research Office, and PPO
  • Design and conduct outcome/impact evaluation studies of APA's ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training initiatives and encourage evaluation of similar efforts by psychology departments/programs.
Begin: 1/97 $15,000/yr. 5 yrs.
  • Encourage universities to engage in research on these topics.
A continuing effort
  • Encourage federal research agencies to provide funding for basic and applied research related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training.
1997-2001 Minimal

3. Closely monitor APA's Five-Year Plan for Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology.

B/D

Publish and widely disseminate the CEMRRAT Final Report.

1997 $15,000

Provide an annual written report on the progress and implementation of these efforts to the APA Council of Representatives.

1997-2001 $1,000/yr. x 5 yrs.

Total Estimated Costs, 1997-2001:3,4

$1,414,500


3 Includes 'minimal cost' items estimated at $500 each and costs of items proposed for grant funding.
4 Excludes (a) items whose costs are 'unknown'; (b) additional costs associated with inflation; (c) costs of any extraordinary (unbudgeted) required staff support; and (d) costs associated with the recommended establishment of an ongoing Committee on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training.

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Appendix A: Formal Statements and Covenants That Guided the Commission's Efforts

APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention,
and Training in Psychology

CHARGE

In October 1994, the APA President (Ronald Fox, PhD) established the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT) to accomplish the following:

1. Review and synthesize existing data regarding ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training in psychology.

2. Describe the components that impact successful ethnic minority recruitment,1 retention, and training for psychology.

3. Explore the nature of barriers and obstacles that prohibit significant ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology.

4. Recommend the development and implementation of innovative ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and education and training models.

5. Define the role(s) of organized psychology in influencing ethnic minority recruitment and retention and encouraging multicultural education and training.

6. Develop a five-year plan of action for APA addressing ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training.

This charge was approved by the CEMRRAT on October 27, 1995.

 

APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention,
and Training in Psychology

DEFINITIONS OF SUBJECT AREAS

The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT) on December 9, 1994, revised and approved the following definitions of subject areas:

Recruitment: Involves information/strategies focusing on improving the representation of ethnic minorities (students, faculty, etc.) in psychology.

Retention and Graduation: Involves information/strategies focusing on retaining and graduating ethnic minority students at all levels of the education pipeline, keeping ethnic minorities (be they student, faculty, or professional) in the discipline (includes, but not limited to mentoring; professional, emotional, and financial support; acknowledgement of contributions; and solicited meaningful participation).

Education and Training: Involves strategies/curriculum focused on improving cultural and ethnic diversity in course content and practicum experiences, and expanding the theoretical, methodological and knowledge base of the science of psychology by modeling and otherwise encouraging the formulation and investigation of research questions on ethnic minority issues; also, involves information/strategies to educate and train psychologists to work with and on behalf of culturally and ethnically diverse populations, whether in an educational, research, or practice framework.

 

APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention,
and Training in Psychology

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Prepared by Richard M. Suinn, PhD, Chairperson, CEMRRAT, and approved by CEMRRAT on May 12, 1995.

Three events led to the appointment of the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT):

  • Approval by the APA Council of Representatives of the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA) Resolution stating that:

APA places a high priority on issues related to the education of ethnic minorities (including) planning appropriately diverse curricula, promoting psychology as a course of study and career option as well as recruitment, retention, advising, and mentoring of minority students at all levels of education.

  • Allocation of funds by the APA Board of Directors from its contingency fund to support the Commission.

  • Assignment of funds from the Center for Mental Health Services' (CMHS) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to APA's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) for a major initiative appropriate to the Commission.

From the initial charge to the Commission, and directly relevant to the Council of Representatives and BEA Resolution, the following are goals of the Commission:

  • Develop activities, plans, responsibilities, and target dates for achieving measurable progress and improvement of education and training of ethnic minorities. This includes consideration of the diversity within ethnic minority groups such as gender, sexual orientation, disability, and persons of mixed ethnicity/race.

  • Develop activities, plans, responsibilities, and timelines for achieving measurable progress on activities and products related to the recruitment, retention, and the advancement of ethnic minority faculty members.

  • Focus energies on three primary topics: (a) recruitment, retention, and graduation of minority students, (b) recruitment and retention of ethnic of minority faculty, and (c) the broader arena of the education and training of ethnic minorities and others in psychology. Subgoals include:

Increase the numbers of ethnic minority students recruited into the academic pipeline who are retained, and who graduate. Steps might include: reaching out to raise the size of the pool of potential psychology majors; (a) making psychology a more salient career; (b) enabling students to achieve academic success and career preparation once in psychology; (c) enabling departments to be successful as joint participants in recruitment, retention and graduation, and curriculum development.

Increase the numbers of ethnic minority faculty who are recruited into and advance in academic positions. Steps might include: (a) enabling faculty candidates and departments to be successful joint collaborators in recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority members; (b) documenting the "value-added" of increased diversity in departments; (c) organizing career consultation and career development opportunities.

Stimulate the development of ethnic diversity knowledge and competencies through curricula and other published materials. Steps might include: (a) making information available on existing diversity publications such as through evaluative reviews; (b) increasing the availability of useful curriculum methods and resources; (c) organizing human resources in collaborative settings for mutual sharing and instruction.

It is the vision of the Commission members to be truly a unique body, thoroughly committed to taking ethnic minority goals "to the next level" by building on prior foundations, while reaching for new heights. Each member personally dedicated himself/herself to "getting things done" rather than again stating what we already know, of aiming at concrete planning rather than generic envisioning, and adopting action-oriented steps with a view toward products rather than further debated and empty discourse. The very term "Commission" has challenged us; we shall now see if we are able to meet our own high standards for ourselves.

 

APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention,
and Training in Psychology

OPERATING PRINCIPLES

The APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT), on October 27, 1995, reviewed and approved its operating principles to read as follows.

Summarize existing knowledge that pertains to ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training and make it available to the general public. CEMRRAT will utilize as its operating definition of ethnic minorities: African American/Black, Asian American/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic/Latino(a). This definition involves consideration and sensitivity to the diversity within ethnic minority groups to include but not limit to gender, sexual orientation, disability, and those of mixed ethnicity/race.

Involve many specialists with diverse expertise in the Commission's work.

Keep the APA membership informed about the Commission's activities and progress; systematically use APA organizational media to communicate with members.

Work with other organizations. Particular attention should be given to APA affiliated and non-APA affiliated academic and professional organizations such as: State and Regional Psychological Associations, APA Divisions and Governance Groups, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students, Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools, Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, National Education Association, National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology, Association of Postdoctoral and Internship Centers, the national ethnic minority psychological associations (AAPA, ABPsi, NHPA, SIP), etc. Develop collaborative and cooperating relationships with these and other organizations whose work is germane to ethnic minority recruitment, retention and graduation, and education and training.

Disseminate information and products developed by the Commission. Make systematic use of professional and public print and electronic media, organizational linkages, and public education strategies.

Influence legislation and public policy related to ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training issues. Work with public officials and with grassroots networks.

Clarify implications for research and program evaluation. Involve appropriate expertise so that findings are interpreted appropriately for use by psychological educators, researchers, and service providers. Encourage evaluation of initiatives; ensure that all summary and review findings include implications for both action and research.


____________________

1 CEMRRAT will utilize as its operating definition of ethnic minorities: African American/Black, Asian America/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic/Latino(a). This definition involves consideration and sensitivity to the diversity within ethnic minority group to include, but not limited to, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and those of mixed ethnicity/race.

 

Appendix B: Rosters of the Commission's Work Groups, Monitors, Panel of Experts, and Staff

CEMRRAT Work Group on Education and Training

Ena Vazquez-Nuttall, EdD, Chair
Associate Dean and Director of the Graduate School and Professor
Bouve College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts

Diane Adams, PhD
California School of Professional Psychology
at Alameda Campus
Alameda, California

Cheryl A. Boyce, PhD
Washington, DC

Allen C. Carter, PhD
Clinical Psychologist
Atlanta, Georgia

Lynyonne Cotton
Howard University
Washington, DC

Arthur L. McDonald, PhD
President, Dull Knife Memorial College
Lame Deer, Montana

Wanda E. Ward, PhD
The Directorate for Education and Human Resources
National Science Foundation
Arlington, Virginia

CEMRRAT Work Group on Faculty Recruitment and Retention

Martha E. Bernal, PhD, Chair
Professor of Psychology and Hispanic Research
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona

Merry Bullock, PhD
Senior Scientist
APA Science Directorate
Washington, DC

A. Toy Caldwell-Colbert, PhD
Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois

Victor De La Cancela, PhD
Consulting Psychologist
Riverdale, New York

Hector Garza, MPH
Director, Office of Minorities in Higher Education
American Council on Education
Washington, DC

Eduard S. Morales, PhD
Clinical and Consulting Psychologist
San Francisco, California

Pamela Reid, PhD
Associate Provost and Dean for Academic Affairs
City University of New York
New York, New York

Dalmas A. Taylor, PhD
Vice President for Academic Affairs
Lincoln University
Lincoln, Pennsylvania

Elizabeth Todd-Bazemore, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology
University of South Dakota
Vermillion, South Dakota

CEMRRAT Work Group on Student Recruitment and Retention

Hector F. Myers, PhD, Chair
Professor of Psychology
University of California at Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California

Robin J. Hailstorks, PhD
Professor and Chair of Psychology
Prince George's Community College
Largo, Maryland

Paul Leung, PhD
Professor
Division of Rehabilitation Education Services
University of Illinois at Urbana
Champaign, Illinois

Richard McCarty, PhD
Professor and Chair of Psychology
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Virginia

Manuel Miranda, PhD
Roybal Institute on Gerontology
California State University
Los Angeles, California

Edward G. Singleton, PhD
Consulting Psychologist
Baltimore, Maryland

Brian Smedley, PhD
Public Policy Office
American Psychological Association
Washington, DC

Paul Wohlford, PhD
Psychology Education
Center for Mental Health Services
Rockville, Maryland

Lawrence Yang
Boston University
Somerville, Massachusetts

Monitors To CEMRRAT

Committee on Disability Issues
in Psychology (CDIP)

Rochelle Balter, PhD
New York, New York

American Psychological
Association of Graduate
Students (APAGS)

Ana L. Gomez
Denver, Colorado 80210

Committee on Children, Youth,
and Families (CYF)

Luis Vargas, PhD
University of New Mexico
Children's Psychiatric Hospital
Albuquerque, New Mexico

Committee on Women's Programs
(CWP)

Lillian Comas-Diaz, PhD
Washington, DC

Committee on Lesbian and
Gay Concerns (CLGC)

Fernando J. Guitierrez, EdD, JD
San Jose, California

Committee on Legal Issues (COLI)
Ann M. Stanton
College of Law
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona

California Psychological
Association

Division VII (Public Interest)
Dorothy M. Tucker, PhD
Consulting Psychologist
Los Angeles, California

Membership Committee
John H. Jackson, PhD
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin

CEMRRAT - Panel of Experts

M. June Allard, PhD
Professor of Psychology
Worcester State College
Worcester, Massachusetts

Maria J. Antu-Beals, PhD
Psychologist
New World Consultant, Inc.
Corvallis, Oregon

Catherine J. Atkins-Kaplan, PhD
Professor of Psychology and
Assistant Dean for Student Affairs
San Diego State University
San Diego, California

Asuncion Miteria Austria, PhD
Professor and Chair of Psychology
Cardinal Stritch College
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Vera A. Stevens Chatman, PhD
Visiting Associate Professor of
Psychology and Human Development
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, Tennessee

William Collins, PhD
Director, Comp. Studies Programs
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD
Co-Director of Training in Psychology
Judge Baker Children's Center/
Children's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts

Faith Deveaux, PhD
Assistant Professor and Coordinator
Graduate Program in Guidance
and Counseling
Lehman College of the City
University of New York
Bronx, New York

CEMRRAT - Panel of Experts

Ruben J. Echemendia, PhD
Director of Psychology Clinic
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania

Jane Y. Fong, PhD
Consulting Psychologist
Atascadero, California

Ana L. Gomez
University of Denver
Denver, Colorado

Fernando Gonzalez, PhD
Executive Director
Center for Excellence in Research and Training
Morris Brown College
Atlanta, Georgia

Sandra Graham, PhD
Professor, Graduate School of Education
University of California at Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California

Beverly Green, PhD
Associate Professor of Psychology
St. John's University
Jamaica, New York

Vicki A. Green, PhD
Chair, Department of Psychology
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, Arizona

L. Philip Guzman, PhD
Executive Director
Child Guidance Center
Bridgeport, Connecticut

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, PhD
Department of Psychology
Kent State University
Kent, Ohio

Pamela A. Hall, PsyD
Director, Children's Program
Center for Psychological Studies
Nova University,
Fort Lauderdale, Florida

CEMRRAT - Panel of Experts

Jerome H. Hanley, PhD
Director, Division of Children and
Adolescents and Their Families
South Carolina Department of
Mental Health
Columbia, South Carolina

Joyce L. Ingram, PhD
Assistant Professor
Georgia School of Professional
Psychology
Atlanta, Georgia

Mukti Khanna, PhD
Associate Professor
Fort Lewis College
Durango, Colorado

Wanda M. L. Lee, PhD
Professor
San Francisco State University
San Francisco, California

Ruth M. Lijtmaer, PhD
Adjunct Professor
Seton Hall University
South Orange, New Jersey

Hector Machabanski, PhD
Core Faculty
Chicago School of Professional
Psychology
Chicago, Illinois

Brian McNeill, PhD
Associate Professor and
Director of Training
Department of Educational Leadership
and Counseling Psychology
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington

Brenda Mobley, PhD
Associate Professor
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, Arkansas

CEMRRAT - Panel of Experts

John/Juan Ramirez, PhD
Counseling Psychologist
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington

Carole A. Rayburn, PhD
Clinical, Consulting
and Research Psychologist
Silver Spring, Maryland

Rolf E. Rogers, PhD
Professor Emeritus
California Polytechnic State University
San Luis Obispo, California

James Sallis, PhD
Professor of Psychology
San Diego State University
PSan Diego, California

Robin Elizabeth Solar, PhD
Research Psychologist
Decatur, Georgia

Sylvie Taylor, MA
Los Angeles, California

Timothy C. Thomason, EdD
Director of Training
American Indian Rehabilitation,
Research and Training Center
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, Arizona

Billy E. Vaughn, PhD
Director
Behavior and Cultural Program
California School of
Professional Psychology
Del Mar, California

Damien A. (McShane) Vraniak, PhD
Research Scientist
Mental Health Research Center
University of Wisconsin at Madison
Madison, Wisconsin

CEMRRAT - Panel of Experts

Dwayne C. Wilson, MSW, PhD
Associate Professor of Social Work
The University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah

Deborah D. Wright, MEd
Coordinator of Research Unit
Worker's University for
Social Community Development
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Felipe A. Franco Vazquez
Piscataway, New Jersey

Luis H. Zayas, PhD
Associate Professor
Fordham University
Tarrytown, New York

Staff to the APA Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology

Primary Staff: Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA)
Public Interest Directorate

Bertha G. Holliday, PhD
CEMRRAT Staff Director and OEMA Director

Alberto Figueroa-Garcia
Program Officer

Sherry T. Wynn
Office Coordinator

Debra Perry

Office Coordinator

Secondary Staff: CEMRRAT Central Office
Working Group

Edward Bourg, PhD
Education Directorate

Merry Bullock, PhD
Science Directorate

Sislena Grocer
Research Office

Ernesto Guerro
Minority Fellowship Program

James M. Jones, PhD
Minority Fellowship Program

Jessica L. Kohout, PhD
Research Office

Todd Mook
American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS)

Paul D. Nelson, PhD
Education Directorate

Brian Smedley, PhD
Public Policy Office

Henry Tomes, PhD
Public Interest Directorate

Marquette Turner
Practice Directorate

Pamela Willenz
Public Communications

Appendix C: Glossary of Acronymns Used in This Report
ACRONYMS

AAPA

Asian American Psychological Association
ABPsi Association of Black Psychologists
ACE American Council on Education
APA American Psychological Association
APAGS American Psychological Association of Graduate Students
APLR Association of Psychologists Por La Raza
APPIC Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers
BAPPI Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest
B/D Board of Directors
BEA Board of Educational Affairs
BEMA Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs
BPA Board of Professional Affairs
BSA Board of Scientific Affairs
BSERP Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility
BSPA Black Students Psychological Association
CABPP Commission for Accelerating Black Participation in Psychology
CDIP Committee on Disability Issues
CEHR Committee on Employment and Human Resources
CEMA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs
CEMHRD Committee on Ethnic Minority Human Resources Development
CEMRRAT Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology
CEOP Committee on Equality of Opportunity in Psychology
CLGC Committee on Lesbian and Gay Issues
CMHS Center for Mental Health Services
CNPAAEMI Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests
CoA Committee on Accreditation
COGDOP Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology
COLI Committee on Legal Issues
COR Career Opportunities for Research Education and Training
COWG Central Office Work Group
CPST Commission of Professionals in Science and Technology
C/R Council of Representatives
CWP Committee on Women in Psychology
CYF Committee on Children, Youth, and Families
HBCU Historically Black Colleges and Universities
MARC Minority Access to Research Careers Program
MBRS Minority Biomedical Research Support
MFP Minority Fellowship Program
MUSE Minority Undergraduate Students of Excellence Program
NCES National Center for Educational Statistics
NCSPP National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology
NHPA National Hispanic Psychological Association
NIGMS National Institute of General Medical Sciences
NIMH National Institute of Mental Health
OEMA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs
P&C Publications and Communications Board
PID Public Interest Directorate
PIC Public Information Committee
PPO Public Policy Office
SAMHSA Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency
SEPA Southeast Psychological Association
SIP Society of Indian Psychologists
SOMPA System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment
SPSSI Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
TF Task Force
TOPSS Teachers of Psychology in the Secondary Schools