In the Summer of 1996, the American Psychological Association's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) initiated its 1997 Miniconvention and National Conversation on Psychology and Racism Project, with the goal of distilling, building and broadly disseminating information about the dynamics and costs of racism and anti-racism, their effects upon science and society, and the mechanisms for the perpetuation of racism and anti-racism. That project is defined by its focus on three major issues:
Psychology of racism e.g., What is racism? How is racism manifested and what are its impacts? How is racism perpetuated and sustained?
Racism in psychology e.g., What is scientific racism and how does it shape our scientific knowledge? How does racism affect theory and research in psychology? How does racism affect the professional practice of psychology? How does racism affect socialization and education in psychology?
Psychology of anti-racism e.g., What is anti-racism? What do we know about anti-racism interventions and their effectiveness? What do we know about empowerment and power-sharing strategies? What major skills, technology, and knowledge can psychology contribute?
This annotated bibliography was conceived and developed as a core resource for the project, its participants, and others who are interested in understanding and taking action against racism. The annotated bibliography, structured by the three themes of the Miniconvention and National Conversation project, focuses primarily on the published psychological literature and to a lesser extent on the published medical literature during 1974 - 1996.
The Annotated Bibliography on Psychology and Racism: 1974 - 1996 consists of citations taken from the CD-ROM databases of PsycLIT and MEDLINE. Sixteen keywords were used to develop the bibliography that reflected broad areas and interests in psychology.
The citations for the Annotated Bibliography were derived from the PsycLIT-Journals (1974-1989), PsycLIT-Journals (1990-1996), PsycLIT Chapters and Books and MEDLINE 1990-1996 databases. The PsycLIT-Journal database contains summaries of the worlds serial literature in psychology and related academic fields. It is compiled by the American Psychological Association (APA) and published in Psychological Abstracts and PsycINFO. The database covers over 1300 journals in twenty-seven languages from approximately fifty countries. The PsycLIT-Chapters and Books database contains summaries of English language chapters and books in psychology and related disciplines scanned from publications in psychology and related disciplines. MEDLINE is the bibliographic database of the National Library of Medicine, containing biomedical literature from more than 3700 journals.
The thesaurus of the PsycLIT databases was used to develop the search terms for all of the searches in both databases. Sixteen keywords were developed for the input into the databases. These keywords were: Minorities, ethnic attitudes, urban, anti-Semitism, employment discrimination, race, prejudice, racism, ethnic discrimination, intergroup relations, ethnic differences, civil rights, social discrimination, ethnic problems, social issues and anti-racism. Each of the sixteen keywords was paired with the term racism or race and entered into each database. For example, the term minorities was paired with racism and the term racism was paired with race.
The searches examined the databases for titles, authors, abstracts and index phrases. After combining the citations from all the databases into one data file, many citations were eliminated. There were two criteria for the elimination of citations from the bibliography file: (a) duplicate citations were deleted, and (b) citations were deleted that did not conceptually 'fit' into any of the bibliography's three broad themes (i.e., psychology of racism, racism in psychology, and psychology of anti-racism). The time frame for the bibliographic search effort was from May 1996 through December 1996. Annotations were reviewed and edited for substance, clarity, and tone, and when necessary, the text of the cited article, chapter or book was reviewed as a means of gaining added clarity and detail. Edited annotations were then classified into one or more of the three major themes.
tables 1 and 2 (see following pages) show the number of citations that were found in each database and for each keyword term.
The final bibliography consists of 293 annotations of which 196 pertain to the psychology of racism, 60 pertain to racism in psychology, and 37 pertain to the psychology of anti-racism.
There are three minor limitations of the methodology used. First, there was extensive overlap among the sixteen search terms. Excessive amounts of time was wasted through finding and deleting duplicate citations. Second, many recent books and articles from 1996 were not included in the bibliography. Book chapters and journal articles often take up to a year to even make it into bibliographic databases such as PsycLIT and MEDLINE due to the process of abstracting. The MEDLINE database was also problematic since only half of the citations contain abstracts. Many useful citations from MEDLINE had to be deleted due to the time it would take to summarize the article to include it in the bibliography.
Despite these methodological concerns, we believe this Annotated Bibliography on Psychology and Racism provides valuable information for researchers, students, and others who are interested in the topics addressed by the bibliography's three themes.
NUMBER OF PSYCLIT CITATIONS BEFORE DELETION
|Keyword Term||PsycLIT-Journals||PsycLIT-Journals||Chapters & Books|
NUMBER OF MEDLINE CITATIONS BEFORE DELETION
|Keyword Term||1990||1991-1995||1/96 - 6/96|
Section I. Psychology of Racism
Atkin, K. (1991). Health, illness, disability and Black minorities: A speculative critique of present day discourse. Disability, Handicap and Society, 6, 37-47.
The author discusses how the construction of Black people's perceptions of health, illness, and disability arises from the nature of the discourse. This discourse defines the nature and source of and the solution to the "problem" and predetermines the areas of relevance rather than those identified as appropriate by the Black communities. To remedy this, the debate needs to shift its focus of attention and become situated in the realities of people who form Black minorities. The debate must be informed by an account of disability and health in terms of Black people's perceptions without these perceptions becoming identified as deviant and pathological. Fundamental to the analysis are the political, social, and economic position of Black minorities and the context of racism.
Baldwin, J.A., Brown, R. & Rackley, R. (1990). Some socio-behavioral correlates of African self-consciousness in African-American college students. Journal of Black Psychology, 17, 1-17.
The authors administered an African self-consciousness scale (ASCS) and an Afrocentric activities questionnaire to 219 Black college students to examine the relationship between Black self-consciousness, background experience, and affirmative behaviors. Only a few of the two sets of predictors were significantly related to the ASCS scores. Background factors of parental membership in predominantly Black organizations, exposure to Black studies courses, and prior experiences with racism/racial prejudice significantly predicted ASCS scores. Activity factors of attending Black cultural activities, reading books about Blacks/African culture, and giving aid/assistance to other Blacks during the preceding year predicted ASCS scores. Thus, the racial-cultural orientation of the socialization atmosphere in the home and in the external learning environment may play a major role in the development of African self-consciousness among Black college students.
Banerji, S. (1976). Racial prejudice: Anti-Semitism. Samiksa, 30, 57-68.
The author discusses the role of unconscious psychic factors in anti-Semitism. Deeper motives of anti-Semitism proposed by Freud include the jealousy evoked by the claim of the Jews to a special relationship with God, resentment of Jewish aloofness, and hatred of the Christianity with which Judaism is historically connected. Explanations offered by other psychoanalysts include (a) conflict of the ego, represented by the Christians, with the Id, the super-ego, and outer world, all represented by the Jews; and b) scapegoating for the aggression and guilt aroused by the possession of money. The Jews represented moral and intellectual achievements of physically powerless people that were disquieting to the Nazi pagan state and (b) demands of the super-ego for equality, justice, and intellectual freedom that would have defeated Nazi ideologies. Moreover, destruction of the Jews provided a means for Nazism to indirectly attack Christianity. Hitler projected guilt feelings deriving from his incestuous fixations onto the Jews. The concept of incest came to mean intercourse between Jews and Christians, and Hitler's associated dread of syphilis expressed fear of punishment by castration for the incest.
Barkan, S.E. & Cohn, S.F. (1994). Racial prejudice and support for the death penalty by Whites. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 31, 202-209.
The authors investigated whether White support for the death penalty is associated with racial prejudice, using data from the 1990 General Social Survey (J. A. Davis and T. W. Smith). Independent variables studied included antipathy to Blacks, racial stereotyping, political conservatism, fear of crime, religious attendance, and southern residence. Results indicate that White support for the death penalty is associated with political conservatism, antipathy to Blacks, and racial stereotyping.
Barnard, W.A. & Benn, M.S. (1988). Belief congruence and prejudice reduction in an interracialcontact setting. Journal of Social Psychology, 128, 125-134.
The authors investigated the effect of shared beliefs on the reduction of prejudicial attitudes in an interracial contact setting, using 74 White male undergraduates. Ss participated in discussion groups, each including two Black and two White confederates instructed to agree or disagree with the S. Prejudicial attitudes toward Blacks were assessed with a stereotyped attitude scale and a personal perception questionnaire before and after the discussion sessions. It was hypothesized that agreement conditions would result in more positive interpersonal perceptions and greater prejudice reduction than disagreement conditions. Results show that prejudice reduction occurred in both conditions and suggest that group discussion procedures may reduce prejudice in the absence of belief congruity.
Batts, V.A. (1983). Knowing and changing the cultural script component of racism. Transactional Analysis Journal, 13, 255-257.
The author states that racism operates as a cultural script learned involuntarily from others that outlines how to feel, think, and behave. Several exercises are presented on how to change culturally sanctioned messages that reinforce racism by fostering supremist attitudes among Whites or dysfunctional scripts among Blacks. To develop and maintain a pluralistic society in which similarities and differences among people are appreciated, it is necessary to offer new messages regarding others of differing ethnic backgrounds. Recognition of cultural scripts related to racism provides a means of changing systematic power imbalances and improving the acceptance of others' or one's own cultural heritage.
Blake, W.M. & Darling, C.A. (1994). The dilemmas of the African American male. Journal of Black Studies, 24, 402-415.
The authors examine the disappearing African-American male (AAM), substance abuse and suicide, education, economics, employment issues, crime and violence, discrimination, and family relations of the AAM. The reasons AAMs are disappearing include their shorter life expectancy (65 years) and their high mortality rates. AAMs are facing an unprecedented crisis because it is difficult for them to acquire self-confidence and self-esteem within the chaos of modern economic and social life. The tools to address the problem have been diminished. Future research should concentrate more on examining the dilemmas of the AAM instead of continuing to do research on isolated problems such as crime, violence, and unemployment. Social action is crucial to improving the image of the AAM, and African Americans themselves must help diminish the dilemmas faced by AAMs.
Boast, N. & Chesterman, P.(1995). Black people and secure psychiatric facilities: Patterns of processing and the role of stereotypes. British Journal of Criminology, 35, 218-235.
The authors examine evidence from criminology and psychiatry relevant to the overrepresentation of Afro-Caribbeans and Africans in secure psychiatric hospitals in England and Wales. The following factors are considered: race and crime, mental health legislation, patterns of patient recruitment, factors associated with compulsory admission, employment practices, psychiatric and social services and discrimination, attitudes of the Black community, concepts of mental illness, psychiatric diagnosis and cultural factors, behavioral disturbances, risk to others, and perceptions of personality. The relevance of the use of stereotypes in institutional decision making is discussed. A model is suggested that takes into account the way in which disadvantage influences the mental health and behavior of Black people, thereby creating and maintaining stereotypes of Black people, which interact with institutional processing.
Bobo, L. (1989). Keeping the linchpin in place: Testing the multiple sources of opposition to resitial integration. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 2, 305-323.
Data from the 1983 and 1984 General Social Survey (J. A. Davis and T. W. Smith, 1988) were used to examine four explanations of Whites' opposition to residential integration. Results indicate that two forms of racism, fashioned prejudice and a sense of racial group position, consistently influenced opposition to residential integration. Class-based explanations had little explanatory power. Pragmatic objections, in this instance self-interested concerns, had small but equivocal effects. The value and ideological factors of political conservatism and individualism exerted a modest influence on Ss' attitudes on residential integration. Implications for developing more synthetic theories and understanding the social dynamics of race issues are discussed.
Bohm, R.M. (1994). Capital punishment in two judicial circuits in Georgia: A description of the key actors and the decision-making process. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 319-338.
The author describes the process of decision making in capital cases in the overwhelmingly White justice system in two Georgia judicial circuits under Georgia's post- Furman v. Georgia death penalty statute. The study is intended to complement the statistical analyses done by other researchers (e.g., D. C. Baldus et al; 1983) in this area, by linking the behavior of various actors in the process over time to the incentives and sanctions of the system. The study shows how the system works to produce racial disparities and discrimination. Possible explanations for racial disparities and discrimination include intentional discrimination, unconscious racial identification, and institutional racism.
Boyd-Franklin, N. (1993). Racism, secret-keeping, and African-American families. In E. Imber-Black (Ed.), Secrets in families and family therapy (pp. 331-354). New York: W. W. Norton.
This chapter describes the history of slavery and the subsequent realities of racism, oppression, and discrimination that have created a special meaning to the secrets of African-American families in this country. It explores the complex issues and many levels of secrets within African-American families from both the historical and the current cultural context and the implications of these secrets for therapists who are treating these families. Case examples are secrets about skin color, secrets related to extended family, informal adoption, and parentage, secrets related to alcohol, drug abuse, and AIDS and secrets related to the welfare system and the invisibility of Black men.
Burgess, N.J. (1995). Looking back, looking forward: African American families in sociohistorical perspective. In B.B. Ingoldsby and S. Smith (Eds.), Families in multicultural perspective. Perspectives on marriage and the family (pp. 321-334). New York: Guilford Press.
This chapter focuses on historical factors that have affected African-American family functioning, including enslavement, emancipation and migration, and early social policies. The impact of these historical processes on contemporary family phenomena is examined, including the recent issues of marriageability, decisions to delay marriage or to never marry, and the timing of parenthood. A sociohistorical perspective provides one means to examine the aspects of black family life that have impacted contemporary attitudes and beliefs about these families and demonstrates that the history and social conditions of African Americans in the U.S. have affected a number of phenomena such as family structure (whether a family is headed by two parents, a single female-headed, a single male-headed, or extended kin), underemployment (due to inadequate job skills and inequality of opportunities), discrimination (based on race and gender), and family formation (the timing of family formation and the availability of marriage partners).
Byrd, W.M. (1990). Race, biology, and health care: reassessing a relationship. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 1(3), 278-296.
Recent reports reaffirm huge disparities in the health of Blacks compared to other Americans. These disparities persist in part because of the current attempt by health policy makers to frame racially based health differences in non-racial terms. Yet an historical analysis shows that since ancient times, Blacks have been the victims of racism in the biomedical sciences; health-system discrimination and deprivation; and later, medical and scientific exploitation. Race and class-based structuring of the health delivery system has combined with other factors, including physicians' attitudes conditioned by their participation in slavery, and the scientific myth of Black biological and intellectual inferiority, to establish a "slave health deficit" that has never been corrected. Until the persistent institutional racism and racial discrimination in health policy, health delivery, and medical educational systems are eradicated, African-Americans will continue to experience poor health outcome.
Byrnes, D.A. & Kiger, G. (1988). Racial attitudes and discrimination: University teacher education students compared to the general student population. College Student Journal,22, 176-184.
The authors examine the racial tolerance of 187 non-Black elementary teacher education undergraduates as compared to 97 other undergraduates at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the U.S.. Ss were administered two racial attitude instruments. Findings indicate no statistically significant differences in racial attitude scale scores between teacher education students and other Ss. However, an interaction effect between student status and religious affiliation was found. Nonfundamentalist teacher education students as a group expressed more positive racial attitudes than other groups of Ss, whether those other groups were fundamentalist in their religious affiliation or were nonfundamentalists from the general student population.
Cardo, L.M. (1994). Development of an instrument measuring valence of ethnicity and perception of discrimination. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 22, 49-59.
The study describes the Scale for the Effects of Ethnicity and Discrimination (SEED). The first construct of the scale, valence of ethnicity (VE), consists of two subscales, valence of ethnicity for self (VES) and valence of ethnicity for others (VEO). The second construct was labeled perception of discrimination (PD). The sample of freshmen included 45 males and 120 females (68 Hispanics, 51 Blacks, and 46 West Indians) who were accepted into a program for economically and educationally disadvantaged students. Results show that the PD and VES subscale of the SEED were reliable and appropriate for use with a multicultural population in assessing levels of VE and PD. The VEO subscale yielded low to moderate correlations, except for the West Indian students, who scored near zero reliability for this subscale.
Carter, R.T. (1990). The relationship between racism and racial identity among White Americans: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 46-50.
In this study 100 White undergraduates (aged 18-36 years) completed the White Racial Identity Inventory and the New Racism Scale of C. K. Jacobsen (see PA, Vol 72:30592). Results suggest that both White men and White women may be expressing racist attitudes, but they may do so in different ways. White men at all levels of racial awareness seemed to hold racist beliefs and attitudes. White women, in contrast, exhibited racist beliefs and attitudes primarily when their level of racial awareness was low in that they might deny the importance of race.
Clarke, L.L., Bono, C.A., Miller, M.K. & Malone, S.C. (1995). Prenatal care use in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan America: racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 6(4), 410-433.
Pregnant women in nonmetropolitan communities are believed to use prenatal care services at lower rates than are metropolitan residents due to higher levels of poverty, lower levels of insurance coverage, and declining numbers of local hospitals and physicians. Yet scarce data exist on actual patterns of prenatal care use in nonmetropolitan areas. This study provides national estimates of prenatal care use among African-American, White, and Hispanic women who delivered in 1988 in non-metropolitan and metropolitan areas of the United States. This study finds that non-metropolitan residents are no more likely than metropolitan residents to go without care, to enter care late, or to make fewer visits. Non-metropolitan residents are more likely to receive "inadequate" prenatal care as measured by the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, with Hispanic residents having the highest rates of inadequate care. These findings are consistent with recent state-level reports, and they suggest the need to target prenatal care policies for populations in greatest need.
Cortese, A.J. (1989). Subcultural differences in human sexuality: Race, ethnicity, and social class. In K. McKinney and S. Sprecher (Eds.), Human sexuality: The societal and interpersonal context (pp. 63-90). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
The two basic objectives of this chapter are a) an evaluative review of literature and research on subcultural differences in human sexuality, and b) the development of a theoretical framework that synthesizes sexuality with the subcultural dimensions of race, ethnicity and social class. The three areas that link sexuality to the social structure are kinship, power and ideology. Kinship patterns are discussed due to the custom of marrying within subcultural groups. Power is also salient; those subcultures with more power will tend to obtain more control over sexuality than those with less power. Ideology is crucial because the system of sexual beliefs, supported by dominant groups, ensures current societal arrangements and combats challenges to the status quo.
Crandall, C.S. (1994). Prejudice against fat people: Ideology and self-interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 882-894.
In this study prejudice against fat people was compared with symbolic racism. An anti-fat attitudes questionnaire was developed and used in several studies testing the notion that antipathy toward fat people is part of an "ideology of blame." Three commonalities between antifat attitudes and racism were explored: (1) the association between values, beliefs, and the rejection of a stigmatized group, (2) the old-fashioned antipathy toward deviance of many sorts, and (3) the lack of self-interest in out-group antipathy. Parallels were found on all 3 dimensions. No in-group bias was shown by fat people. Fatism appears to behave much like symbolic racism, but with less of the negative social desirability of racism.
Culley, L. (1996). A critique of multiculturalism in health care: the challenge for nurse education. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23(3), 564-570.
This paper is concerned with the way in which discussions of the health status of people from minority ethnic groups and the delivery of health care to such groups has been constructed, in the nursing literature in particular, within a culturalist framework which has many serious drawbacks. The paper reviews the argument for a "multicultural" approach to health care and also discusses some of the main implications of this analysis for the education of health professionals. It suggests that health care workers and those responsible for the education of such workers, need to reassess learning needs in the light of a critique of the effects of an analysis based on "cultural pluralism" and "ethnic sensitivity". The paper suggests ways in which the nursing curriculum must be broadened to take into account the limitations of a culturalist inequality and their influence on health and on a service delivery.
de-Mott, J. & Adams, S. (1984). Journalism instruction concerning racism and related knowledge: Some perspectives held by administrators. Journal of Negro Education, 53, 50-58.
In this study thirty-seven journalism school administrators completed a questionnaire that elicited information on (1) courses and curriculum content related to communication of knowledge and understanding of racism, race, and the media; (2) number of instructors belonging to racial minorities; (3) number of students belonging to racial minorities; and (4) general attitudes concerning the relationship of the respondent's school to racial minorities. Results show that one-sixth of the Ss reported existing courses related to racial minorities, and another school reported a course to be offered the following fall. The most common course was basically a historical look at Black newspapers (and sometimes at other media).
Deyhle, D. (1995). Navajo youth and Anglo racism: Cultural integrity and resistance. Harvard Educational Review, 65(3), 403-444.
In this study results of a 10-year ethnographic study of Navajo youth show that racial and cultural differences intertwine with power relations and that Navajos' success or failure in school is part of the process of racial conflict. Subject to discrimination in workplaces and curricula, they are more academically successful when more secure in their traditionalist culture.
Dodd, J.M., Nelson, J.R. & Hofland, B.H. (1994). Minority identity and self-concept: The American Indian experience. In T.M. Brinthaupt, R.P. Lipka (Eds.), Changing the self: Philosophies, techniques, and experiences (pp. 307-336). Albany: State University of New York Press.
This chapter considers the effects of social, cultural, and historical changes on the self and identity of Native Americans: what have been the effects of the long-term repression and neglect of the Native American people on their sense of self and identity and what is the result of externally imposed and involuntary changes in self forced upon this group. Describes present-day experiences of Native Americans, including their experiences with language, cultural conventions concerning time, school experiences and outcomes, family structure and attitudes toward children, and the problems of disability and suicide. The chapter addresses the issue of what can be done to clarify the self-concepts of Native Americans and to enhance their feelings of self-esteem.
Drew, J.S. (1982). Death in the afternoon: Personal invective and bigotry in Congress forty years ago. Papers in the Social Sciences, 2, 71-79.
This study notes that there has been social and political progress in the U.S. in the past forty years and cites an incident in 1941 in the U.S. House of Representatives in which a Jewish Congressman died after replying to an anti-Semitic remark. It is argued that ethical standards of conduct now inhibit displays of overt racism against minority politicians in public settings.
Duckitt, J. (1994). "Are subtle racists authoritarian?": Response. South African Journal of Psychology, 24, 232-233.
The author responds to J. J. Ray's (see PA, Vol 82:35458) comments on J. Duckitt's (see PA, Vol 81:19909) study of subtle racism. Contrary to Ray, it is argued that the subtle racism scale does predict self-rated interracial behavior to at least a moderate degree. There is strong evidence indicating that authoritarianism is related not only to racist attitudes but also racist behavior.
Duckitt, J. (1994). Conformity to social pressure and racial prejudice among White South Africans. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 120, 121-143.
The author determined whether conformity to social pressures is an important determinant of racial prejudice, particularly in social groups where prejudice is normative. Three-hundred and three
White undergraduates (mean age 19.3 years) in pre-reform South Africa completed measures of interracial attitudes and authoritarianism, perceived normative pressure from immediate family and close friends, and conformity. Measures of perceived normative pressure to hold prejudiced attitudes correlated positively and substantially with Ss' prejudiced attitudes. However, correlations between social pressure and racial prejudice were not due to conformity and probably reflected mechanisms such as socialization and homophilic selection. Conformity proneness also showed little association with overall racial prejudice or deviation from modal prejudice levels. Authoritarianism was a powerful correlate of prejudice regardless of the degree of normative pressure experienced.
Duckitt, J. (1993). Further validation of a subtle racism scale in South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 23, 116-119.
This study used a sample of 303 White undergraduates in South Africa to cross-validate J. H. Duckitt's (see PA, Vol 80:3957) subtle racism (SR) scale. The validation of the SR scale was also extended by investigating its association with self-reports of actual interracial behavior. Findings show a high level of internal consistency on the SR scale and a strong correlation with an interracial behavioral intention scale. These findings as well as significant correlations with self-reported interracial behavior support the validity of the SR scale. Findings also indicate a very powerful relationship between anti-Black prejudice and authoritarianism and seem to confirm the SR scale as a more subtle and less direct measure of anti-Black racial prejudice in South Africa.
Duckitt, J. (1991). Prejudice and racism. In D. Foster and J. Louw-Potgieter (Eds.), Social psychology in South Africa (pp. 171-203). Johannesburg: Lexicon Publishers.
This chapter considers intergroup relations and attitudes as individual rather than as group phenomena. Theories such as realistic conflict theory and social identity theory look at intergroup phenomena at the analytic level of the social group. White South Africans, for example, are generally prejudiced against native Africans. However, some white South Africans show considerable within-group variability in their attitudes towards native Africans. Explaining this variation in the prejudiced attitudes of individual members of social groups requires theories and approaches focusing on the individual in the interpersonal context as the appropriate level of analysis.
Duckitt, J. (1993). Right-wing authoritarianism among White South African students: Its measurement and correlates. Journal of Social Psychology, 133, 553-563.
The author investigated the psychometric properties and correlates of B. Altemeyer's (1981) Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale (RWAS) using 217 White South African college students. The RWAS was factorially unidimensional and reliable, and it correlated powerfully with validity criteria of authoritarianism, such as civil liberties stance, anti-Black prejudice and discrimination, liberalism/conservatism, and acceptance of parental religious beliefs. The particularly strong correlation with anti-Black prejudice contradicted previous findings suggesting that this correlation would be very weak in settings where racism was widespread or normative.
Duckitt, J. (1991). The development and validation of a subtle racism scale in South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 21, 233-239.
This study developed and validated a new, more indirect, and subtle measure of anti-Black racial prejudice, using data from 217 undergraduates. The subtle racism scale was unidimensional, highly reliable, and showed powerful associations with a number of validity criteria, outperforming a more traditional measure of racism.
Duckitt, J.H. (1992). The social psychology of prejudice. New York: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
John Duckitt contributes a unique historical analysis of social scientific understandings of prejudice. He integrates an otherwise confusing mass of popular theories and perspectives into a coherent explanatory framework and develops this into a systemic multilevel approach to the problem of reducing prejudice in society and individuals. From Duckitt's perspective, prejudices are remarkable not in their existence, but in their ubiquity--the ease with which they can be aroused, their variety of expression, and the tenacity with which they are held. He demonstrates that, although it is unlikely that the universal psychological processes which underlie a fundamental propensity for prejudice can be changed, the degree to which they come to be expressed can be: at the level of social structure and intergroup relations, in the social influences to which individuals are exposed, and in individual susceptibility.
Dunbar, E. (1995). The prejudiced personality, racism, and anti-Semitism: the PR scale forty years later. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65(2), 270-277.
The relationship of prejudiced personality traits with racism and anti-Semitism was examined with 150 Asian American and White university students. The Prejudice (PR) scale, composed of 32 items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, was administered along with the McConahay racism scale and the Selznick and Steinberg Anti-Semitism scale. Results indicated that for Whites, the PR scale was significantly correlated with old-fashioned and modern racism and anti-Semitism, replicating Gough's 1951 study (Gough, 1951) with the PR scale. However, no such relationship was observed for the Asian American group. This suggests that personality traits of prejudicial attitudes may be relatively stable for Whites but may not be related to outgroup bias for other racial or ethnic groups.
Eigenberg, H. & Baro, A. (1994). Invisibility and marginalization of women of color. In J.E. Hendricks and B. Byers (Eds.), Multicultural perspectives in criminal justice and criminology (pp. 291-321). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher.
This chapter reviews the literature and argues that people of color have been marginalized in criminology. Contends that discrimination is additive and interactive and that women of color are particularly ignored in criminology because they experience many types of discrimination. Asserts that visual images in textbooks reinforce traditional stereotypes about race and gender. Presents the results of a study on the visual images of women of color in introductory criminology and criminal justice textbooks by examining whether textbook illustrations provide socially constructed images of women of color which mirror social reality. The chapter concludes by discussing ways to make women of color more visible in the discipline and argue that curriculum transformation plays an important role in achieving this goal.
Eisenman, R., Girdner, E.J., Burroughs, R.G. & Routman, M. (1993). Attitudes of Mississippi college students toward David Duke before and after seeing the film "Who is David Duke?" Adolescence, 28, 527-532.
The authors investigated the attitudes of 211 university students both before and after seeing the Public Broadcasting film "Who is David Duke?" The film provided evidence of Duke's current racism, anti-Semitism, and pro-Nazi leanings. In a previous study by R. Eisenman (see PA, Vol 80:45134) with university students in Louisiana, the majority did not change their attitudes after watching the film. However, in the present study, students' attitudes showed change in an anti-Duke direction. Findings are discussed and reasons given for the differences between the two samples, and for the popularity of Duke, a former leader of the Ku Klux Klan.
Eisenman, R. (1993). Student attitudes toward David Duke before and after seeing the film "Who is David Duke?" Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 37-38.
Both before and after seeing the Public Broadcasting System film "Who is David Duke?", 94 college students (50 females; 14 Blacks) indicated like or dislike of Duke and indicated whether or not they thought he was a racist. The film provided evidence of Duke's current racism, anti-Semitism, and pro-Nazi leanings. Nevertheless, the majority of the students did not change their attitudes after watching the film. Just over 50% of the students liked Duke both before and after seeing the film. All Black students were anti-Duke. Of those who did change their attitudes after seeing the film, 23% of the women and 8% of the men became more negative toward Duke. The reasons for the popularity of Duke are discussed.
Ellen, J.M., Kohn, R.P., Bolan, G.A., Shiboski, S. & Krieger, N. (1995). Socioeconomic differences in sexually transmitted disease rates among black and white adolescents, San Fransisco, 1990 to 1992. American Journal of Public Health, 85(11), 1546-1548.
This paper examines the effect of socioeconomic position on the differences in the 3-year rates (1990 to 1992) of reported cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia between Black and White adolescents, aged 12 to 20 years, residing in San Francisco. The relative risks for Black were 23.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.4, 27.8) for gonorrhea and 9.3 (95% CI = 8.3, , 10.3) for chlamydia. Adjusting for poverty and occupational status, the relative risks were 28.7 (95% CI = 22.5, 36.1) for gonorrhea and 8.9 (95% CI = 7.4, 10.6) for chlamydia. This study demonstrates that factors other than poverty and occupational status account for the racial/ethnic differences in the rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia among adolescents in San Francisco.
Ellison, C.G. (1991). Southern culture and firearms ownership. Social Science Quarterly, 72, 267-283.
The author examines four potential cultural explanations for the relatively high levels of gun ownership among White southerners. The relevant cultural variables account for only a small portion of this regional disparity. Results show modest links between southern subcultures of racism and conservatism and firearm ownership. There is much weaker support for previous suggestions that southern gun ownership reflects a regional subculture of defensive violent attitudes. However, the "southern sporting gun subculture" hypothesis finds no support.
Evans, K.M. & Herr, E.L. (1994). The influence of racial identity and the perception of discri- mination on the career aspirations of African American men and women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 173-184.
This study determined the extent to which racial identity (as part of the self-concept) and the perception of discrimination influenced the career aspirations of 61 female and 50 male non-Hispanic African-Americans enrolled in a primarily White university. Ss completed a demographics questionnaire, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, a revised form of the Turner Perception of Discrimination against Blacks scale, and the Turner Perception of Discrimination against Women Scale. Racial identity attitudes were not significantly related to traditional career aspirations of either men or women. Neither perception of discrimination against African Americans nor perception of discrimination against women were significantly related to the career aspirations of either women or men.
Ewing, K.M., Richardson, T.Q., James-Myers, L. & Russell, R.K. (1996). The Relationship Between Racial Identity Attitudes, Worldview, and African American Graduate Students' Experience of the Imposter Phenomenon. Journal of Black Psychology, 22,(1), 53-66.
This article examined the relationship between African American graduate students' experience of the imposter phenomenon and their racial identity attitudes, worldview perspectives, academic self-concept, background characteristics, and graduate school environment. It was hypothesized that racial identity, Afrocentricity, academic self-concept, and certain demographic characteristics would differentially predict imposter feelings. The results of multiple regression analyses revealed support for some but not all of the hypotheses.
Farrell, W.C. & Jones, C.K. (1988). Recent racial incidents in higher education: A preliminary perspective. Urban Review, 20, 211-226.
The authors present a contemporary perspective on the resurgence of racially motivated harassment and violence against minority students at predominantly White institutions of higher education. An overview of minority student experiences on White campuses is given, and these experiences are linked to general perceptions of racism in contemporary society. The scope of racial-ethnic incidents on campuses is evaluated through a content analysis of national and selected local and Black-oriented newspapers. It is argued that the recent upsurge in racism against minority students on White campuses was implicitly encouraged by previous national administration and by majority individuals in leadership roles.
Fazio, R.H., Jackson, J.R., Dunton, B.C. & Williams, C.J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: a bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6), 1013-1027.
The research examines an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes based on the evaluations that are automatically activated from memory on the presentation of Black versus White faces. Study One, which concerned the technique's validity, obtained different attitude estimates for Black and White participants and also revealed that the variability among White participants was also predictive of other race-related judgements and behavior. Study Two concerned the lack of correspondence between the unobtrusive estimates and an individual difference in motivation to control prejudiced reactions when predicting MRS scores. The theoretical implications of the findings for consideration of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice are discussed, as is the status of the MRS.
Feagin, J.R. (1992). The continuing significance of racism: Discrimination against Black students in White colleges. Journal of Black Studies, 22, 546-578.
The author conducted in-depth interviews with 24 Black college students, administrators, and faculty members to provide a detailed description of the barriers faced by Black college students in predominantly White colleges. A typology of different kinds of discrimination is also presented as background for a tentative theory of cumulative discrimination. Contemporary discrimination is described according to the dimensions of location of the discriminatory action, the type of actor doing the discrimination, and the type of discriminatory action directed against Blacks. The continuum of discriminatory practices included aggression, exclusion, dismissal of subculture, and typecasting. The cumulative effect of such practices by students, faculty, and alumni is cited as a possible reason for declines in college enrollment and graduation for Black Americans, at predominately White colleges.
Feagin, J.R. & Imani, N. O. (1994). Racial barriers to African American entrepreneurship: An exploratory study. Social Problems, 41, 562-584.
The authors discuss the business experiences of Black entrepreneurs by examining the situation of 76 Black contractors in the U.S. construction industry, using 76 in-depth interviews in a Southern metropolitan area. Racial barriers faced by Black contractors in several areas of the construction industry are documented. Real discrimination is found in unions; in White general contractors' contracting and bidding processes; in construction project conditions; and in the bonding, lending, and supplier networks critical to a successful construction business. Looking at persisting discrimination theoretically, it is suggested that there are three dimensions of discrimination and exclusion: cumulative, interlocking, and externally amplified dimensions of discrimination.
Ficarrotto, T.J. (1990). Racism, sexism, and erotophobia: Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 19, 111-116.
This study examines the differential power of explanation of a sexual conservatism theory of homophobia against a more general theory of intergroup prejudice. 48 female and 31 male undergraduates completed a survey assessing contemporary attitudes toward women, Blacks, and homosexuals, as well as their affective orientation toward sex. Sexual conservatism, as measured by an affective dimension of erotophilia-erotophobia, and social prejudice, as measured by racist and sexist beliefs, were independent and equal predictors of antihomosexual sentiment. Distinct etiological differences may exist in the development of the homophobic personality. Findings are discussed within the context of G. M. Herek's (see PA, Vol 72:30728) functional approach to understanding attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.
Fletchman-Smith, B. (1984). Effects of race on adoption and fostering. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 30, 121-128.
In this paper presented at the spring meeting of the Transcultural Psychiatry Society, March 1983, the effects of race on adoption and fostering in the UK are discussed. Although statistics are not available on the effect of these services on ethnic minorities, Black parents have questioned the value of fostering for the child and the permanency that may keep them from their children. It is suggested that placement must take into consideration the effects of racism, cultural ideology, lack of funds for preventive work, and the negative effect of foster care on the child. Placement with non-Black families may expose Black children to values that have no relevance to their future or to a "color does not matter" attitude that is unrealistic. Placement that allows the Black child to have continued contact with the Black community is required, and funds are needed for recruitment of Black foster families. It is suggested that if the child's needs are considered first, the society will provide funds for parent-enabling services to all families in need.
Ford, C.A. (1990). Educational problems of Blacks in urban America: Historical, contemporary and futuristic perspectives. Western Journal of Black Studies, 14, 90-99.
The author discusses how the perpetuation of the social malady (racism) continues to exacerbate urban education problems among Blacks and how this has threatened not only the future of Black Americans but also the nation's standing as an advanced technological society. The article examines the history and current status of educational problems in contemporary urban America. An analysis is given of how racial discrimination and economic factors are related to the academic and behavioral problems manifested by Black urban students. The futuristic implications of urban educational problems and recommendations to address these problems are discussed.
Fritzsche, K.P. (1994). Conditions for xenophobia in eastern Germany (formerly the GDR). In R.F. Farmen (Ed.), Nationalism, ethnicity, and identity: Cross national and comparative perspectives (pp. 277-284). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
This chapter discusses racism in the five new A Lander @ of eastern Germany that formerly comprised the GDR (German Democratic Republic). This chapter applies some Western theoretical perspectives to the study of prejudice, xenophobia, and racism there. It examines the degree of probability that current stresses (stemming from the Communist Party, the abolition of the GDR state, and the new "fear of freedom") in eastern Germany will increase xenophobic tendencies in the region. Racism and prejudice are also defined and the "attractions" of each are described.
Fukurai, H., Butler, E.W. & Krooth, R. (1991). Where did all the Black jurors go? A theoretical synthesis of racial disenfranchisement in the jury system and jury selection. Journal of Black Studies, 22, 196-215.
The authors discuss four specific determinants of disproportionate racial representation on juries: (1) racial discrimination in jury selection procedures, (2) socioeconomic barriers preventing full-community participation by Blacks and other minorities, (3) judicial discrimination that allows racially demarcated jury representation, and (4) institutional racism and bureaucratic discrimination in perpetuating judicial inequality. It is concluded that there still exists a racially demarcated jury system that systematically discriminates against Blacks and their full jury participation.
Funkhouser, S.W. & Moser, D.K. (1990). Is health care racist? ANS-Advanced Nursing Science, 12(2), 47-55.
Many health care inequalities seem to be racially based. Racism and racial conflict in America can be explained in the context of three historical time periods and the prevailing economic systems of those times. The problem of access to basic health care for the Black underclass is enormous. Traditional solutions of health education, health promotion, and low cost health care have done very little to change the outcomes of increased morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals need to confront the real problem of inadequate life chances and limited economic resources for the underclass through research and the restructuring of our health care delivery system.
Gaertner, S.L. & Dovidio, J.F. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 61-89). Orlando: Academic Press.
The aversive racism perspective assumes that given the historically racist American culture and human cognitive mechanisms for processing categorical information, racist feelings and beliefs among white Americans are generally the rule rather than the exception. The term aversive racism is used to describe the type of racial attitude that the authors believe characterizes many white Americans who possess strong egalitarian values. Aversive racism represents a particular type of ambivalence in which the conflict is between feelings and beliefs associated with a sincerely egalitarian value system and unacknowledged negative feelings and beliefs about blacks.
Gaines, K. & Burke, G. (1995). Ethnic differences in stroke: black-white differences in the United States population. Neuroepidemiology, 14(5), 209-239.
The U.S. Black (African-American) population has a higher stroke incidence and mortality than the U.S. White population. This article reviews the English language literature relating to observed racial and ethnic differences in stroke mortality, incidence, and risk factors. In addition, Black-White differences in stroke subtype, pathophysiology, outcome, recurrence, and treatment are reviewed. The significance of these racial and ethnic differences and directions for future research are explored.
German, G. (1993). Racial prejudice and achievement. In V.P. Varma (Ed.), How and why children fail (pp. 114-134). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
The author of this chapter asserts that testing and assessment have a key role to play in facilitating the proper allocation of young people to courses and teaching groups and ensuring the kind of educational treatment appropriate to their needs and potential. There have been only limited local surveys on an ethnic basis. Ethnic data for enrollment in the UK are incomplete in that they reflect simply a head-count rather than the full picture of applying for and actually gaining a place in school. Prejudice in the school system will limit the range of human relationships possible in Britain's multi-ethnic society, will block open wide-ranging enquiry and obstruct the development of a healthy stimulating curiosity about the world.
Glastra, F.J. & Kats, E. (1992). Culturalizing the ethnic patient: Educational films and images of interethnic relations in health care. Special Issue: Qualitative research. Health Education Research, 7, 487-496.
The authors examined ways in which educational films (EFs) represent inter-ethnic relations in health care (HC) and compared results with the outcomes of an earlier analysis of EFs on discrimination and racism by F. Glastra and E. Kats (1989). Results suggest that films on HC presuppose a professional will to learn and to adapt, but at the same time they emphasize the obstacles posed by ethnic backgrounds. In such films, the traditional culture figures as the main reason for the setbacks the ethnic patient experiences and for the problems professionals face to accommodate the new situation. EFs on ethnic minorities and HC could be improved by analyzing problems and by paying attention to institutional constraints.
Glover, R.J. (1994). Using moral and epistemological reasoning as predictors of prejudice. Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 633-640.
This study explored the relative importance that an individual gives to principled moral reasoning and to relativism with respect to positive and negative attitudes toward minorities and to traditional and modern forms of racism. Two-hundred and seven individuals (aged 17-57 years) completed survey measures, including the Defining Issues Test and the Learning Environment Preferences. Regression analyses indicate that Ss who were humanitarian-egalitarian in their outlook, who possessed a high level of education, who were less supportive of the Protestant Ethic, and who employed a high percentage of relativism in their decision making were more likely to have positive attitudes toward minorities than those not possessing such attributes. Age was a predictor of negative attitudes toward minorities.
Goetting, A. (1985). Racism, sexism, and ageism in the prison community. Federal Probation, 49, 10-22.
The author discusses parallels between American prison societies and the larger free community in the U.S. in terms of minority relations. A review of the literature investigates three distinct minorities: Blacks, women, and the elderly. Data indicate that the racism, sexism, and ageism which are characteristic of contemporary American society, are reflected in its prison structure. It is concluded that the question of appropriateness of segregation of adult prisons by race and age, and of providing special policies and treatment for the elderly poses a dilemma to those professionals who are concerned with the well-being of prisoners as well as to those interested in prison policy and administration. While human needs must be accommodated, discrimination that can contaminate a dual prison system must be avoided. While a fine line separates special need satisfaction and discrimination, it is incumbent upon corrections administrators to identify that line, and to create and implement policies accordingly.
Grant, R.W. (1995). Interventions with ethnic minority elderly. In J.F. Aponte, R.Y. Rivers and J. Wohl (Eds.), Psychological interventions and cultural diversity (pp. 199-214). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
This chapter shows that increased growth in those 80 or older will be reflected across all ethnic groups, by the middle of the 21st century. These profound demographic changes are creating enormous challenges for mental health professionals who provide care to minority elderly. The author emphasizes the importance of the issues faced by those professionals in providing services to ethnic minority groups (Blacks, Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Eskimos/Aleuts).
Green, D.P. & Waxman, L.M. (1987). Direct threat and political tolerance: An experimental analysis of the tolerance of Blacks toward racists. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, 149-165.
The authors conducted a question-wording experiment that tested whether questions concerning the rights of a threatening group affect a respondent's willingness to extend the same rights to other unrelated groups. Data were taken from the National Opinion Research Center General Social Surveys from 1972 to 1984. Findings suggest that a threatening stimulus reduced an S's tolerance toward unrelated groups to a considerable degree, although the effect was smaller for more highly educated Ss.
Greenberg, J. & Pyszczynski, T. (1985). The effect of an overheard ethnic slur on evaluations of the target: How to spread a social disease. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 61-72.
The author attempted to assess the effects of an ethnic slur on evaluations of a targeted minority group member by an S who overheard the slur. There were 126 White undergraduate Ss who participated in a study ostensibly concerned with debating skills along with four confederates. Two of the confederates, one of whom was Black, were always picked to engage in a debate which the others were to evaluate. The Black debater either won or lost the debate. After the debate, one confederate-evaluator criticized the Black in a manner that either did or did not involve an ethnic slur; in a control condition, no such comment was made. Based on the notion that ethnic slurs activate negative schemata regarding members of the targeted minority group, it was predicted that when the Black debater lost the debate, the ethnic slur would lead to lower evaluations of his skill. The results supported the hypothesis and are consistent with a cued negative schemata explanation. No effect was demonstrated when nonracial criticisms were used or when a racial slur was combined with a win for the Black debater.
Grossman, H. (1995). Educating Hispanic students: Implications for instruction, classroom management, counseling and assessment (2nd ed.), Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher.
This book presents the results of a study designed to study three factors that contribute to many Hispanic students' lack of success in American schools: contextually and culturally inappropriate educational methods, prejudice, and discrimination against Hispanic students. Approximately 500 professionals and parents from 19 states answered a 400 hundred item questionnaire. The book provides teachers, counselors, and psychologists with an educationally relevant description of the Hispanic culture in the U.S. and the contextual aspects of the lives many Hispanics live as well as suggestions for taking these characteristics into account when they work with Hispanic students and their parents. It also informs about the kind of prejudicial and discriminatory treatment Hispanic students experience in school and offers suggestions for eliminating it.
Gutierres, S.E., Saenz, D.S. & Green, B.L. (1994). Job stress and health outcomes among White and Hispanic employees: A test of the person-environment fit model. In G.P. Keita and J.J. Hurrell, Jr., (Eds), Job stress in a changing workforce: Investigating gender, diversity, and family issues (pp. 107-125). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This chapter elaborates on two stressors that are putatively unique to ethnic minority workers (i.e., in-group-out-group proportions and prejudice and discrimination). It discusses the moderating role of social support on stress. Presents findings from a survey the authors conducted to examine stress and health outcomes in ethnic minority and non-minority employees who held different jobs. In particular, they examined the influence of proportional representation of the in-group, employees' perceptions of perceived discrimination, and level of social support, on job-related tension and self-reported health problems. It focused on whether person-environment incongruence on relevant dimensions yielded parallel or divergent patterns among Hispanic and White employees (within a university setting).
Hagen, M.G. (1995). References to racial issues. Political Behavior, 17, 49-88.
This study explored the readiness with which issues of race come to the minds of Americans (the "accessibility" of racial issues) by assessing the frequency with which Americans refer to racial issues when discussing politics. References to racial issues in National Election Studies' open-ended surveys from 1952-1992 were analyzed, and the possibility that a language of symbolic racism has taken the place of socially unacceptable explicit references to race among Whites was examined. The idea that other issues such as crime, poverty, and welfare have become "code words" for Whites to communicate continued anxiety about race was also investigated. Little evidence was found to support the idea that Whites used code words to express hostility toward Blacks.
Hanna, J.L. (1988). Disruptive school behavior: Class, race, and culture. New York: Holmes & Meier.
This book is unique in its honest confrontation with real problems and its challenge to many assumptions and practices in education and public policy. It rests on the conviction that equal opportunity in formal education is necessary but not sufficient to enable students to achieve socioeconomic success in adult life. The author demonstrates the importance of social relations that are not restricted to the classroom, such as mutually shared values and communication patterns. By focusing on the clash of socioeconomic styles that often coincides with desegregation, Hanna offers explanations for aggressive and other disruptive school behavior and then presents coping strategies for parents, teachers, governments, the private sector, and concerned citizens. "Disruptive School Behavior" illuminates the widespread educational problems on a national scale.
Harry, B. & Anderson, M.G. (1995). The disproportionate placement of African American males in special education programs: A critique of the process. Journal of Negro Education, 63, 602-619.
The author discusses the placement of African American males in special education programs focusing on one of the more detrimental outcomes of the social forces that mitigate against Black males in school and society. Results reveal that educational programs are biased against Blacks. This groups representation of special education is greater than their overall percentage in the schools. Data from various sources to support the argument is presented. Various classifications to understand the concept of disability are discussed. On the basis of the reviews, recommendations are made to help ameliorate the situations discussed. African Americans should be respected and their talents recognized and developed rather than interpreted as deficits.
Hartam, C.A., Hoogstraten, J. & Spruijt-Metz, D. (1994). Disentangling discrimination: Victim characteristics as determinants of the perception of behavior as racist or sexist. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 567-579.
This study examined the impact of victim characteristics on the judgment of behavior as being sexist or racist. One-hundred and twenty-three undergraduates read eight scenarios describing instances of everyday discrimination. The race, gender, and SES of the victims in the scenarios were varied systematically. Each scenario was followed by three consecutive questionnaires that assessed the degree to which Ss perceived the behavior of the agent as racist, sexist, or otherwise. Blacks of low SES, regardless of gender, were more often considered to be victims of racism than Blacks of high SES. Women of high rather than low SES, regardless of race, were more likely to be considered victims of sexism. This findings demonstrates that it is not always the less empowered group that is judged as being the most discriminated against.
Haskell, R.E. (1987). Social cognition, language, and the non-conscious expression of racial ideology. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 6, 75-97.
Derived from a set of qualitative methodological procedures of analysis and validation of verbal reports, findings from both small group laboratory sessions and naturalistic observation settings are presented illustrating nonconscious expressions of racial ideology. Literal verbal productions are shown to yield metaphorical or subliteral references to racial concerns and stereotypes. The findings are discussed in terms of psychological and sociocultural levels of conditioning, prejudicial intent, perception of "difference," and cognitive structure of prejudice. Ten laboratory illustrations are included.
Hawley, W.D. & Jackson, A.W. (1995). Toward a common destiny: Improving race and ethnic relations in America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
This book seeks to summarize what is known about the sources of racial and ethnic prejudice in the U.S. and to identify some ways that individuals and organizations can act to reduce intolerance and discrimination, and thus render a person's race and ethnicity irrelevant to the determination of his or her chances to live the good life and contribute to the welfare of others.
Heaven, P.C. & Furnham, A. (1987). Race prejudice and economic beliefs. Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 483-489.
The authors investigated the relationship between British race prejudice and economic beliefs by administering an Attitudes Towards West Indians scale, personality and attitudinal measures, and an Economic Locus of Control scale (ELOC) to 72 British adults. Results show racism to be significantly related to authoritarianism and the external/denial subscale of the ELOC. Further analysis showed scores on the authoritarian attitudes scale and the external denial subscale to be significant predictors of prejudice.
Heaven, P.C., Rajab, D. & Ray, J.J. (1985). Patriotism, racism, and the disutility of the ethnocentrism concept. Journal of Social Psychology, 125, 181-185.
The authors surveyed 106 South African (predominantly Afrikaans-speaking) Whites regarding attitudes toward South Africa and toward Blacks; measures of authoritarian personality and conformity were also taken. The same measures were completed by 101 South African Asian Indians, except that their attitudes toward Whites rather than Blacks were assessed. Findings indicate that attitudes toward South Africa were found to show only a slight relationship with racism among both samples, which suggests that the theory underlying the ethnocentrism concept of W. G. Sumner (1906) and T. W. Adorno et al (1950) (i.e., that thinking well of one's own group entails looking down on members of other groups) is essentially false.
Henderson, P.L. (1988). The invisible minority: Black students at a southern White university. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 349-355.
This study explored the perceptions of thirteen Black college students regarding their needs, coping strategies, and experiences in an all-White institution. Unstructured interviews were used to evoke individual perceptions and descriptions of behaviors related to the racial atmosphere. It was hypothesized that a racism reaction typology had developed among the Ss, and a classification system was devised to reflect the typology. The adaptation styles of six Ss were classified as "partisans," four as "stoics," and three as "renegades."
Herbert, J.I. (1990). Integrating race and adult psychosocial development. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 433-446.
This is a study of the lives of 10 Black male entrepreneurs (aged 35-50 years) using a biographical interview method. The findings support the theory by D. J. Levinson et al (1978) of developmental periods. The concept of evolving life structure was vibrant and viable. Based on the impact of racial dynamics and racism on Ss' lives, two new developmental tasks of adult psychosocial development are proposed. These tasks include the formation of (a) an individual racial identity that acknowledges and frees individuals of their own racism and prejudices and (b) an individual self-concept dedicated to the eradication of racial discrimination and prejudice from society.
Herek, G.M. (1987). Religious orientation and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 34-44.
The author examined the influence of religious orientation on attitudes toward an out-group not widely accepted by contemporary religions (lesbians and gay men). Using questionnaire data from 126 White, heterosexual students on four university campuses (3 public), an extrinsic orientation was found to be positively correlated with racism, while an intrinsic orientation was not. Intrinsics, however, tended to be more prejudiced against gay people than were extrinsics. It is suggested that an intrinsic orientation does not foster unequivocal acceptance of others but instead encourages tolerance toward specific groups that are accepted by contemporary Judeo-Christian teachings. It is suggested that attitudes toward outgroups may serve different psychological functions for persons with extrinsic and intrinsic orientations.
Hershel, H.J. (1995). Therapeutic perspectives on biracial identity formation and internalized oppression. In N. Zack (Ed.), American mixed race: The culture of microdiversity (pp. 169-181). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
This chapter discusses identity formation by examining phenomenological and psychological descriptions of oppression. Identity is explored within the context of biracial oppression, specifically as a consequence of racial projection and internalized alienating racial attitudes. The chapter concludes with some therapeutic recommendations on what is required for an individual of mixed race to maintain optimal psychological health. Although much of the focus here is on the process of identity wounding and thus "worst case scenarios" to express the effect of racial oppression upon individuals from a clinical viewpoint, it is assumed that the reader understands that biracial people often have a very positive identity.
Howell, S.E. & Sims, R.T. (1994). Survey research and racially charged elections: The case of David Duke in Louisiana. Political Behavior, 16, 219-236.
Consistent understatement of support for candidates who take conservative positions on racial issues, and who emphasize those issues in their campaigns in preelection polls, would seem to indicate a reluctance on the part of some survey respondents to honestly express their vote intention, perhaps due to the fear that their intended action might be interpreted as an expression of racism. This research, which utilizes surveys conducted during the 1991 Louisiana governor's election in which David Duke was prominently featured, attempts to develop more accurate alternative measures of support for racially conservative candidates. Findings indicate that more accurate and valid vote intention measures can be constructed through the use of candidate image variables. The findings also call into question the practice of attempting to develop more accurate measures of voter intention through simple reallocation of undecided voters based solely on race.
Hsia, J. (1986). The new racism, affirmative discrimination and Asian Americans. Asian American Psychological Association Journal, 19-21.
The author of this article states that there has been much publicity about the "new" form of racism. Minorities are said to be given "affirmative discrimination" in education and work, with the result of stifling initiative and sapping energies to the detriment of all America. In regards to Asian Americans, the author finds evidence for the continued existence of negative discrimination that operates to structurally limit the realization of academic and career objectives. The author suggests that in education and in business, Asian Americans do not receive the same rewards and incentives as their peers.
Imani, N.O. (1996). The clarity and confusion offered by historical personal identity studies. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, (2), 195-201.
The literature review and analysis focuses on the historical reference group orientation and personal identity study material done by Blacks in the United States. It argues that these studies were critically flawed in the sense that they made inappropriate assumptions about the link between the two kinds of measures that are the respective foci of their inquiry (i.e., personal identity and group self-esteem). As a result, their conclusions and implications, in terms of the development of psychological and sociological theories based upon their findings, constitute a major obstacle to the ultimate and accurate understanding of the processes of development of Black self-esteem and collective spirit.
Inman, M.L. & Baron, R.S. (1996). Influence of prototypes on perceptions of prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(4), 727-739.
Two studies examined the influence of cultural stereotypes and personal factors (one's race,and gender) on perceptions of racial and gender discrimination. Overall, the data suggest that our perceptions of prejudice are strongly influenced by specific expectations regarding who are the prototypic perpetrators and victims of prejudice. More general expectations regarding out-group conflict or regarding only the characteristics of the perpetrator appear to have less of an impact on such perceptions. Additionally, women were found to be more likely than men to perceive sexism directed against men and racism directed at African-Americans and Caucasians. Also, African-Americans were more likely than Caucasians to perceive racist events against Whites and Blacks. The implications of these data are discussed.
Jackson, J.S. & Inglehart, M.R. (1995). Reverberation theory: Stress and racism in hierarchically structured communities. In S.E. Hobfoll and M.W. devries (Eds.), Extreme stress and communities: Impact and intervention (pp. 353-373). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
The authors propose that it is time for social scientists to recognize the intimate intermingling among community stress, racial and ethnic conflict, and racism and to bring together these concepts in one theoretical framework. The authors investigate and explore the role of community stressors and perceived economic stress on dominant group prejudice, subordinate group economic stress, and well-being outcomes. The Reverberation Theory of Stress and Racism conceptualizes stress and racism as mutually interrelated phenomena and points to their combined reciprocal relationship with (social, psychological and physical) health outcomes. The argument is made that it is crucial to explore the relationships among stress, racism and health within racially and ethnically hierarchically structured societies. The theory states that: (a) personal as well as community level stressors influence members of dominant as well as subordinate groups in a society, (b) this stress contributes directly to increased intergroup conflict/racism in these groups, which in turn will increase the stress level experienced by these different groups, and (c) this stress will influence social, psychological, and physical health outcomes of group members at all hierarchial positions.
Jacobson, C.K. (1985). Resistance to affirmative action: Self-interest or racism? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 29, 306-329.
The author examined racial threat or self-interest, new symbolic racism, and old-fashioned racism as predictors of attitudes about affirmative action programs. Data from a national survey conducted in the late fall of 1978 for the National Conference of Christians and Jews included attitudinal responses from 1,584 Whites. The dependent variable was the responses to various affirmative action programs, the independent variables included items used to measure symbolic racism and self-interest, and the control variables included a Black stereotype scale and a tolerance of interpersonal intimacy scale. Self-interest, new symbolic racism, and old-fashioned racism were all found to be related to attitudes about affirmative action programs and remained so when a variety of control variables were included in the regression analyses. The New Racism scale was clearly the best predictor of attitudes about affirmative action programs but had many underpinnings from traditional sources of racism. Possible reasons for the effect of self-interest on attitudes about affirmative action programs that had not been related to racial attitudes in earlier studies are discussed.
James, K., Lovato, C. & Khoo, G. (1994). Social identity correlates of minority workers' health. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 383-396.
The findings are reported for a study of social relationships among 89 minority workers' at work and the social-behavioral tendencies that influence their health. There were six potential correlates of Ss' health that were examined: levels of self- and collective esteem, levels of perceived prejudice and discrimination experienced on the job, perceived differences in values between minority and majority organization members, and individual expressiveness. Higher levels of value differences with a supervisor were associated with lower blood pressure levels. Value differences with a supervisor had the expected significant, negative relationship to health as assessed by an illness checklist. Self-esteem had a positive relationship to health problems but a negative relationship to high blood pressure.
Johnson, W.R. & Warren D.M. (1994). Inside the mixed marriage: Accounts of changing attitudes, patterns, and perceptions of cross-cultural and interracial marriages. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
This book is about the personal experiences of people in mixed marriages. Here the marital partners consider the changing sets of advantages and constraints mixed marriages have imposed on them and their children. In addition to discussing the impact of society on their marriages, they speculate on the impact their marriages have had on the attitudes of others. It is the view from inside the mixed marriage which makes these personal narratives significant. They provide sharp contrasts to those who understand mixed marriages solely in the context of intergroup relations, social control, and social dominance. They hit directly at popular myths and fears. These narratives illustrate the artificiality of social constructs like ethnicity, race and culture.
Jones, J.M. (1992). Understanding the mental health consequences of race: Contributions of basic social psychological processes. In D.N. Ruble, P.R. Costanzo and M.E. Oliveri (Eds.), The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanisms and applications (pp. 199-240). New York: Guilford Press.
The author expresses the view that race, in this society, is a social status with psychological effects that have consequences for actual and presumed mental health. The consequences range from subtle forms of self-doubt to feelings of superiority to anger at privileged others.
Jones, J.M. (1994). A perpetrator-less crime? Ethics and Behavior, 4, 395-397.
The author comments on a case vignette concerning racism and political correctness (see PA, Vol 82:31437). The author asserts that there is insufficient data to prove intentionality through cause-effect linkages based on covariation. It is also determined that the speech does not fall under the restrictions of free speech established by legal precedent. However, because the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equal protection, the slur in question may be part of a more general hostile environment for African-American women at the campus.
Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L.J. (1994). Race and gender fallacies: The paucity of biological determinist explanations of difference. Challenging racism and sexism: Alternatives to genetic explanations (pp. 66-92). New York: Feminist Press at The City University of New York.
This chapter deals with the role that biological determinism plays, and has played, in influencing general opinion and public wisdom on issues of race and gender. Racism and sexism are two phenomena of persistent prejudice, and here we will discuss how theories of inheritance have helped to perpetuate them.
Kastenbaum, R. (1991). Racism and the older voter? Arizona's rejection of a paid holiday to honor Martin Luther King. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 32, 199-209.
Two propositions that would have established a paid Martin Luther King holiday were defeated in Arizona's statewide elections on November 6, 1990. Communities and counties with high proportions of senior adult voters cast proportionately more votes against these propositions. The issue of whether this is an example of racism among the primarily Anglo senior adult voters of Arizona is examined. Three models are proposed to account for the general pattern of election-related behavior and the vote itself: (1) proactive racist, (2) pragmatic self-interest, and (3) fortress mentality. It is suggested that proactive racism and pragmatic self-interest accounted for less of the opposition to a paid holiday honoring Martin Luther King than did a fortress mentality that has developed through a combination of circumstances. Attention is also given to the larger question of senior adults as perpetrators and victims of bigotry.
Katz, I. (1991). Gordon Allport's The Nature of Prejudice. Political Psychology, 12, 125-157.
The author examines G. W. Allport's teachings (1954, 1988) on racism and equality. Emphasis was on racial attitudes and interactions. Topics highlighted include (1) prejudice, as normative, pervasive, and intractable, (2) Allport's two-mindedness, (3) equal employment opportunity and affirmative action, and (4) mandatory school busing. Also examined are conclusions about attitudes toward integration; the prejudice-discrimination relation; and stereotypes, expectancies, and behavior.
Killian, L.M. (1985). The stigma of race: Who now bears the mark of Cain? Symbolic Interaction, 8, 1-14.
The author defines stigma reversal as the imputation of guilt and moral inferiority to the members of a dominant group on the basis of descent when the moral justification of the group's position of advantage is being redefined. Evidence of the use of stigma reversal as an argument in support of protective discrimination or preferential treatment of minority group members is presented. It is postulated that stigma reversal is related to changes in self-conception that accompany minority protest movements and redefinition of the sense of group position even by members of the dominant group. The negative consequences that stigma reversal may have for public policies designed to help disadvantaged minorities are discussed.
King, J.E. (1991). Dysconscious racism: Ideology, identity, and the miseducation of teachers. Journal of Negro Education, 60, 133-146.
The author presents a qualitative analysis of "dysconscious racism" as reflected in the responses of teacher education students to an open-ended question about knowledge and understanding of social inequity. Content analysis of 57 responses shows how Ss' thinking reflects internalized ideologies that justify the racial status quo and devalue cultural diversity. A teaching approach for counteracting the cognitively limited and distorted thinking represented by dysconscious racism is described. The need is stressed to make social reconstructionist liberatory teaching an option for teacher education students who often begin their professional preparation without having considered the need for fundamental social change.
Kitahara, M. (1989). American anthropology as ethnoscience? Eastern Anthropologist, 42, 205-210.
The author hypothesized that a favored color is chosen by most Americans for describing their skin, while unfavorable colors are attributed to other peoples. The favorable and unfavorable connotations of 5 color terms (i.e., white, black, brown, red, yellow) were compared on the basis of an analysis of definitions in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles and the New Dictionary of American Slang. White was characterized by more favorable connotations than the other four color terms. The potential contribution of color terms to nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in the form of ethnoscience is noted.
Kleinpenning, G. & Hagendoorn, L. (1993). Forms of racism and the cumulative dimension of ethnic attitudes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56, 21-36.
The authors conceptualize biological, symbolic, and aversive racism on the basis of their most characteristic components. 1,760 Dutch secondary school students (aged 14-20 yrs) completed a questionnaire measuring biological racism, ethnocentrism, symbolic racism, and aversive racism. In addition, a subgroup of 587 Ss answered 6 questions on behavioral intention and stereotype attributions. Results show that (1) the distinguished forms of racism, operationalized on the basis of literature research, were largely corroborated by empirical data from this study; (2) the forms of racism can be arrayed on one underlying Guttman-type dimension; and (3) egalitarians, aversive racists, ethnocentrists, symbolic racists, and biological racists scored significantly differently on the variables measuring various expressions of prejudice.
Koocher, G.P. (1994). Case vignette: Racism and political correctness. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 389.
The author presents a case vignette concerning racism and political correctness. The vignette involves a college student accused of making a racial slur toward a group of African-American sorority members who were shouting outside his dormitory window. Three discussants were asked what ethical issues, related to freedom of expression and hate speech, are relevant to the incident and how the case should be evaluated. Their remarks follow: M. Laird (see PA, Vol 82:31438), J. M. Jones (see PA, Vol 82:31436), and W. von Hippel (see PA, Vol 82:31443).
Laird, M. (1994). Political correctness commentary. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 390-394.
The author comments on a case vignette concerning racism and political correctness (see PA, Vol 82:31437). It is argued that desires to be morally and socially correct must be weighed carefully against the concern about the gradual erosion of fundamental rights and freedom of speech. Court rulings seem to be in agreement that universities have the authority to control student conduct, particularly toward the goal of providing an environment conducive to education. However, the court appears ready to reject arguments that universities need further regulation of speech to accomplish their reasonable time, ways, and manner restrictions.
Lalonde, R.N., Majumder, S. & Parris, R.D. (1995). Preferred responses to situations of housing and employment discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1105-1119.
In Study 1, 72 Black Canadian adults read a scenario in which they were ultimately denied an apartment on the basis of their color. The degree of evidence of discrimination in the scenario had an effect on the preference for some of the behaviors examined. Some of the behaviors (e.g., seeking advice) were clearly preferred to others (e.g., organizing a boycott). In Study 2, 42 Bengali Canadians read a scenario in which they applied for a position for which they had the qualifications. After an interview and notification that the offer was made to a more qualified person, they found out that they did not get the position because of their visible minority status. Self-directed responses to the situation (e.g., working harder) were preferred to a variety of overt actions taken within or outside the company. Results are discussed in terms of the process and problems of responding to discrimination.
Landrine, H. & Klonoff, E.A. (1996). The Schedule of Racist Events: A Measure of Racial Discrimination and a Study of Its Negative Physical and Mental Health Consequences. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 144-168.
In this article, the authors develop a brief questionnaire that assesses racist discrimination in the lives of African Americans, and describe the results of preliminary studies using the questionnaire. The Schedule of Racist Events (SRE) is an 18-item self report inventory that assesses the frequency of racist discrimination (specific, stressful racist events) in the past year (recent racist events) and in one's entire life (lifetime racist events), and measures the extent to which this discrimination was evaluated (appraised) as stressful. Results revealed that the SRE has extremely high internal consistency and split-half reliability. Racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms and to cigarette smoking. These findings highlight the negative consequences of racism and provide for the validity of the SRE as a measure of (culturally specific) stress.
Lee, M.K. (1983). Multiculturalism: Educational perspectives for the 1980's. Education, 103, 405-409.
Racism in the U.S. today must be perceived as a barrier to Whites and non-Whites alike for the realization of their maximum economic, psychological, and social growth. Because the current social climate in America seems regressive, some form of preventive educational measure must be taken to foster more positive attitudes among the diverse segments of the population. Multicultural education shows promise for reducing tensions between diverse ethnic, racial, religious, and national-origin groups.
Lempert, R. & Monsma K. (1994). Cultural differences and discrimination: Samoans before a public housing eviction board. American Sociological Review, 59, 890-910.
To examine how Hawaiian Samoans are treated, the legal decisions of the Hawaii Housing Authority's (HHA's) eviction board from 1966-1985 were examined, and interviews were conducted in 1987 with the HHA's prosecutors, board members, and others connected with the eviction process. Samoans were discriminated against in financial cases. However, interviews show that Samoans were disadvantaged largely because their excuses were not persuasive and would not be regardless of the ethnicity of the tenants making them. Samoans made such excuses more often than other tenants because excuses that are reasonable within the Samoan culture do not seem reasonable to judges from a different culture. The authors refer to this consequence of cultural hegemony as cultural discrimination and note dilemmas posed by the concept.
Lewis, R. (1995). Racial position segregation: A case study of Southwest Conference football, 1978 and 1989. Journal of Black Studies, 25, 431-446.
The author analyzed changes in the nature of racial discrimination in intercollegiate football in the Southwest Conference in 1978 and 1989. Using sports information guides from Southwest Conference universities, data were obtained on 596 Ss who played intercollegiate football in 1978 and 444 who played in 1989. It was hypothesized that African-American athletes are more likely to occupy peripheral football positions and less likely to occupy central positions in comparison to White athletes and that African-Americans are more likely to experience unequal opportunity by having to exhibit superior athletic qualifications. Results indicate that Black student-athletes had substantial representation in Southwest Conference football programs. However, findings suggest that race is an important factor in player position placement.
Lippi-Green, R. (1994). Accent, standard language ideology, and discriminatory pretext in the courts. Language in Society, 23, 163-198.
The author discusses the nature and some repercussions of accent discrimination, emphasizing that accents associated with racial, ethnic, or cultural minorities are most likely to pose a barrier to effective communication when two elements (communicative competence on the part of the speaker and the listener's goodwill) are missing. Accent discrimination, referred to more specifically as language-trait focused discrimination, is discussed in terms of the workplace and the courts. An employer has considerable latitude in matters of language, provided in part by a judicial system that recognizes in theory the link between language and social identity but in practice is often confounded by blind adherence to a standard language ideology.
Lipton, J.P. (1983). Racism in the jury box: The Hispanic defendant. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 5, 275-290.
In the present investigation of jury bias, an innovative methodology was used. High in both experimental and mundane realism, this study incorporated a procedure whereby participants believed that they were actually on a real jury whose decisions would really affect the defendant. Forty-eight Anglo and forty-eight Chicano undergraduates served on six-person juries of varying sex and ethnic composition. Ss read two cases involving Anglo or Chicano defendants, completed a predeliberation questionnaire, and then attempted to reach a unanimous decision. Ss then completed a postdeliberation questionnaire that also measured their affective response to the defendant. Anglo Ss were more likely to express a negative affective response to the Chicano defendant and to attribute guilt to the defendant during the predeliberation assessment, although assessments of guilt by Anglo and Chicano Ss equalized during deliberation. Anglo Ss were more likely to change their vote to guilty, while Chicano Ss tended to change theirs toward innocence. Assessments of guilt were also found to depend on the ethnic and sex distribution of jury members.
Lloyd, M.G. (1983). Blacks and Whites: Families and communities--a personal perspective on some issues concerning race relations and education in the U.S.A. Early Child Development and Care, 11, 297-318.
This study presents a perspective on American policy on race and education, which is then compared to British policies. The fact that the National Institute of Mental Health includes racism as a deterrent to good mental health, and addresses itself to programs to prevent it, is significant. Racism in the U.S. is a product of more than 300 years of subordination of Asian-Blacks, Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Alaskan Natives by the White majority. Racism is also deeply rooted in British culture but has only been recognized as such since the immigration of Black people brought the issue home. American policies on desegregation, equal opportunity, bilingual education, affirmative action, and race relations are discussed in terms of how Britain can learn from U.S. successes and mistakes in constructing a better educational system to serve the needs of all minorities.
Luhtanen, R. & Crocker, J. (1991). Self-esteem and intergroup comparisons: Toward a theory of collective self-esteem. In J. Suls, T.A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research. (pp. 211-234). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This chapter notes that ingroup bias and favoritism can be observed even in the absence of competition or conflict over resources. The authors describe a model of intergroup relations suggesting that biased ingroup comparisons are the result of social comparison motives, based on individual needs for self-enhancement. They consider whether self-esteem influences ingroup bias in a laboratory paradigm, and distinguish between personal self-esteem and collective self-esteem as possible determinants of bias. The chapter also examines the role of self-esteem in prejudice and intergroup comparisons.
Mane, N. (1993). Children and hate: Hostility caused by racial prejudice. In V.P. Varma (Ed.), How and why children hate (pp. 113-123). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Discusses the role of parents and culture in transmitting racism and its attendant hostility and hate to children.
Mann, C.R. (1993). Unequal justice: A question of color. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Unequal Justice: A Question of Color is a much-needed comprehensive examination of racial/ethnic minorities and crime. Coramae Richey Mann demonstrates the importance of skin color in determining how individuals are treated by the legal system. Criminologists, law enforcement agencies, and criminal justice policymakers agree that minority groups in the United States are disproportionately involved in crime. This fact is typically explained as resulting from the prevalence of various criminogenic factors within minority cultures--high unemployment, criminal subculture, relative deprivation. Another major objective of the book is to investigate the experiences shared by historically disadvantaged racial minorities--African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans--at each level of the criminal justice system.... As previously noted, the primary focus of the book is the adult male racial minority offender, but where feasible, research and data on minority female offenders and juveniles are introduced.
Margolin, L. (1994). Goodness personified: The emergence of gifted children. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Leslie Margolin challenges the most common assumptions underlying gifted education. His analysis of the gifted child movement shows how scholars formed the concept of giftedness in their writings, how they provided detailed documentation of the characteristics such children were thought to embody, and how they managed to spread that vision to a community of believers. In doing so, he demonstrates that social "assets" as well as social "problems" can be viewed as social constructions, the products of competing claims. The author explains how gifted education is the obverse side of the "pedagogy of the oppressed," how it supports racism and classism, and singles out the children of the affluent for training in dominance. In exposing the role of gifted education in propagating social inequality, "Goodness Personified" questions the academic rigor of such teaching. This book illustrates how the various procedures used to confirm the personal and social traits associated with giftedness serve at the same time to support and confirm the nongiftedness of those who are excluded. Margolin shows that the effects of gifted education are global and systemic, affecting the way all children are seen.
Martinez, R. & Dukes, R.L. (1991). Ethnic and gender differences in self-esteem. Youth and Society, 22, 318-338.
The authors examined the differences among ethgender (ethnic and gender) groupings on esteem measures in a cohort of students in grades 7-12 in 1983 and again in 1986. The view that institutionalized racism and sexism result in lower self-esteem among minorities was supported by the data. The relationship holds even though various controls were introduced. The view that race is the primary framework within which gender operates received mixed support. The notion of ethgenders seems to be a viable one, but its exact operation still is not clear. The notion of public and private domains points to cultural differences that help to insulate the self-concepts of Black and Chicano adolescents more than those of youths in other groups. The notion supports the view that the effects of dominant group culture and institutions on the self-esteem of minorities are mediated by minority cultures.
Mays, V.M., Cochran, S.D. & Rhue, S. (1993). The impact of perceived discrimination on the intimate relationships of Black lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 25, 1-14.
This study explored the effects of perceived racial/ethnic and sexual orientation discrimination on African-American lesbians' relationships with friends, lovers, family, and community support systems. Data were gathered from interviews with eight self-identified Black lesbians. Ss who had been in relationships with White lesbians reported more frequent experiences of discrimination that influenced their later decision to seek a Black lesbian partner for their next love relationship. Reactions toward lesbian community events ranged from avoidance to determined participation in response to feelings of alienation and racism. Black lesbians perceived the African-American community to be conservative in their views on homosexuality. Nevertheless, for half of the Ss their interest in participation in the African-American community overshadowed their concerns about negative reactions to their homosexuality.
McClelland, K. & Hunter, C. (1992). The perceived seriousness of racial harassment. Social Problems, 39, 92-107.
The authors examined the perceived seriousness of harassing behaviors. Data from a survey of 194 White college students demonstrate that observers' perception of the seriousness of verbal, racial harassment depended both on the harassing behavior itself and on the account offered by the harasser for the behavior. Apologies and some excuses reduced perceived seriousness of racial harassment, while justifications and other excuses increased it. However, only apologies had statistically consistent effects. Personal experience with racial harassment did not affect perceived seriousness, although gender did.
McClendon, M.J. (1985). Racism, rational choice, and White opposition to racial change: A case study of busing. Public Opinion Quarterly, 49, 214-233.
The study surveyed 242 adults (mean age 49.6 yrs), 17% of whom were Black, from a midwestern city. The study sought to estimate a multiple indicator model for the effects of traditional prejudice, symbolic racism, and rational choice on four types of opposition to school busing--attitudes toward two-way busing, one-way busing, protest, and White flight. Traditional prejudice and symbolic racism were found to be partially independent dimensions whose effects on busing opposition were entirely mediated by certain expected costs of busing. Thus, findings support both racism and rational choice explanations. There is, however, no support for the notion that symbolic racism is a more important source of opposition to racial change than is traditional prejudice.
McConahay, J.B. (1983). Modern racism and modern discrimination: The effects of race, racial attitudes, and context on simulated hiring decisions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 551-558.
Thirty-seven male and 44 female White undergraduates were administered the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) before evaluating job candidates with identical resumes, except for a picture of a Black or White male candidate, under contexts designed to elicit positive or negative discrimination by ambivalent (presumably prejudiced) Ss. The ambivalence concept was used to demonstrate the construct validity of the MRS, a relatively nonreactive scale of racial prejudice. This concept asserts that the prejudiced (ambivalent) White behaves positively or negatively toward Blacks depending on the context of the behavior, while the less prejudiced White behaves more consistently across contexts. Results show that, as predicted, when the candidate was Black, the MRS was negatively correlated with hiring evaluations in the negative context and positively correlated in the positive context. When the job candidate was White, context and the MRS were unrelated to hiring evaluations.
McCormack, A.S. (1995). The changing nature of racism on college campuses: Study of discrimination at a northeastern public university. College Student Journal, 29, 150-156.
The author compared the results of a 1992 survey study of discrimination against 221 Black, Asian, and Hispanic undergraduates with a similar study of 132 Black, Asian, and Hispanic undergraduates completed in 1988 (A. McCormack, 1990). Discrimination against Black and Hispanic students on college campuses increased over the four years. The greater the interaction of Ss with other members of the academic community, the higher the rate of discrimination. Incidents involving other students remained the most popular source of discrimination, followed by incidents involving university faculty and campus police. A comparison of written descriptions of incidents suggests that the nature of discrimination has become more blatant over the four-year period, characterized by verbal harassment by other students and differential treatment by university personnel.
Moghaddam, F.M., Taylor, D.M., Lambert, W.E. & Schmidt, A.E. (1995). Attributions and discrimination: A study of attributions to the self, the group, and external factors among Whites, Blacks, and Cubans in Miami. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 26, 209-220.
The authors examined the self-protective role of social attributions by comparing attributions made by 57 White-lower class mothers, 40 White middle-class mothers, 52 Black lower-class mothers, 55 Black middle-class mothers, 51 Cuban lower-class mothers and 54 Cuban middle-class mothers to the self, one's ethnic group, and to factors external to oneself. When presented with the hypothetical case where they personally were successful in improving their employment status, all groups attributed success to the self. In the case of failure, the lower-class Whites were the only group that attributed the failure to themselves personally; the middle-class Blacks attributed failure mainly to ethnic group membership (discrimination); the lower-class Blacks to both group membership and factors external to individuals or groups; and the middle-class Whites exclusively to factors external to individuals or groups.
Moskowitz, D. & Stroh, P. (1994). Psychological sources of electoral racism. Political Psychology, 15, 307-329.
The authors examined the effect of racial cues on candidate perception and evaluation. In an experimental setting, the race of a hypothetical candidate was manipulated; the causal model then examined how the candidate's race influenced voters through stereotyping biases and through the more affect-laden impact of racial prejudice. The experimental procedure consisted of measures of racial resentment and personal policy preferences, exposure of the 424 White Ss to information about a fictitious candidate, and a set of candidate evaluation and perception measures. Racists tended to disparage the personality attributes of Black candidates, thus creating less positive candidate evaluations. The pervasive influence of cognitive and affective expectations on Black candidate perception and evaluation are noted, and how these psychological biases might inhibit formation of a nonracial, middle-of-the-road campaign by Black candidates is reviewed.
Nagel, J. (1995). Resource competition theories. American Behavioral Scientist, 38, 442-458.
The author discusses the concept of resource competition (RC) as it applies to ethnic relations. Several aspects of ethnicity that are affected by RC are identified: ethnic identification, the importance of ethnicity as an organizing principle of daily life; racism and prejudice, the extent of negative stereotypes and evaluations of ethnic outgroups; interethnic conflict, the likelihood of violent conflict among ethnic groups; and ethnic mobilization, the pursuit of ethnic group interests through ethnic organizations and activism. Two major forms of RC (economic and political) are defined and the support in the social science literature for the stated propositions is examined.
Naidoo, J.C. (1992). The mental health of visible ethnic minorities in Canada. Psychology and Developing Societies, 4, 165-186.
The author discusses the mental health of visible ethnic minorities in Canada. The minority population in Canada has increased due to a change in immigration laws that allows more non-Europeans into Canada. Issues addressed include cultural factors in mental health, racism and intolerance, and employment related to stress. Also discussed are high-risk visible minority women who have disadvantages as mothers, wives, and workers; they also have problems if they have poor language skills. In a study of 219 South Asian women, J. C. Naidoo (1985) found that the most helpful factors in the adjustment process include familiarity with western culture, belief in self, a supportive husband, and involvement in community activities.
Ojanuga, D. (1993). The Ethiopian Jewish experience as Blacks in Israel. Journal of Black Studies, 24, 147-158.
The author used qualitative and quantitative methodology to study the experiences of 72 Ethiopian Jews who had immigrated to Israel. Forty-three were relative newcomers, while 29 had lived in Israel for an average of 7.3 years. In addition to structured interviews with these Ss, informal interviews were held with government officials, social workers, and other community members. While Ss did not report cases of discrimination based on color, they did believe some Israelis had prejudicial attitudes toward them because of their African background. The group most hostile toward Ss was the Soviet Jewish immigrant group. Ss also reported a lack of social intimacy with Israelis.
Okazawa-Rey, M., Robinson, T. & Ward, J.V. (1987). Black women and the politics of skin color and hair. Women and Therapy, 6, 89-102.
This study explores issues related to shades of color of Black women from a literary perspective. Novels are cited, documenting the plight of the Black women who were dark versus light skinned. It is argued that literature reflects life and, within the lives of Black women, stereotypical attributions and prejudgments based on skin color have led to intragroup rivalries. Color conscious attitudes are inculcated in children in the homes and reinforced in the society. A historical overview of color consciousness, beauty and social attitudes, racism and sexism is discussed to provide a view of the psychological development of the Black woman.
Okocha, A.A.G. (1994). Preparing racial ethnic minorities for the work force 2000. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 22, 106-114.
Discusses issues that affect ethnic minorities' career behavior and describes career-intervention strategies based on J. Cummins' (see PA, Vol 74:8647) intervention model to help persons of color (POC) increase their meaningful participation in the national work force by the Year 2000. Issues that limit career opportunities for POC include the educational inequality caused by racism and oppression in mainstream society and the ethnocentric orientation of some White career-development teachers. The thesis of Cummins's model is that education that empowers POC fosters their educational success. The author discusses intervention strategies to enhance career development for POC, based on the model's four variables leading to empowerment. These variables are (1) knowledge generated by ethnic minorities rather than by teachers or counselors, (2) recognition of minority cultures, (3) involvement of minority communities, and (4) advocacy for minorities.
Patarroyo, M. (1995). Creation of first malaria vaccine raises troubling questions about "intellectual racism". Canadian Medical Association Journal, 153,(9), 1319-1321.
Some of the problems caused by malaria, which places a huge roadblock in front of economic progress in the Third World, may be solved by a new vaccine, created by Dr. Manuel Patarroyo, a Columbian physician and researcher. "Imagine how things would be if Canadians had malaria," he says. "Episodes last ten days, then there are ten days of recovering. This leaves only ten days each month in which to do some productive work. Then imagine killing the population of Toronto each year, and you can see the huge toll in terms of the number of yearly deaths globally from malaria." His discovery also raises the issue of "intellectual racism" due to the criticism of Patarroyo's methods by Western scientists. Patarroyo, meanwhile turned down a $60 million offer for his vaccine and instead donated the patent to the World Health Organization.
Patience, A. (1991). Softening the hard culture. Mental Health in Australia, 3, 29-35.
Australia's culture is hard because of its secularism, its populism, its racism, and its masculinism. It is a hardness that militates against the transformation of Australia into a gentler society. The hardness of Australian culture has its roots in the historical fragmentation of Australia from Britain and in the early historical experiences of the convict era. However, there are aspects of Australian experience that offer grounds for great expectations. These include possibilities related to: Understanding the Aboriginal cultures, transformation by ethnic pluralism, and proximity to Asian and Pacific cultures. These three aspects present a challenge to the cultural roots that feed the hard culture.
Peagam, E. (1994). Special needs or educational apartheid? The emotional and behavioral difficulties of Afro-Carribean children. Support for Learning, 9, 33-38.
This author examines the disproportionately high numbers of Afro-Caribbean children placed in schools for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBDs) in Britain. Eight-hundred and seventy-four children from 176 schools were identified as having emotional and/or behavioral difficulties. Only half as many Black Asian children as expected were identified with difficulties compared with three times as many Afro-Caribbean children. Demographic data show a socioeconomic bias either in terms of the development of EBDs or in the identification of them. Differences were noted in parental attitudes to school problems by ethnic background.
Perkins, H.W. (1992). Student religiosity and social justice concerns in England and the United States: Are they still related? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31,353-360.
This author conducted a 10-year follow-up of research on religiosity and social justice concerns among college students in the UK and the U.S.. The original study (H. W. Perkins, 1985), based on data from 1,197 students at five diverse colleges and universities in 1978-1979, was replicated during 1988-1990 with 1,102 students at the same institutions with the same survey. Results in each country consistently failed to reveal high religiosity as an "opiate" inherently fostering less compassionate, inegalitarian, or racist attitudes. Rather, in both time periods, strong religious commitment was linked to heightened humanitarianism and a reduction in prejudice. However, nominal or moderate religiosity, as opposed to no religious allegiance, was associated with more racist viewpoints, a cross-national finding persisting over time.
Pfeifer, J.E. & Ogloff, J.R. (1991). Ambiguity and guilt determinations: A modern racism perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1713-1725.
In this study jury instructions specifying the conditions required to find a defendant guilty may serve to dissipate jurors' overt prejudices. To test this hypothesis, 247 White university students read a transcript of a trial in which the race of the victim and the defendant were varied. In addition, half the Ss were given jury instructions that specified the elements of the crime and noted that to find the defendant guilty each element had to be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. Ss then rated the guilt of the defendant. Ss overwhelmingly rated Black defendants guiltier than White defendants, especially when the victim was White. However, these differences disappeared when Ss were provided with jury instructions.
Phinney, J.S. & Chavira, V. (1995). Parental ethnic socialization and adolescent coping with problems related to ethnicity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 31-53.
The authors investigated ethnic socialization by parents of minority group adolescents. In-depth interviews were carried out with 60 American-born Japanese-American, African-American, and Mexican-American high school students (aged 16-18 yrs) and one parent of each adolescent. There were significant ethnic group differences in parental ethnic socialization. African-American parents more frequently reported discussing prejudice with their child. Japanese-American and African-American parents emphasized adaptation to society more than Mexican-American parents. Japanese-American parents stressed achievement only more than the other two groups. Adolescent use of a proactive style of coping with stereotypes and discrimination was associated with higher self-esteem. The use of verbal retorts was related to lower self-esteem. Parental socialization did not have a strong relationship to adolescent outcomes.
Phinney, J.S. (1996). When We Talk About American Ethnic Groups, What Do We Mean? American Psychologist, 51, (9), 918-927.
American ethnic groups are often thought of as discrete categories to which people belong. It is often assumed that those categories explain some aspects of psychological functioning. However, ethnicity is a complex multidimensional construct that, by itself, explains little. To understand its psychological implications, it is necessary to identify and assess those aspects of ethnicity that may have an impact on outcomes of interest. In this article, the author examines three key aspects of ethnicity: cultural norms and values; the strength, salience, and meaning of ethnic identity; and the experiences and attitudes associated with minority status. These aspects are best understood in terms of dimensions along which individuals and samples vary, rather than as categories into which individuals can be classified.
Ponterotto, J.G. & Pedersen, P.B. (1993). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors and educators. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
This book presents a model and mechanism for improving interracial and interethnic relations. It emphasizes the need for multicultural awareness programs to be preventive, developmental, and long-term. A comprehensive theoretical context of racial and ethnic identity development serves as the foundation for planning and directing multicultural programs.
Pope-Davis, D.B. & Ottavi, T.M. (1992). The influence of White racial identity attitudes on racism among faculty members: A preliminary examination. Journal of College Student Development, 33, 389-394.
In this study 87 male and 83 female White college faculty (aged 29-70 yrs) completed the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the New Racism Scale. The Ss' racial identity attitudes were predictive of racism, and men had higher levels of disintegration (DI) attitudes than did women. DI is generally characterized by discomfort with interpersonal interactions with Blacks and, as a result, a desire to reaffiliate with individuals who are ethnically similar. Reintegration, idealization of everything perceived to be White and denigration of everything thought to be Black, was a significant predictor of racism for men, which suggests that the higher the reintegration attitude, the more likely men are to have racist attitudes.
Powlishta, K.K., Serbin, L.A., Doyle, A.B. & White, D.R. (1994). Gender, ethnic, and body type biases: The generality of Oprejudice in childhood. Developmental Psychology, 30, 526-536.
From a very young age, children show signs of prejudice. However, it is not clear whether those who are the most biased in one domain (e.g., gender) are also the most biased in other domains (e.g., ethnicity). This study addressed the issue using multiple measures of prejudice (negative bias) in three domains: gender (male, female), ethnicity-language (French Canadian, English Canadian), and body type (overweight, normal weight). The flexibility of attitudes (i.e., the belief that people from different categories can possess similar traits) was also assessed. A total of 254 children (127 boys, 127 girls) from kindergarten to the sixth grade participated. Children demonstrated clear biases against groups to which they did not belong, although attitudes became more flexible and prejudice declined somewhat with age. There was little predictive power across domains; that is, there was no evidence that prejudice represents a general characteristic that differentiates children.
Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L.M. & Malle, B.F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741-763.
In this study social dominance orientation (SDO), one's degree of preference for inequality among social groups, is introduced. On the basis of social dominance theory, it is shown that (1) men are more social dominance-oriented than women, (2) high-SDO people seek hierarchy-enhancing professional roles and low-SDO people seek hierarchy-attenuating roles, (3) SDO was related to beliefs in a large number of social and political ideologies that support group-based hierarchy (e.g., meritocracy and racism) and to support for policies that have implications for intergroup relations (e.g., war, civil rights, and social programs), including new policies. SDO was distinguished from interpersonal dominance, conservatism, and authoritarianism. SDO was negatively correlated with empathy, tolerance, communality, and altruism. The ramifications of SDO in social context are discussed.
Raabe, B. (1993). Constructing identities: Young people's understandings of power and social relations. Feminism and Psychology, 3, 369-373.
This study explored the ways in which young people construct their identities in relation to inequalities between (1) men and women and (2) ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examined identity construction and representations of social relations among 558, 14-15 year olds. Study 2 examined broadly based power-social relations produced and reproduced in 58 young peoples' ideas about family and education. Study 3 examined the dynamic negotiation of the meanings of responsibility, autonomy, and decision making in 20 group discussions of such issues as family life, marriage, sexuality, and educational aspirations. The three studies support the argument that issues relating to inequality are central to the identity representations of some young people. Individualistic analyses that focus on the importance of personal responsibility and choice are widely used by the majority of young people in making sense of their social worlds.
Raden, D. (1994). Are symbolic racism and traditional prejudice part of a contemporary authoritarian attitude syndrome? Political Behavior, 16, 365-384.
The author used the 1988 General Social Survey to investigate the extent to which traditional prejudice and symbolic racism have syndromic qualities among White Americans. Correlations between the measures of traditional prejudice and a wide variety of authoritarianism-related social attitudes were often moderately high. However, the associations of the measure of symbolic racism with these attitudes typically were similar. Additionally, the loadings of both types of prejudice on a general attitudinal authoritarianism factor were moderately high. Moreover, the measures of traditional prejudice and symbolic racism had substantial correlations with one another. Thus, there was little in the findings to support the characterization by D. O. Sears and his associates of symbolic racism as a distinctive racial disposition.
Ray, J.J. (1994). Are subtle racists authoritarian? Comments on Duckitt. South African Journal of Psychology, 24, 231.
The author comments on J. Duckitt's (see PA, Vol 81:19909) presentation of putative behavioral validation for a subtle racism scale, in which he goes on to report that subtle racists were highly likely to be authoritarian. The correlation of 0.2 between attitude and behavior demonstrates only 4% common variance and hence does little to upset the long-recognized orthogonality between attitudes and behavior.
Ray, J.J. (1981). Explaining Australian attitudes towards aborigines. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 4, 348-352.
The author surveyed 140 residents of New South Wales, Australia, who responded to a questionnaire sent to 500 people randomly selected from electoral roles, to examine attitudes toward aborigines. The scale was composed of six measures of personality variables, cognitive style, and attitudes. Demographic data were also examined. Results indicate that racism toward aborigines had more to do with conservative ideology than with personality or social variables. Prejudiced people were not more likely to be in manual occupations or more poorly educated than nonprejudiced people.
Ray, J.J. (1990). Racism, conservatism and social class in Australia: With German, Californian and South African comparisons. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 187-189.
This study explored the association between class and racial attitudes, using random general population surveys conducted between 1973 and 1983 in Australia, California (US), Germany, and South Africa in which either a racism or a conservatism scale was included. The correlations of the scales suggest that people in manual occupations are not especially conservative but are quite likely to be prejudiced against some racial groups (except against Aborigines). Using education as a class indicator, similar results were obtained for racism but not for conservatism. In a majority of the studies, less educated Ss tended to be more conservative. The idea that racial attitudes form part of an ethnocentric personality (T. W. Adorno et al, 1951) is called into question by these findings.
Ray, J.J. (1988). Racism and personal adjustment: Testing the Bagley hypothesis in Germany and South Africa. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 685-686.
In Germany neurotics (assessed by the Maudsley Personality Inventory) were found to be especially tolerant toward immigrant workers from Southern Europe, and in South Africa anxiety was unrelated to dislike of Blacks. It is concluded that any relationship between measures of personal adjustment and racial sentiment is a product of the culture and not a cause-effect relationship. Results are discussed in relation to the theory of C. Bagley et al (1979) linking racism and adjustment.
Ray, J.J. & Furnham, A. (1984). Authoritarianism, conservatism and racism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 7, 406-412.
The authors investigated the relationship between prejudice, patriotism, and politicoeconomic conservatism, using 96 adults from London. Ss completed a survey on attitudes toward West Indian immigrants and scales measuring the other variables. The findings suggest that the correlation between patriotism and prejudice proposed by T. W. Adorno et al (1950) is flawed. Results are similar to the author's (1974) findings on Australians. There was a high correlation between conservatism and acceptance of conventional authority. Results indicate that while British society is more authoritarian in behavior and attitudes than U.S. or Australian, it is not more racist. Data, which were gathered in 1983, are discussed in terms of current conservative trends in British politics and patriotism associated with the Falkland Islands War.
Rector, N.A. & Bagby, R.M. (1995). Criminal sentence recommendations in a simulated rape trial: Examining juror prejudice in Canada. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 13, 113-121.
The authors examined the role of racial bias in Canadian legal decision-making and the impact of legal ambiguity on racial prejudice in criminal sentence decisions. A videotape of a simulated rape trial was shown to 243 White university students, who were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 conditions and asked to assume the role of juror. In the rape trial, the race of the defendant and victim were varied (either White or Black), and in 50% of the conditions the judge's instructions to jurors were excluded. Inter-racial rape resulted in longer sentences when the legal standard was present, and intra-racial rape resulted in more punitive sentences when the standard was absent. Verdict allotment and sentence recommendations are conceptually distinct legal decisions, and the nature of extra-legal bias differs depending on the legal decision requested.
Reeves, S.B. & Nagoshi, C.T. (1993). Effects of alcohol administration in the disinhibition of racial prejudice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 17, 1066-1071.
In this study 82 White male undergraduate social drinkers, 21-48 years of age, with high and low scores on the Modern Racism Scale, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 balanced placebo design conditions. After drinks, Ss viewed a videotape interaction between a Black and a White confederate and rated the confederates' behaviors, including an ambiguous shove of the White confederate by the Black confederate. A mood measure was also administered. Significant main effects of the racism group and alcohol dosing were found for seriousness of aggression ratings, with high racism Ss and those expecting alcohol reporting more serious aggression. A significant racism group by dosing condition interaction was found for the tension/anxiety mood scale, with greater tension being reported by high racism Ss who received alcohol.
Rich, H.L. (1977). Behavior disorders and school: A case of sexism and racial bias. Behavioral Disorders, 2, 201-204.
The study explores the reasons for inappropriately labeling school children as behaviorally disordered. Research suggests that an inordinate percentage of the "behaviorally disordered" are males, are minority group members, and exhibit behaviors interfering with class control. Other studies show that behavior disorder referrals may reflect a teacher's annoyance threshold rather than the presence of more severely maladaptive behaviors, such as withdrawal or fearfulness. Society and its institutions contribute to maintenance of a faulty categorization system by mechanisms such as excess cost provisions for certain categories of students. The problem will be solved when educators evaluate behavior of children from an individual perspective and not merely in terms of keeping a classroom quiet.
Richardson, T.Q. & Helms, J.E. (1994). The relationship of the racial identity attitudes of Black men to perceptions of "parallel" counseling dyads. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73(2), 172-177.
This study used a vicarious participation counseling analog to examine the effects of the racial identity attitudes (RIAs) of Black male surrogate clients on their perceptions of the parallel counseling dyad. Fifty-two Black, male undergraduates (aged 18-26 yrs) put themselves in the place of a Black client while listening to tapes of two simulated counseling sessions with a White counselor in which racial issues were discussed. Ss completed the short form of the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale, the Counselor Rating Form--Short Version, the voice quality questionnaire. Emotional but not cognitive reactions to the counselor were predicted by RIAs. Ss' RIAs, rather than session content or perceptions of the counselors' race, were significantly related to their emotional reactions to the analog counselor.
Roberts, A.E. (1988). Racism sent and received: Americans and Vietnamese view one another. In C.B. Marrett and C. Leggon (Eds.), Research in race and ethnic relations: A research annual, Vol. 5. (pp. 75-97). Greenwich: JAI Press.
The study reviewed in this chapter had three objectives: (1) to identify the correlates of "racism sent," defined as majority group attitudes toward refugees; (2) to determine the variables associated with "racism received," defined as refugee perceptions of majority group attitudes; and (3) to examine the connection between majority group attitudes and refugee perceptions of those attitudes.
Rosenbaum, S.E. (Eds.). (1992). Bigotry, prejudice and hatred: Definitions, causes and solutions. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
The essays in this book are orgainized in five sections.Part I proposes accounts of the nature of bigotry and prejudice. The material in Part Two will be of special interest to university students. These essays probe, in various lively ways, actual tensions in the lives of university students, tensions involving conflict between the more conventional account of prejudice and bigotry offered by Kaplan and the more "revisionist" account offered by Rothenberg. The selections in Part Three express prominent current explanations for the persistence in our lives of prejudice and bigotry. The essays in Part Four are efforts to evince the unreason and immorality of some phenomena of bigotry and prejudice. The essays of Part Five are suggestions about how we might overcome our bigotry and prejudice and work toward a solution of the social problems that arise from them.
Roys, P. (1984). Ethnic minorities and the child welfare system. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 30, 102-118.
The author contends that there is tension and difficulty between the child welfare system in the UK and the ethnic minority population that results in more ethnic minority children being separated from their parents. The child welfare system deals with preventative services, child abuse, and foster home placement. The long-term interests of the child are placed over the wishes of the parents. It is suggested that the system is preoccupied with substitute family finding and that other aspects are neglected. Natural parents can be excluded once children have gone into foster care, resulting in emotional adjustment and identity problems. The majority of the system's clients are from the low SES group; data are not available on the extent to which members of ethnic minorities are in contact with the system. Nevertheless, those ethnic minority families that have had contact report problems with racial attitudes, cultural difficulties, language problems, and misunderstandings. Studies of the Black child in foster care reveal that there are insufficent numbers of Black substitute families to suit the need and effective White substitute families must provide a positive racial identity. It is concluded that a change in the society toward ethnic minorities is needed.
Samuda, R.J., Kong, S.L., Cummins, J., Pascual-Leone J., Lewis, J. (1991). Assessment and placement of minority students. Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
The authors of this book have endeavored to accomplish a balanced overview of the issues and problems associated with the appraisal of ethnic, cultural and linguistic minorities in a culturally diverse society. The issues of group and individual differences as well as the consequences of institutionalized racism still dominant in the system of assessment and curriculum programs are discussed. Research was used to pinpoint the need for change in teacher education and in the application of psychometrics.
Scarr, S. (1993). Biological and cultural diversity: The legacy of Darwin for development. Child Development, 64, 1333-1353.
The author responds to the commentaries of D. Baumrind (see PA, Vol 81:9288) and J. F. Jackson (see PA, Vol 81:8953) on the original article by S. Scarr (see PA, Vol 79:19270) concerning genotype environment effects. An elaboration of the original theory is presented. It is concluded that acknowledging diversity does not signal tolerance of race, gender, or any other kind of discrimination.
Schuman, H., Steeh, C. & Bobo, L. (1985). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Survey research organizations began asking Americans about their attitudes toward racial issues in the 1940s, through surveys. In this book we trace the changes in such attitudes over the past four decades, indicated by national survey data, discuss interpretations of these changes that have been offered by various analysts and present our own conclusions. Although some of the trends that are described have been reported elsewhere, this is the first attempt to draw on all available trend data for both Whites and Blacks. The authors combine findings from the three major survey organizations that have collected such data over time: Gallup, the National Opinion Research Center (NORC), and the Institute for Social Research (ISR). This breadth makes possible comparisons that turn out to be illuminating. This book reports on several original experiments in supplementary surveys that throw light on issues raised by the main sources of data.
Schutte, G. (1995). What racists believe: Race relations in South Africa and the United States. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
In this book, the author examines a wide spectrum of evidence that shows how the in-group consciousness of whites is reproduced and reveals the processes under which it is maintained. He explains how and why people believe in racial inequality and how they transmit such beliefs to others. The ideology of white solidarity, its perpetuation, and its breakdown is also analyzed. The author separates different strands of racism: rural from urban, and moderate from militant. A final chapter compares the racial attitudes of South Africa to those in the U.S.
Sears, D.O. & Kinder, D.R. (1985). Whites' opposition to busing: On conceptualizing and operationalizing group conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1148-1161.
L. Bobo (see PA, Vol 71:14820) concluded that Whites' opposition to racial busing is rooted in their perception that Blacks pose tangible threats to their own interests, a conclusion that supports realistic group conflict theory and contradicts the present authors' (see PA, Vol 66:12636) conclusion that threats posed by Blacks to Whites' private lives did not spill over into opposition to racial busing. It is shown that Bobo reported results entirely consistent with those of the present authors and that he failed to distinguish group interest from self-interest, symbolic racism, or other plausible causes of opposition to busing.
Segura, D.A. (1992). Chicanas in white-collar jobs: "You have to prove yourself more." Sociological Perspectives, 35, 163-182.
The author examined how both gender and race/ethnicity are reinforced and affirmed among Chicana, white-collar workers, in a major public university. One hundred fifty-two women were surveyed and follow-up interviews were conducted with an additional 35 women. The tasks performed in the workplace, sex-and-race/ethnic discrimination and harassment, and the female-associated tasks Chicanas continued to do at home, all intensified their accomplishment of gender and reinforced their occupational segregation by gender and gender-race/ethnicity. Moreover, Chicanas' attachment to family was linked ideologically to the survival of the Chicano culture, rendering their accomplishment of gender an overt act of racial/ethnic and cultural politics.
Semons, M. (1991). Ethnicity in the urban high school: A naturalistic study of student experiences. Urban Review, 23, 137-158.
The author examined the salience of ethnicity at an urban high school from the students' perspective. Data were derived from extensive observations of students by a participant-observer whose fieldwork extended over the course of one academic year and included interviews of about 50 students. The relevancy of ethnicity tended to be variable, depending on the social situation and the individual's interpretation of the event. The judgment resulting from this interpretation was linked to structural factors in the society. For the students at this multiethnic school, the articulation of ethnicity stemmed from issues of ritual, conflict, interest, and values. The denial of one's ethnic identity centered around prejudice and internalized oppression. Reactions to the racism included denial, intimidation, and defensiveness.
Serwatka, T.S., Deering, S. & Grant, P. (1995). Disproportionate representation of African Americans in emotionally handicapped classes. Journal of Black Studies, 25, 492-506.
The authors examined the relationships between the disproportionate representation of African-American students in emotionally handicapped (EH) programs and each of 15 variables. Data show that as the percentage of the African-American population increased there was a decrease in the overrepresentation of African-Americans in EH classes. One possible cause may be the effects of saturation. Data indicate that there is a decrease in the overrepresentation of African-American students in EH classes when there is an increase in African-American teachers. Findings may result from a bias in the referral process. Data indicate the importance of having African-American teachers in general education classrooms.
Sheth, M. (1995). Asian Indian Americans. In Min, P.G. (Ed.), Asian Americans: Contemporary trends and issues. Vol. 174. (pp. 169-198). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
This chapter focuses on Indian Americans, a new Asian ethnic group that emerged in the post-1965 era. It discusses the racism, discriminatory measures, prejudice, and anti-Indian violence that earlier and contemporary Indian immigrants encountered in the U.S.. It provides a historical analysis of Indian political movements to protect their civil rights and interests while pointing out that Indian immigrants identify themselves with particular regional-linguistic subgroups, not with the Indian national origin group. The chapter indicates that religious places and organizations, Indian and ethnic newspapers, TV, videotapes and visits to their homeland all facilitate Indians' ethnic identity.
Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., Martin, M. & Stallworth, L.M. (1991). Consensual racism and career track: Some implications of social dominance theory. Political Psychology, 12, 691-721.
The authors test implications of the social dominance theory by examining the relationship between consensual racial attitudes and career choice among 5,655 undergraduate and graduate students. Questionnaire responses show the following: (1) Ss preparing for careers in the power professions (i.e., business and law) generally had higher levels of consensual racism than did Ss in other areas, (2) the level of consensual racism of Ss preparing for power careers showed the smallest decrease as a function of exposure to university education, and (3) use of structural equation analysis disclosed that consensual racial attitudes made significant contributions to choice of academic track even after considering the effects of political ideology. The implications for college as a liberalizing experience and for efforts to reduce discrimination by hegemonic institutions are discussed.
Sidanius, J. & Pratto, F. (1993). Racism and support of free-market capitalism: A cross-cultural analysis. Political Psychology, 14, 381-401.
The authors examined the interrelationship between people's support of market capitalism and their levels of racial and ethnic prejudice, using 225 White and 154 Asian undergraduates from one university in the US and 478 2nd-year gymnasia students from Sweden. Statistically significant and positive correlations were found between these variables within both samples. This relationship was analyzed within the framework of three alternative models of social attitudes: general conservatism theory, the gender-gap hypothesis, and social dominance theory. Although there was partial support for the general conservatism model, the data were found to be least consistent with the gender-gap hypothesis and most consistent with social dominance theory.
Sigel, R.S. & Hoskin, M. (Eds.), (1991). Education for democratic citizenship: A challenge for multi-ethnic societies. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
It is becoming increasingly clear that hosts and newcomers alike have to learn what it means to live democratically in a multi-ethnic world and, to accept diversity without fear or rancor. This book will illustrate how six post-industrial nations (Canada, The Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, The Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States) have met, or failed to meet, this challenge. The book examines what they have done, or need to do, in the near future, in order to promote the practice of democratic living and citizenship for the people in their midst--newcomers and hosts alike. Each of the six countries is experiencing a large influx of new populations, some permanent immigrants, others guest workers, refugees, or nationals of former colonial holdings.
Smith, C.H. (1974). Institutional racism: A major urban educational problem. Religious Education, 69, 713-727.
This study cites selected demographic data and conclusions of commission reports and other documents that indicate continuing racial inequities in the U.S. in education, juvenile delinquency, and health. Despite some progress in social justice, institutions that were designed to meet consumer needs continue to resist, and by their structures and functions discriminate against, powerless and oppressed minorities. The Christian church is challenged to attack institutional racism and the myth that past progress toward minority justice is satisfactory.
Sniderman, P.M. & Piazza, T. (1993). The scar of race. Cambridge: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.
Race remains a problem of the heart, but the politics of race has become more complex, more divisive, morally more problematic. What we mean to do, therefore, is to probe how Americans now come to grips with the issues of race. How far is the political thinking of ordinary Americans still driven by prejudice? Is there a new racism more subtle and covert than the old? To what extent is the clash over race still a conflict over whether Blacks should be treated as equal to Whites? To what extent is it a split over public policies advanced to achieve racial equality? Is racism reinforced by traditional American values such as self-reliance, hard work, individual initiative? What do White Americans think about Blacks, and how do these opinions influence their willingness to support social programs that assist Blacks? And despite whatever White Americans may say they think about Blacks, to what extent are they now willing to treat them as equals, to what extent do they continue to practice racial double standards, one for Whites, another--meaner and more censorious--for Blacks?
Sorensen, J.R. & Wallace, D.H. (1995). Capital punishment in Missouri: Examining the issue of racial disparity. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 13, 61-80.
The authors examined the issue of racial disparity in Missouri's capital punishment process (1977-1991) using data from Supplemental Homicide Reports and trial judge reports. The findings from three decision points (charging/conviction, penalty trial, and sentencing), suggest racial bias against the killers of Whites, particularly if the offender is Black, and a concomitant devaluation of Black victims. The strongest effects are in the prosecutors' decisions to charge offenders with capital murder and to proceed to penalty trial in convicted cases. The effects of race are strongest in the least aggravated cases, as prosecutors and jurors are freed from the seriousness of the cases to consider other factors. Disparities occurring earlier in the process are not rectified during sentencing, as racial disparities are magnified at sentencing in the least aggravated categories.
Spaights, E. & Dixon, H.E. (1984). Socio-psychological dynamics in pathological Black-White romantic alliances. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 11, 132-138.
Many of the problems associated with Black-White romantic alliances are rooted in sexual stereotypes that grew out of slavery and Black oppression, primarily in the South. Although there are many psychologically healthy relationships between Whites and Blacks, there are many pathological alliances as well. It is this racially based pathology that allows partners in an interracial romance to view each other as sexual objects. The specific pathological dynamics in each alliance depend on various combinations of race and sex as well as each partner's socio-psychological make-up. The different types of reactions faced by interracial couples are described, and the stresses imposed on such couples by racism are examined.
Spaights, E. (1991). Racial prejudice toward Blacks among White churchgoers. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 28, 1-10.
The author investigated the findings of G. E. Dittes (1973) and found that there is a tendency for racism to be more pronounced in those churchgoing individuals who rely on good deed, service work, and correct behavior as the saving graces. Four pairs of statements concerning attitudes surrounding the social involvement of people of other races with Whites were presented to a group of White, Christian churchgoers. Results show that both male and female respondents demonstrated less racial prejudice within themselves than they perceived existed throughout the rest of the members of the congregation. More Ss responded to questions about non-intimate interactions between Blacks and Whites than to questions pertaining to more intimate relations.
St. Pierre, M. (1991). Accession and retention of minorities: Implications for the future. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 469-489.
Using data from the U.S. Department of Defense, the accession and retention patterns of minorities and women over the past 20 years were analyzed in terms of their reward and punishment experiences. In this context, issues that affect non-White minorities (e.g., symbolic racism) and problems that concern women (e.g., child care, combat exclusion) were examined from the perspective of majority-minority relations. There is a perception that the question of color may provide Asians and Hispanics with greater opportunities than Blacks. Black females had the highest retention rate and White females had the lowest retention rate when Native American and Pacific Islanders were excluded.
Stanfield, J.H. (1985). Theoretical and ideological barriers to the study of race-making. Research in Race and Ethnic Relations, 4, 161-181.
The author considers barriers in the U.S. to the study of race-making, which is defined as a mode of stratification and nation-state building that ascribes moral, social, symbolic, and intellectual characteristics to a particular race and justifies the societal dominance of that race by another one. Barriers to the study of race-making in the U.S. include the persistence of laissez-faire ideologies about race, the survival of both cycle and structural-functional conceptions in the study of race, the preoccupation of political economists with the matter of class, and oversimplified models of race relations advanced by internal colonialism and dual labor market theorists. All these factors have limited current knowledge of race-making, by which the U.S. has remained a plural society ruled by European-descent interest groups. The present author outlines the dimensions of a new theory on the process of race-making in mature industrial societies. This theory takes into account the bureaucratization of racism and the importance of the relationship between race-making and demographic variables (e.g., gender, religious affiliation, political affiliation).
Starr, P.D. & Roberts, A.E. (1982). Attitudes toward new Americans: Perceptions of Indo-Chinese in nine cities. Research in Race and Ethnic Relations, 3, 165-186.
The authors discuss some of the sociological and historical factors that have influenced American attitudes and official policy toward Asian immigrants in the past and that continue to influence current opinion. Contemporary attitudes toward Indo-Chinese (IC) expressed by local residents in nine cities in California, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida were examined. Seven-hundred and forty five questionnaires were returned by respondents. The authors describe how the respondents' points of view were influenced by different background characteristics and their experiences with IC people. The results show less overt racism than has been found in previous studies, but great receptivity to the IC people was not found in the present study. Only a small proportion of the respondents regarded the IC people as undesirable, but many thought that they affected the community negatively. Persons of higher education or with jobs of higher status tended to be more positive in their views of the IC people, while political conservatives expressed more negative attitudes.
Steeh, C. & Schuman, H. (1993). "Young White adults: Did racial attitudes change in the 1980s?": Erratum. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 994-995.
The authors report an error in the original article by C. Steeh and S. Howard (American Journal of Sociology, 1992 (Sep), Vol 98(2), 340-367). On page 354, Table 2 is labeled as Table 3. The body and notes of the table are correct as presented. The correct version of Table 2 is printed in its entirety. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in PA, Vol 80:9404.) The article examined the hypothesis that racism among young White adults has increased in the 1980s, using 12 racial policy questions from the General Social Surveys and the National Election Studies. Under the assumption that age effects can be treated as negligible, the article evaluates the importance of period and cohort effects in shaping the present racial attitudes of adults who have come of age since 1959. It is concluded that there is no indication of decreasing tolerance among cohorts coming of age in the 1980s. Similarly, the period effects are seldom significant over the years from 1984-1990, and thus show no consistent decline in racial liberalism.
Stern. E. (1987). The race script of the counsellor: Concepts from Transactional Analysis. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 10, 35-43.
The author uses the terms script and ego states to describe possible hidden racism of White counselors in the Netherlands at the individual and institutional levels. Methods of denial and the basis for resistance to change are discussed, followed by suggestions for treatment approaches, including the transactional analytic methods of decontamination and redecision. An ego states model is used to explain the discordant reactions of individuals to information contradicting their own prejudices and fears.
Stevenson, H.G. (1994). Validation of the Scale of Racial Socialization for African American adolescents: Steps toward multidimensionality. Journal of Black Psychology, 20, 445-468.
The author reports the development and validation of the Scale of Racial Socialization for Adolescents (SORS-A). A principal components analysis was conducted following administration of the SORS-A and measures of demographics, family communication about racism, and perception of skin color to 200 African-American urban teenagers (mean age 14.6 years). Four factors were found to be very meaningful and moderately reliable: spiritual and religious coping, extended family caring, cultural pride reinforcement, and racism awareness teaching. A second-order factor analysis was conducted to identify underlying themes. Themes of protective and proactive racial socialization were found to be supportive of a theoretical framework for racial socialization that is multidimensional and inclusive of both socially oppressive and culturally empowering experiences.
Stones, C.R. (1994). A social psychological and socio-historical perspective on change in South Africa. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 845-856.
This study uses aspects of the sociohistorical emergence of apartheid, in particular Afrikaner nationalism, as a background to examine the process of sociopolitical change from the perspective of social psychology. It is argued that authoritarian thinking led to racial segregation and statutorily-enforced ethnic domination. Paradoxically, such thinking might now serve to facilitate intergroup cooperation on the part of White Afrikaners if the current leadership is perceived to be politically legitimate. It is suggested that attempts to negotiate a peaceful transition are unlikely to succeed without deliberate social mediation leading to attitude change and reeducation. It is suggested that postapartheid social dynamics will be dominated for some time by the coalitions, divisions, and psychological world-views dominant in South African history from the earliest frontier and settler days.
Streicker, J. (1995). Policing boundaries: Race, class, and gender in Cartagena, Colombia. American Ethnologist, 22, 54-74.
The author examines the connections among class, race, and gender in the everyday discourse of santaneros, popular class residents of a Colombian neighborhood. It is argued that it is in the process of forging their class identity that santaneros discriminate racially. They use racial concepts as a language for talking about class and gender, and this representation supports the authority of older men within the popular class. Seventy-eight formal interviews were conducted with 17 men, and 30 interviews were conducted with 20 women. The language terms used by Ss to describe races and classes are cited. It is concluded that the particular configuration of class, gender, and race supports ways of being that tend to legitimate older men's authority, as well as men in general.
Swim, J.K., Aikin, K.J., Hall, W.S. & Hunter, B.A. (1995) Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 199-214.
Prejudice and discrimination against women has become increasingly subtle and covert (N. V. Benokraitis & J. R. Feagin, 1986). Unlike research on racism, little research about prejudice and discrimination against women has explicitly examined beliefs underlying this more modern form of sexism. Support was found for a distinction between old-fashioned and modern beliefs about women similar to results that have been presented for racism (J. B. McConahay, 1986; D. O. Sears, 1988). The former is characterized by endorsement of traditional gender roles, differential treatment of women and men, and stereotypes about lesser female competence. Like modern racism, modern sexism is characterized by the denial of continued discrimination, antagonism toward women's demands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women (for example, in education and work). Research that compares factor structures of old-fashioned and modern sexism and racism and that validates our modern sexism scale is presented.
Tan, D.L. (1994). Uniqueness of the Asian-American experience in higher education. College Student Journal, 28, 412-421.
The author examined factors related to Asian American students' participation in higher education, their academic performance, and their experiences as college students when compared with students from other ethnic minorities. Seventy-eight Asian American and 66 African American undergraduates were surveyed about their attitudes and opinions. Factors influencing participation in higher education and academic performance, including satisfying family expectations and fulfilling personal goals, were similar for both groups. However, Asian American Ss had higher rates of academic participation and higher GPAs than did African American Ss. Both groups faced many incidents of racism and prejudice, primarily from fellow students, and both groups expressed lack of success in coping with these incidents. Many Asian American Ss felt that the stereotype that they were more quantitative-oriented was more of a hindrance than an encouragement to their productivity.
Tatum, B.D. (1992). Talking about race, learning about racism: The application of racial identity development theory in the classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 62, 1-24.
The inclusion of race-related content in college courses often generates emotional responses in students, which ranges from guilt and shame to anger and despair. The discomfort associated with these emotions can lead students to resist the learning process. Based on the author= s experience teaching a course on the psychology of racism and an application of racial identity development theory, she identifies three major sources of student resistance to talking about race and learning about racism (race as a taboo topic, the myth of the meritocracy, and denial of personal prejudice), as well as strategies for overcoming this resistance.
Taylor, J. (1991). Dimensionalizations of racialism. In R.L. Jones (Ed.), Black psychology (3rd ed.), (pp. 637-651). Berkeley: Cobb & Henry Publishers.
Emphasizing that racialism (a term Taylor uses to refer to racially-based prejudice), is a completely organized process, Taylor offers a conceptual taxonomy that generates a number of types of racialism. When all combinations of content, incident, and sociogenic variables are considered, 144 varieties of racialism are identified. He suggests that specific typing promises "important information regarding differential vulnerability to change, direction and expected extent of change, and strategy for "change". A variety of empirical studies supporting Taylor's conceptualization are reported--with the promise of more to come.
Taylor, M.C. (1993). Expectancies and the perpetuation of racial inequity. In P.D. Blanck (Ed.), Interpersonal expectations: Theory, research, and applications. Studies in emotion and social interaction (pp. 88-124). New York: Cambridge University Press.
This chapter examines the role of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutionalized expectations on attitudes toward topics of racial inequality. Two sets of topics are examined: a) Racial inequity in education (i.e., White opposition to busing, long-term effects of segregated schooling on Blacks, White teachers' treatment of Black students), and b) Racial inequity in employment (i.e., interaction of Black employees with White supervisors and co-workers, White reactions to race-targeted interventions, and c) psycholoical effects of affirmative action on its Black beneficiairies).
Telles, E.E. (1994). Industrialization and racial inequality in employment: The Brazilian example. American Sociological Review, 59, 46-63.
The author examined how racial inequality in occupations varied with levels of industrialization (IND) across 74 Brazilian metropolitan areas in 1980. Racial occupational inequality between the White and the occupationally subordinate non-White populations (Blacks and Browns) was analyzed using data from the 1980 Census of Brazil. Industrialized areas had lower occupational inequality overall, especially in blue-collar occupations, than at higher occupational levels where racial inequality was either greater or was unaffected by IND. The results persisted despite controls for the percentage of non-Whites in the population and for educational inequality. Results also support the view that race loses salience to class as industrial development increases, but only for blue-collar occupations; inequality at the white-collar level was unaffected or even increased with IND. Increased educational opportunity had effects on inequality similar to those of IND.
Thomas, G. E. (Ed.), (1995). Race and ethnicity in America: Meeting the challenge in the 21st century. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
Employing a structural and holistic framework, this volume highlights critical issues in education, health, and employment for the four major U.S. racial and ethnic minorities--African, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans--and the challenges they pose to an increasingly racially and culturally diverse society in the twenty-first century. A second major objective is to describe the implications of minority group status regarding education, health, employment for U.S. race relations and for the general health, well-being, and productivity of Americans in the coming century. The essential roles of social class and gender are acknowledged. This book is intended for educators, researchers, sociologists, and students of racial and ethnic diversity and stratification, U.S. race relations, as well as practitioners and policymakers.
Thomas, M.E., Herring, C., Horton, H.D. (1994). Discrimination over the life course: A synthetic cohort analysis of earnings differences between Black and White males, 1940-1990. Social Problems, 41, 608-628.
The authors examines three explanations of the disparity in Black-White male earnings over the life course, using data from the 1940-1980 United States Microdata Extract File and the Current Population Survey's 1990 Annual Demographic File. The legacy of discrimination explanation suggests that current racial disparities in earnings reflect past discrimination against older Blacks and that the earnings of younger Black and White males should be similar over the life course. The cumulative effects of discrimination explanation suggests that the earnings gap increases over the life course and that this divergence exists for younger as well as older cohorts. The vintage hypothesis argues that the net earnings gap reflects differences in self-investments in human capital which should be constant over time and over the life course for all male workers. The findings most closely conform to the predictions of the cumulative effects of discrimination explanation.
Thompson, C.E., Neville, H., Weathers, P.L., Poston, W.C. & Atkinson, D.R. (1990). Cultural mistrust and racism reaction among African-American students. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 162-168.
The authors examined how much 87 African-American (AFA) and 70 Euro-American (EUA) college students agreed with a list of racism reaction statements (the preliminary Racism Reaction Scale (RRS)). Compared with EUA Ss, AFA Ss seemed to think that they were being singled out for differential and inferior treatment. This feeling was strongest among AFA Ss who were distrustful of EUAs in general. The implications of this finding for counseling, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed. Low reliability coefficients limit the usefulness of the RRS as both a research instrument and a tool for working with individual students. However, as a culture-specific variable related to within-group differences, racism reaction should be further explored.
Thomspon, B. (1994). Food, bodies, and growing up female: Childhood lessons about culture, race, and class. In P. Fallon, M.A. Katzman and S.C. Wooley (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on eating disorders (pp. 355-378). New York: Guilford Press.
This book focuses on socialization processes among African-American, Latina, and white women who have eating problems. It examines the messages they receive about eating, bodies, and appetites, reveals race- and class-specific assertions about female socialization embedded in the feminist analysis, and the negative consequences that ensue when gender inequality is privileged over other systems of oppression. This book offers a multiracial focus which illuminates crucial clues about how eating problems may begin as ways in which women cope not only with sexism, but also with racism, classism, sexual abuse, heterosexism, and poverty. This theoretical shift also permits an understanding of the economic, political, social, educational, and cultural resources women need in order to change their relationship to food and their bodies. The author conducted 18 life history interviews and administered detailed questionnaires to women who ranged from the age of 19 to 46 years.
Trepagnier, B. (1994). The politics of White and Black bodies. Feminism and Psychology, 4, 199-205.
The author suggests that the complicity of White women in terms of their body-identified identities, unconscious or otherwise, results in real effects, both material and psychological, upon the lives of Black women. It is suggested that these effects should not only be considered by White women as they "acquiesce" in the formation of their identities, but evaluated by theorists writing about female bodies. Presently, authors seemingly confine their discussion to White bodies and, as a result, their theories, while significant, are limited in scope. The unspoken Whiteness of the "beauty myth" excludes, and therefore disadvantages, Black women in general. The author points out that, just as men's rewards are often achieved at the expense of women, so too White women's rewards sometimes penalize Black women. It is suggested that White women acknowledge their privilege in terms of the beauty standard in Western cultures.
Van den Berghe, P.L. (1992). The biology of nepotism. In Baird, R.M. & Rosenbaum, S.E. (Eds.), Bigotry, prejudice and hatred: Definitions, causes & solutions. Contemporary issues. (pp. 125-138). Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
The author's argument is that ethnic and racial sentiments, which are extensions of kinship sentiments. Ethnocentrism and racism are thus extended forms of nepotism--the propensity to favor kin over nonkin. He feels that there exists a general behavioral predisposition, in our species, to react favorably toward other organisms to the extent that these organisms are biologically related to the actor. The closer the relationship is, the stronger the preferential behavior.
Vera, H. & Feagin, J.R. (1995). African Americans' inflicted anomie. In G.E. Thomas (Ed.), Race and ethnicity in America: Meeting the challenge in the 21st century (pp. 155-172). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
This chapter applies the concept of "inflicted anomie" to describe the experiences with discrimination that a sample of 210 middle-class Blacks (18 years old and older) reported in-depth interviews. The authors propose that discrimination is best understood in terms of the meaning it has for its victims. They described and categorized the meanings of discrimination for their sample.
Verkuyten, M. & Masson, K. (1995). "New racism," self-esteem, and ethnic relations among minority and majority youth in the Netherlands. Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 137-154.
The authors studied "the new racism" (M. Barker, 1981) and its correlates among 372 Dutch and 158 Turkish youths (aged 12-17 years) in Rotterdam. Results from a multi-scale questionnaire show that majority Dutch youth are more prejudiced than minority Turkish youth. Among the majority youth, prejudice correlated positively with personal self-esteem as well as with self-esteem as an ethnic group member, whereas among the minority youth a negative association was found. Among the majority youth, positive ingroup evaluation in combination with prejudice was found, whereas among the minority youth a more positive ingroup evaluation was associated with less prejudice. Among the majority youth, prejudice was very strongly correlated with a measure of social distance, with rate of voluntary inter-ethnic contacts, and with the level of outgroup formation; these associations were much weaker among the minority youth.
Viano, E.C. (1992). The news media and crime victims: The right to know versus the right to privacy. In E.C. Viano (Ed.), Critical issues in victimology: International perspectives (pp. 24-34). New York: Springer Publishing.
This chapter reviews, analyzes, and evaluates the portrayal and treatment of crime victims in the American print and electronic media within the framework of the constitutional, legal, and ethical tensions created by the media's right to know versus the victim's right to privacy. The chapter discusses the major variables affecting media performance against the background of the social, cultural, and political forces influencing it. It is expected to generate a dialogue on media performance, lead to a better understanding of the dynamics and tensions existing between the media's and the victims' interests, and contribute to the development and strengthening of policy and of a code of ethics.
Von-Hippel, W. (1994). A social psychological perspective. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 397-399.
The author comments on a case vignette concerning racism and political correctness (see PA, Vol 82:31437). The author focuses on whether the student's slur was racist, based on a social psychological framework. The key issue in determining whether the slur was racist or whether it was based on a stereotype concerning African Americans.
Waller, J. (1993). Correlation of need for cognition and modern racism. Psychological Reports, 73, 542.
Survey results from 59 college students indicate that Ss low in need for cognition evidenced higher racial prejudice than did Ss high in need for cognition.
Ward, D. (1985). Generations and the expression of symbolic racism. Political Psychology, 6, 1-18.
This study attempted to illustrate how parental attitudes influence the underlying affective orientation toward racial minorities, while social and political factors influence cognitive judgments on racial issues. Data were collected from interviews with the 30 adult children (aged 18-42 years) of the 15 men first interviewed by R. E. Lane (1962). These offspring primarily came from working-class backgrounds, and half graduated from high school while half received at least two years of college education. Ss with fathers who opposed miscegenation tended to oppose quotas, affirmative action, and busing. The present author argues that the familial atmosphere produced a reservoir of racism beneath the surface of the otherwise tolerant beliefs. The fathers' opposition to miscegenation may have established in their children a negative affective evaluation of Blacks, which remained even after schools, peers, the media and other socializing agents fundamentally transformed the cognitive constructions through which opinions about race relations were expressed. Issues laden with racial symbolism would then activate the negative affect, producing opposition to policies designed to achieve equality between races.
Waters, H. (1994). Decision making and race. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18, 449-467.
The author proposes a decision-making model that attempts to mirror the cognitive processes that minority employees utilize to conclude that an event/incident is racist. To help managers understand the role of race in the cognitive process, the model delineates those factors hypothesized to influence the minority individual's cognitive processes and the potential problems that can result. These include racialism, hidden rules, perceived similarity and positive relationship between superior and subordinate, adequacy of explanation for the event/incident, and organizational recourse mechanisms. Each factor is discussed in detail.
Weigel, R.H. & Howes, P.W. (1985). Conceptions of racial prejudice: Symbolic racism reconsidered. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 117-138.
The authors examined the concept of symbolic racism by measuring continuity and change in racial prejudice in 92 White voters (mean age 42 years) (Study 1), and ideology, personality, and generalized prejudice in 110 White residents (mean age 42 years) of a rural New England town (Study 2). Data were collected through use of interviews. The results show that (a) the conceptual and empirical distinctions between symbolic racism and "old-fashioned" prejudice have been exaggerated, and (b) symbolic racism may be best understood as a symptom of generalized tendencies to derogate out-groups--tendencies associated with a configuration of personal attributes that reflect commitments to conservative sociopolitical values and conventional standards of conduct. Findings are discussed in reference to the persistence of racial prejudice and their implications regarding exposure to and the effects of interracial contact.
Weis, L. & Fine, M. (Eds.). (1993). Beyond silenced voices: Class, race, and gender in United States schools. Albany: State University of New York Press.
This book addresses race, class, and gender in education, in the United States. It debates the issues of institutionalized power and privilege, policies, discourses, and practices that silence powerless groups. At the center of the silence are the most critical and powerful voices of all--children and adolescents with their relentless desire to be heard and to survive. Weis and Fine go beyond examining policies, discourse, and practices to call up the voices of young people who have been expelled from their schools and our culture to speak as interpreters of adolescent culture among them and lesbian and gay students who have been assaulted in their schools, adolescent women, young men and women struggling for identities amid the radically transforming conditions of late twentieth-century capitalism, and Native American college students who are wholly excluded from the academic conversation.
Wetherell, M. & Potter, J. (1992). Mapping the language of racism: Discourse and the legitimation of exploitation. Chichester, England: Columbia University Press.
In this book, Margaret Wetherell and Jonathan Potter extend their work on the use of discourse analysis to tackle racism and issues of social structure, power relations, and ideology. Part I takes up the theoretical and methodological questions posed by discourse analyses of racism, and looks at the ways in which some recent developments in literary theory, post-structuralism, semiotics and cultural studies might be applied to the social psychological study of racist practices. Part II tries to exemplify these conclusions through case-study of racist discourse in New Zealand.
Wilson, T.L. & Banks, B. (1994). A perspective on the education of African American males. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 21, 97-100.
This study addresses disparities in education between African American (AA) males and their European American counterparts. AA males are disproportionately labeled as underachievers in reading and mathematics and disproportionately placed in special education classes. Much of the chronic school failure of AA males can be understood as reflecting problems of motivation, but curriculum component selections and presentations often fail to meet the needs of AA students. An appropriate social psychological theory of the educational process must be developed if an understanding of learning styles of AAs is to be advanced. This theory must identify the social, historical, and cultural forces that affect the development of learning styles prevalent in the AA community and must describe the psychological characteristics of AAs in the context of the environmental forces that create and maintain them.
Winn, N.N. & Priest, R. (1993). Counseling biracial children: A forgotten component of multicultural counseling. Family Therapy, 20, 29-36.
The authors studied the developmental processes and attitudes of 34 children (aged 8-20 years) from 15 biracial families. Results from semi-structured interviews indicate that the children consistently felt torn between selecting one parent's racial identification over the other's. Eighty-two percent felt obligated to assume a monocultural racial designation. Some had feelings of being a traitor to the parent with whom they did not racially identify. Thirty-two percent desired to establish family rituals/celebrations that recognized the uniqueness of their family. Ss consistently believed that their parents had not sufficiently prepared them for the realities of prejudice and racism.
Wolfenstein, E.V. (1989). The victims of democracy: Malcolm X and the black revolution. London: Free Association Books.
This unique psychobiographical study integrates a wide and subtle view of the history of White racism and the Black liberation movement, on the one hand, with a deep and sensitive understanding of the inner world of Malcolm X, on the other. The author is both a critical social theorist and a practicing psychoanalyst. Using "The Autobiography of Malcolm X," Malcolm's published speeches, and a variety of historical materials, he interweaves Marxist and psychoanalytic concepts to examine Malcolm's evolving consciousness--from his youth through his successive incarnations as hustler, prisoner, black Muslim minister, and African American revolutionary. In so doing, he explores the complex interplay of political, economic and psychological factors that shaped Malcolm's life history and the social history of the Black liberation movement.
Wood, J. (1994). Is "symbolic racism" racism? A review informed by intergroup behavior. Political Psychology, 15, 673-686.
The author reviews the theory of symbolic racism based on the written works of D. O. Sears (e.g., 1988), D. R. Kinder (e.g., see PA, Vol 74:15312), and the theory's critics, P. M. Sniderman et al (e.g., 1991). A review of the theory and controversy reveals that the Sniderman et al refutation does not address the form of the theory advanced by Sears and Kinder. The review highlights the symbolic racism construct (defined as the conjunction of traditional values and a racist negative affect toward Blacks) and indicates the need to study the relationship between the values and the affect. Research on intergroup behavior suggests that the values are likely to be fused with motives for in-group favoring but that Whites' solidarity with other Whites is possibly more motivationally significant than their negative affect toward Blacks. A racist negative affect may be learned and motivationally significant.
Yamatani, H. (1995). Suggested assessment procedure for gender and racial discrimination: An incorporation of ethical perspectives. Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 19, 11-15.
The author discusses ethical and moral perspectives relevant to the assessment of gender and race-related discrimination. This discussion focuses on a critical parallelism between ethical and moral perspectives on discrimination, and statistical examination procedures for assessment of gender and race-related salary inequities. It is argued that gender and race-related discrimination can be analyzed in reference to three major ethical perspectives: utilitarian, justice, and rights. A seven-step methodological procedure is suggested for identifying discriminatory behavior that parallels these ethical perspectives. The most important benefit of the suggested strategy is the empirical identification of a discriminatory behavior that can be targeted with subsequent corrective actions.
Yamato, A. (1994). Racial antagonism and the formation of segmented labor markets: Japanese Americans and their exclusion from the work force. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 20, 31-63.
The author examines the nature of the conflict between Japanese immigrants and White Americans in the laundry industry in San Francisco in the early 1900s. The anti-Asian movement, which was centered in San Francisco, emphasized the willingness of Asian immigrants to work as cheap labor and their employment by entrepreneurs attempting to undercut organized labor. Racial stratification in the laundry industry denied Japanese immigrant workers access to higher wage jobs. Specifically, efforts by mechanized laundries seeking to monopolize the market resulted in attempts by both White employers and workers to drive Japanese workers and entrepreneurs from the industry. Beliefs concerning the inferiority of Japanese Americans, supported the move to exclude them from membership in organized labor.
Yamazaki, M. (1993). Factors influencing Asian students' attitudes toward Japan and the Japanese. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 64, 215-223.
The author studied the effects of economic conditions, length of stay, Japanese language ability, experience with discrimination, and friendship with Japanese people on Asians' attitudes toward Japan and Japanese people. Ss consisted of 163 normal male and female non-Japanese Asian adults (mean age 26.5 yrs) (undergraduate and graduate students) (residents of Japan). Ss completed a questionnaire and responses were examined through use of submitted path analysis. Results concerning racial discrimination, friendship, and unfriendliness are considered.
Young, R.L. (1985). Perceptions of crime, racial attitudes, and firearms ownership. Social Forces, 64, 473-486.
The author tested the hypothesis that because of prevailing public image of criminals as young Black males, racial prejudice leads to aggressive attitudes toward criminals. Concern about crime, in turn, produces a greater increment in gun ownership among highly prejudiced than among less prejudiced White males. These expectations are supported by data from 229 White males from the 1979 Detroit Area Study. The model is also supported by patterns of ownership of passive forms of household protection, which was unrelated to racial prejudice. The impact of prejudice was sufficiently strong that the proximity of a relatively large Black population was sufficient to increase gun ownership among highly prejudiced Ss, even in the absence of concerns about crime.
Section II: Racism in Psychology
Bagby, L.M. (1995). The question of Jung and racism reconsidered. Psychohistory Review, 23, 283-298.
The author attempts to show the sources of the charge of racism against Jung lies, how applicable it is, and how Jung's theory can be viewed in a more multidimensional light and as an argument against racism. According to the author, Jung was led astray in his views of Blacks by unconscious stereotyping and, perhaps, shadow projection. However, Jung thought that the presence of Blacks in America saved White Americans from being as one-sided as Europeans. He suggested that White Americans have to be more morally rigid than Europeans to counteract the influence of Blacks. It is argued that Jung's critique of modern Western societies may help explain their xenophobia, racism, and violence. Europeans' violent and exploitative nature stem from their psyche's imbalance. Because the goal of psychotherapy is to regain balance, Jung felt that a dialectic between Western and non-Western cultures was essential.
Bernal, E.M. (1975). A response to "Educational uses of tests with disadvantaged students." American Psychologist, 30, 93-95.
The author responds to the paper by T. A. Cleary et al (see PA, Vol 55:3505) on the use of standardized tests with minorities and notes substantial shortcomings in the article. These include a) lack of response to the key arguments of many critics of extant testing, b) lack of recommendations for improving test development, and c) placement of blame for bad testing on the practitioner.
Bernal, M. (1994). Integration of ethnic minorities into academic psychology: How it has been and what it could be. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 404-423). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
The author explains that tokenism, racism, sexism, organizational resistance to change and diversity, and creation of parallel structures of participation but not power are some of the processes that produce barriers to the full participation of minority academicians within colleges and universities. It is argued that these issues can have profound effects upon ethnic minority psychologists working in academic settings. These issues have implications for the field of psychology as it tries to deal with the rapidly changing demographics of this country by increasing faculty and student diversity. This chapter also includes recommendations for a series of changes that foster cultural diversity in training.
Brock, A. (1992). Was Wundt a "Nazi"? Volkerpsychologie, racism and anti-Semitism. Theory and Psychology, 2, 205-223.
The author examines the widespread view that the Volkerpsychologie of M. Lazarus, M. Steinthal, and W. Wundt was in some way related to the racial psychology of the Nazis. This was suggested in G. Allport's (1954) treatise on "Historical Background of Modern Social Psychology." The present author discusses Allport's essay to show that this is nothing more than an ugly rumor. Volkerpsychologie was a cultural psychology. It was heavily criticized by racial psychologists and was used by Franz Boas to undermine their theories. The source of Allport's "mistake" is examined.
Brodsky, A.M. (1982). Sex, race, and class issues in psychotherapy research. In J.H. Harvey and M.M. Parks (Eds.), Psychotherapy research and behavior change., (Vol. 1), (pp. 127-150). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This chapter focuses on the evidence about racism, sexism, and classism in psychotherapeutic practice and advocates a continued exploration of positive approaches in training therapists to deal with their biases. The author focuses on the often neglected but potent variables of sex, race, and class as determinants of the success of psychotherapy.
Bronstein, P. (1986). Self-disclosure, paranoia, and unaware racism: Another look at the Black client and the White therapist. American Psychologist, 41, 225-226.
The author suggests that C. R. Ridley (see PA, Vol 72:26063), in his attempt to dissuade the reader from maintaining stereotypic views of Black clients, may be unintentionally perpetuating some of those views. Ridley's use of the term healthy cultural paranoiacs and the language and terminology of the article are discussed in this context. The concept of unaware racism and its effects on the White therapist-Black client relationship are discussed.
Carter, J.H. (1994). Racism's impact on mental health. Journal of the National Medical Association, 86, 543-547.
The author presents a historical perspective on racism and its impact on the mental health of African Americans. Recently, uncovered issues of racism that negatively affect the mental health of minorities are the escalation of hate crimes, housing discrimination, and school resegregation. Epidemiological studies of mental illness identify racism as a major contributor to psychopathology. Mental health professionals have an ethical responsibility to identify and strengthen minority community support systems and help initiate strategies to empower minorities to demand equitable health care.
Damon-Rodriguez, J., Wallace, S. & Kingston, R. (1994). Service utilization and minority elderly: Appropriateness, accessibility and acceptability. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, 15, 45-63.
The authors examine factors affecting health care service utilization by minority (e.g., African American, Asian/Pacific American, Latino) elderly. Problems include minorities' use of emergency rooms for primary care, inferior treatment despite equal doctor visits, underuse of hospitals and community-based services, and underestimation of needs for external support due to cultural expectations for family care provision. Structural (external) barriers to service delivery, such as racism, and cultural (internal) barriers, such as family dynamics and cultural bias, are examined. Cultural barriers have been related to ethnic identity, acculturation, and ethnic attitudes, such as fatalism and an external locus of control. Services need to be suited to ethnic elders' levels of functioning and congruent with ethnic expectations.
DeCarvalho, R.L. (1993). Gordon W. Allport on the nature of prejudice. Psychological Reports, 72, 299-308.
The author examines the life work of G. W. Allport (e.g., 1929, 1967) on the nature of prejudice and racial discrimination. It is concluded that Allport's eclectic, pragmatic, and optimistic studies of prejudice and his firm belief in the role of the social sciences in the solution of social problems were strong forces that helped to shape a more positive "American view" of the nature of prejudice and race relations.
Dent, H.E. (1995, August). Everything you thought was true about IQ testing, but Isn't: A reaction to "The Bell Curve". Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, NY.
Rather than focus on the numerous flaws in the book The Bell Curve (Herrnstein & Murray), this discussion focuses on the racism and bigoted beliefs of the pioneers in the mental measurement movement in the United States--beliefs which provided the background and opportunity for the publication of the book. A significant amount of these historical attitudes still permeate theory and practice in the field of psychological testing today. The paper contends that the professional psychological community has been remiss in fulfilling its moral obligation to insure that the public has accurate information on issues where psychological expertise is relevant. Racial relations in the United States are precariously brittle, thus, it is critical that the professional psychological community change its laissez faire stance, assert its moral leadership, and use this opportunity to set the scientific record straight. The American Psychological Association must articulate state-of-the-art information on these issues and exercise its influence on public policy instead of allowing others, such as adherents to The Bell Curve, to continue to fuel hate and racial bigotry.
DJangi, A.R. (1993, August). Racism in Higher Education: Its presence in the classroom and lives of psychology students. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.
This paper explores the overt and covert of racism in American institutions of higher educations and focuses on racism at one graduate school in psychology. Though the nation as a whole decries racism, overt racial acts are on the upswing at institutions of higher education and covert racism exists across the nation. The paper argues that, in the educational community, the most significant racism is covert and involves hostile and insensitive acts, bias in the application of harsh sanctions, bias in attention to students, bias in selection of curriculum materials, unequal amounts of instruction, lack of diversity in faculty and administration, and denial of racist actions. The central portion of the paper examines a particular graduate school of psychology publicly known for its openness and diversity. This portion cites examples of overt racism. Confronting these incidents brought to the surface existing covert racism in student treatment, hiring patterns, and community denial of racism. A final section explores and suggests solutions that address feelings, biases, and prejudices in the areas of school policies, faculty recruitment and awareness, student sensitivity, and curriculum opportunities.
Fairchild, H.H. (1995). Unmasking pseudoscience: Comments on "How Skewed is The Bell Curve?" Journal of Black Psychology, 21(3), 297-299.
The author agrees with Haynes' assessment of The Bell Curve as scientifically flawed research with adverse political implications and as representing racism. The author criticizes Haynes for not fully illuminating the dangerous implications (now occurring) for the well-being of Blacks today and into the next century.
Foster, D. (1991). "Race" and racism in South African psychology. South African Journal of Psychology, 21, 203-210.
The author sketches how the issues of "race" and racism have been taken up on the psychological terrain in South Africa over the past century. Racism manifested as both segregation and inequality in mental health provisions and was actively promoted by leading psychologists. Psychologists on the other side of a political divide turned attention to analysis of race relations mainly through the study of prejudice. Three areas of research are reviewed; certain criticisms may be directed against this liberal framework of race as prejudice.
Gaines, S.O. & Reed, E.S. (1995). Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois. American Psychologist, 50, 96-103.
The differences between the accounts of Gordon Allport (1954/1979) and W. E. B. DuBois (1903/1969) regarding the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of African Americans are examined. The authors contend that even though Allport's universalist approach to the causes and consequences of prejudice essentially has gone unchallenged in the mainstream social-psychological literature, DuBois's social-historical approach to personality psychology questions the assumptions that have guided theory and research on prejudice since the time of Allport. The authors argue that racism is not a universal feature of human psychology but a historically developed process. Racism begins with the exploitation of people or peoples and with the psychological consequences to which that exploitation leads. The differential implications of Allport's and DuBois's respective accounts for the future of race relations in the United States are discussed.
Gordon, P. (1993). Keeping therapy White? Psychotherapy trainings and equal opportunities. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 10, 44-49.
The author examines the issue of equal opportunities for ethnic minorities as it relates to psychoanalytic psychotherapy training. Information from a survey of 26 psychotherapy training and other organizations revealed that only six organizations had formal, written equal opportunities policies. The author argues that all training organizations should examine their practices in this area and consider the adoption of formal policies aimed at the elimination of possible discrimination against ethnic minority candidates who are otherwise well qualified to train as psychotherapists.
Gottfredson, L.S. (1994). The science and politics of race-norming. American Psychologist, 49, 955-963.
Disparate impact (racial imbalance) in employee selection constitutes prima facie evidence of unlawful discrimination. Research in personnel psychology has shown, however, that valid and unbiased selection procedures often guarantee disparate impact and that they will continue to do so as long as there remain large racial disparities in job-related skills and abilities. Employers are in a legal bind because often they can avoid disparate impact only by engaging in unlawful disparate treatment (racial preferences). Some personnel psychologists have argued that there is scientific justification for race-based adjustments in test scores that eliminate disparate impact. Analyses of their seemingly scientific reasoning illustrate how personnel selection science is being compromised in an effort to reconcile contradictory legal demands.
Greenwald, A.G. & Schuh, E.S. (1994). An ethnic bias in scientific citations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 623-639.
The authors investigated possible discrimination by scientists based on Jewish versus non-Jewish ethnicity of citing and cited authors. In Study 1, with a sample of over 12,000 citations by North American social scientists, names of both citing and cited authors were classified as Jewish, non-Jewish, or other. Author's name category was associated with 40.8% greater odds of citing an author from the same name category. Study 2 included over 17,000 citations from the narrower research domain of prejudice research, and found a 40% surplus in odds of citing an author of the author's own ethnic name category. Further analyses failed to support two hypotheses (differential assortment of researchers by ethnicity to research topic, and selective citation of acquaintances' works) as plausible alternatives to the hypothesis that the observed citation discrimination revealed unconsciously operating prejudicial attitudes.
Griffith, E.E. & Griffith, E.J. (1986). Racism, psychological injury, and compensatory damages. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 71-75.
The authors assert that psychiatrists and other mental health professionals have paid only modest attention to the idea that discriminatory conduct causes emotional suffering for those who are the object of it. However, courts have held that if such racist conduct is willful and outrageous and the ensuing suffering is severe, the plaintiff has a reasonable claim to compensatory damages. These developments in the legal arena are traced in both tort actions and complaints under civil rights statutes. It is concluded that psychiatrists could be more influential in sharpening considerations about the idea that racism causes psychological injury. Psychiatry has not maintained a consistent interest in studying how racial discrimination brings about psychological injury. This gap has left courts to extrapolate from findings that are not always relevant, and their rationale for conclusions about psychological trauma has not always been cogently presented.
Guishard, J. (1992). People who live in posh houses shouldn't throw stones. Educational and Child Psychology, 9, 42-47.
The author argues that academic research in psychology, social psychology, and in education has (in the UK) contributed to some of the negative myths about Black people. Black people are presented in the British press as muggers and thugs, as lazy and uneducable, and as parasites on the welfare system. Psychologists are no more protected from such propaganda than Black people themselves, many of whom have developed a strategy of "adaptive inferiority" (K. B. Clark, 1975) to survive in a hostile society. Research in psychology has been limited to racism, without any positive research on the strengths of Black families and individuals. A reeducation process is advocated that offers professionals insights into the worldview of many of the Black clients that they come into contact with.
Haney, C. & Hurtado, A. (1994). The jurisprudence of race and meritocracy: Standardized testing and "race-neutral" racism in the workplace. Law and Human Behavior, 18, 223-248.
This study examines the jurisprudential interrelationships between the concept of merit, the tradition of legal individualism, and various doctrines of employment discrimination law. The authors' review evidence of continuing racial disparities in income and employment that have persisted despite decades of litigation to reduce or eliminate them. It is argued that the unique jurisprudential role played by the concept of merit has undermined legal attempts to address the structural causes of racial discrimination in the workplace. It is further suggested that the use of standardized employment tests and the nature of the legal doctrines that govern their use reflect certain outmoded meritocratic assumptions that individualize the nature of racial disparity, and contribute to continuing group disadvantage in the workplace.
Henwood, K.L. (1994). Resisting racism and sexism in academic psychology: A personal/political view. `Feminism and Psychology, 4, 41-62.
The author discusses resistance to racism and sexism within academic psychology by discussing the chronology of the author's experiences, presenting a personal/political view, and examining Social Identity Theory. It is pointed out that even critical perspectives in the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination tend to neglect Black people's experiences of racism. The author describes the culturally pervasive problem of new racism, and psychology's commitment to an apolitical professional identity and value-free science. Both are implicated in academic psychology's lack of a clear commitment to anti-racism, as illustrated by an account of the British Psychological Society's handling of the call for an academic boycott of apartheid South Africa. The author suggests various ways of moving forward to an anti-racist psychology. One possibility is to work within a version of feminist standpoint epistemology.
Herrnstein, R.J. & Murray, C.A. (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press.
The major purpose of this book is to reveal the process that has created a new kind of class structure led by a "cognitive elite", itself a result of concentration and self-selection in those social pools well endowed with cognitive abilities. Herrnstein and Murray explore the ways that low intelligence, independent of social, economic, or ethnic background, lies at the root of many of our social problems. The authors also demonstrate the truth of another taboo fact: That intelligence levels differ among ethnic groups.
Humphreys, L.G. (1975). "Educational uses of tests with disadvantaged students": Addendum. American Psychologist, 30, 95-96.
The author responds to criticisms by G. D. Jackson (1975) and by E. M. Bernal (1975) of the report by T. A. Cleary et al (see PA, Vol 55:3505) on standardized testing with minorities. Support for testing and proper interpretation of test scores is reiterated, since abolishing the use of tests does not abolish the deficits found in some students.
Hutchinson, J. (1992). AIDS and racism in America. Journal of the National Medical Association, 84, 119-124.
Institutionalized racism impacts general health-care, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the U.S., and the slow national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities illuminates this racism. The lateness in developing culturally sensitive AIDS messages also shows the lack of national interest and concern for minorities' health, bringing about widespread AIDS among minorities. Studies (e.g., M. F. Rogers and W. W. Williams, 1987) indicate that AIDS will spread even further at, a much faster rate, among minorities than among Whites. Racism has also been shown by the paucity of minorities in clinical trials of AIDS drug treatment and inclusion of minorities in research sampling designs. Broad-based community prevention programs are needed that are sensitive to the culture of minority groups.
Jones, J.M. (1991). Psychological models of race: What have they been and what should they be? In J.D. Goodchilds (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on human diversity in America. (pp. 7-46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
This chapter reviews some perspectives and lines of reasoning on race from early in this century. Definitions, basic conceptual orientations, and illustrative examples of research are presented. The chapter addresses the question of the biological basis of race and the evidence for "a race difference," and why it is or is not important to pursue this line of enquiry. It reviews the evidence for continuing bias of Whites against Blacks--understood as the analysis of prejudice, racism, and discrimination--and proposes how that might affect the social and psychological responses of Blacks to interracial interactions. Selected areas of theory and research are considered, and some of the psychotherapy implications for clinical practice are explored.
Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L.J. (1994). Race and gender fallacies: The paucity of biological determinist explanations of difference. In E. Tobach and B. Rosoff (Eds.), Challenging racism and sexism: Alternatives to genetic explanations (pp. 66-92). New York: Feminist Press, CUNY.
This chapter deals with the role that biological determinism plays, and has played, in influencing general opinion and public wisdom on issues of race and gender. The authors contend that racism and sexism are two phenomena of persistent prejudice and discuss how theories of inheritance have helped to perpetuate them.
Kinder, D.R. (1986). The continuing American dilemma: White resistance to racial change 40 years after Myrdal. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 151-171.
The author responds to the criticisms of P. M. Sniderman and P. E. Tetlock (see PA, Vol 74:15326) on the views of the present author and colleagues regarding symbolic racism. Comparisons are made of two theoretical interpretations for White Americans' opposition to racial equality--the symbolic racism and the racial threat hypotheses. A research agenda is proposed for the future of alternative perspectives. It is suggested that White resistance to racial change appears to have little to do with the tangible threats that Blacks pose to personal life and a great deal to do with prejudice and values.
Lewis, G., Croft-Jeffreys, C. & David, A. (1990). Are British psychiatrists racist? British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 410-415.
Out of a sample of 220 British psychiatrists, 139 completed a questionnaire regarding a case vignette of psychotic illness. The sex and "race" of the vignette were varied and the responses compared. The Afro-Caribbean case was regarded as that of an illness of shorter duration, and requiring less neuroleptics than the White case. Respondents judged the Afro-Caribbean case as potentially more violent and thought criminal proceedings were more appropriate. The female vignette was perceived as less violent, less criminal, and less likely to need neuroleptics. Cannabis psychosis and acute reactive psychosis tended to be diagnosed more often and schizophrenia less often in Afro-Caribbean cases, refuting the claim that psychiatrists tend to overdiagnose schizophrenia in this group. Such "race thinking" (a form of stereotyping which is distinct from ideological racism) could lead to inappropriate management.
Lyles, M.R. & Carter, J.H. (1982). Myths and strengths of the Black family: A historical and sociological contribution to family therapy. Journal of the National Medical Association, 74, 1119-1123.
To cope with psychological and environmental stress, with little support from traditional mental health resources, Blacks have used the historically validated extended kinship network as well as other institutions such as the Black church. The mistaken comparison of Black families against White standards has given little attention to the influence of racism and economic deprivation on Black families and has minimized their adaptive strengths. This bias has led to misconceptions about the existence of a matriarchal hierarchy, a fragmented parental coalition, difficulties of partial families with the enculturation of children, the supportive functions of interdependent families, and the resistance of Black patients to psychotherapy. Therapists working with racial minorities must become aware of the cultural history and sociocultural meanings of Black family functions, structures, and strengths.
Lynn, R. (1996). Racial and ethnic differences in intelligence in the United States on the Differential Ability Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(2), 271-273.
Lynn suggests that the standardization of the Differential Ability Scale (C.D. Elliott; 1990) in the U.S. provides normative data for general intelligence and for verbal, reasoning, and spatial abilities for Asian, Black, Hispanic and White groups. Data are from 3,298 children (aged 2-17 years). Mean IQs are highest among the Asians and decline successively among Whites, Hispanics and Blacks. The details of the data for the four abilities on the four abilities, for the four groups, are presented.
McConahay, J.B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale. In J.F. Dovidio and S.L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 91-125). Orlando: Academic Press.
The Modern Racism Scale is intended to measure a dimension of the cognitive component of racial attitudes. It therefore asks subjects or survey respondents to agree or disagree with a set of beliefs that whites may or may not have about blacks The survey distinguishes this set of beliefs from another set of beliefs called old-fashioned racism. According to the theory, both cognitive belief systems are influenced by the affective component of attitudes toward black Americans as well as by other beliefs and values and by the historical context specific to the form of racism.
Neighbors, H.W. (1990). The prevention of psychopathology in African-Americans: an epidemiologic perspective. Community Mental Health Journal, 26(2), 167-179.
Although improving the mental health status of African-Americans is an important goal, it is not clear that this can be accomplished by increasing access to professional services. Many have argued that stressful conditions is the major cause of mental disorder in Blacks and thus, psychopathology can be prevented by eliminating racism, oppression and poor economic conditions. This review argues that while the notion of primary prevention with African Americans should be taken seriously, there is still a need for more and better epidemiologic research. Three bodies of knowledge relevant to Black mental health are addressed: 1) the need for an epidemiologic knowledge base for prevention; 2) coping capacity and vulnerability to stress; 3) risk factor identification. Findings from a national survey of adult African Americans are presented as an example of risk factor identification for the purpose of specifying targets for preventive interventions. The paper concludes that before the prevention of psychopathology in Black populations can be achieved a number of measurement, theoretical, and policy issues must be addressed.
Padilla, A.M. (1993). Myths, realities and implications of the English Only Movement in the United States. In G.M. Gonzalez, I. Alvarado and A.S. Segrera (Eds.), Challenges of cultural and racial diversity to counseling (pp.3-11). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
The author discusses the recent efforts undertaken in the United Sates to make English the official national language. Padilla argues that this English Only Movement has connections to restrictionist anti-immigration organizations with powerful and heavily funded political influence. Major implications of this movement for social/psychological development, education, psychological assessment, and the delivery of human services to Latino/Hispanic groups are presented. Research shows that positive self- and ethnic identification occurs best when children are allowed access to both their heritage language and English. It is argued that the English Only movement is potentially detrimental to the few gains made in the past two decades to develop culturally sensitive assessment techniques and human services systems.
Padilla, A.M., Salgado de Snyder, V.N. (1992). Hispanics: What the culturally informed evaluator needs to know. In M.A. Orlandi, R. Weston, L.G. Epstein (Eds.), Cultural competence for evaluators: A guide for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention practitioners working with ethnic/racial communities (pp. 117-146). Rockville, MD:U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
This chapter presents information that will give program evaluators a better understanding of the sociocultural diversity found among the various Hispanic groups in the United States. Factors that contribute to successful social and psychological integration of Hispanics are discussed because of their relevance to possible AOD (alcohol and other drug) use by this population and because such information is critical if prevention and intervention programs are to succeed. The chapter focuses attention on women, immigrants, and youth, who are particularly prone to be at high risk for psychological distress. It also takes the position that successful evaluation of social programs requires knowledge of the Hispanic community and of the conditions that place an individual at risk for misusing or abusing alcohol and other drugs.
Ponterotto, J.G. & Casas, J.M. (1991). Handbook of racial/ethnic minority counseling research. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.
This is an extremely scholarly work which exemplifies the best in integrating research, theory, and practice devoted to racial/ethnic minorities. While others have written about minority research or cross-cultural psychology, this is the first exclusively research-focused textbook on racial/ethnic minority counseling. The first three chapters provide an excellent framework from which to understand research with racial/ethnic minority groups. Ponterotto and Casas do a fine job in tracing the full history of the American Psychological Association's and American Association for Counseling and Development's involvement in minority issues and concerns. Issues of cultural bias in theory and research are critically discussed and provide the reader with the conceptual basis for understanding racial/ethnic minority research.
Priest, R. (1991). Racism and prejudice as negative impacts on African American clients in therapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 213-215.
Racism has negative impacts on African Americans in ways that may necessitate their seeking counseling. Counselors who engage African Americans in therapy should be aware of cultural distinctiveness that may be manifested by clients. Counselors also have the responsibility for identifying any personally held cultural perspectives that are not facilitative to or for clients. Racial stereotypes, notions of racial superiority, inability to communicate with clients, and lack of a proactive perspective all have the potential of manifesting deleterious outcomes for therapy. It is also suggested that counselors develop an understanding of the significance of clients' historical reality.
Reid, P. (1993). Poor women in psychological research: Shut up and shut out. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 133-150.
The author raises the issue of the diversity among poor women, the need to disentangle ethnicity and class, and the limitation of adopting a middle-class White perspective in psychology research. In addition to racism, other possible causes of exclusion are explored. Silencing poor women is also discussed in terms of causes and impact on the discipline of psychology. Sufficient mechanisms have not been provided to allow diverse groups of women to tell their own stories. Suggestions for achieving feminist goals are provided.
Richardson, T.Q. (1995). The window dressing behind The Bell Curve. School Psychology Review, 24(1), 42-44.
The author critiques the conceptual framework on which The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (R.J. Herrnstein and C. Murray, 1994) is based. The conclusions that the authors draw from the data on intelligence presented in the text are grounded in the classical tradition. While their analysis of the data and interpretation of it may be consistent with most aspects of the classical perspective, the conclusions and policy recommendations are based on assumptions that are not grounded in the data. Some of the limitations to the scientific integrity of their analysis and the philosophical assumptions guiding their analysis is discussed.
Richardson, T.Q. & Molinaro, K.L. (1996). White counselor self-awareness: A prerequisite for multicultural competence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(3), 238-242.
The authors examine White counselor self-awareness as a variable in developing multicultural competence. Self-dimension is discussed and it includes worldview, cultural values, and racial identity. Counselor self-awareness is a pre-requisite to developing multicultural competence and an in-depth understanding of these factors may improve the delivery of mental health services to culturally diverse client populations. The bulk of existing literature regarding cultural competency variables is hypothesized and theoretical, lacking empirical validation.
Ridley, C.R. (1989). Racism in counseling as an adversive behavioral process. In P.B. Pedersen, J.G. Draguns, W.J. Lonner, and J.E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (3rd ed.). (pp. 55-77). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
The author states that majority group clients consistently receive preferential treatment over minority group clients in counseling settings. The author's purpose in the chapter is to answer that question by delineating the nature of racism in counseling. The four sections of the chapter explores the two common explanations of racism, operationally defines several concepts, illustrates seven variables that negatively influence the counseling experience for ethnic minorities, and provides recommendations to assist the cross-cultural counselor.
Ritchie, M.H. (1994). Cultural and gender biases in definitions of mental and emotional health and illness. Counselor Education and Supervision, 33, 344-348.
The author examines definitions of mental and emotional health and illness relative to sources of cultural and gender biases in counseling. It is argued that these definitions are critical in counseling theory, research, and practice. The aspects of these definitions that may be culturally biased, the danger inherent in uncritical acceptance of these biases, and suggestions for correcting bias through research and practice are discussed. Counselors have an obligation to critically examine these issues to verify their validity in determining psychological adjustment in a diverse society.
Rivers, R.Y. & Morrow, C.A. (1995). Understanding and treating ethnic minority youth. In J.F. Aponte, R.Y. Rivers and J. Wohl (Eds.), Psychological interventions and cultural diversity (pp. 164-180). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Ethnic minority youth present unique mental health issues because of their developmental status and membership in an ethnic culture. Some of these issues are related to sociocultural conditions (e.g., poverty, prejudice, racism), whereas others are developmental issues faced by all youth. This chapter explores issues related to the treatment of ethnic minority children and adolescents. Comparisons are made both across these groups and within groups. This chapter discusses sociocultural conditions and mental health problems experienced by ethnic minority children and adolescents, the types of psychotherapeutic interventions directed toward these children and adolescents, and some of the issues involved in treating them.
Roth, B.M. (1994). Prescription for failure: Race relations in the age of social science. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
In this book, Roth examines the sources of racial conflict and attempts to discover why advances in civil rights for Blacks, over the past thirty years, have not been accompanied by greater harmony between Blacks and Whites. Roth's central thesis is that America's policies on race have failed because they have been based on social science theories unsupported by sound evidence. Social scientists, he believes, have failed to communicate to the policymaking community that policies aimed at diminishing white racism can have only a negligible effect on the massive problems of the Black underclass. Roth shows that the growth of this underclass has been fueled by increases in crime, illegitimacy, and educational failure. He argues that the way to ameliorate these problems is with policies that restore order to our streets and to our schools, and that encourage and reward self-reliance, hard work, and stable families.
Rushton, J.P. (1995). Race, evolution, and behavior: A life history perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Rushton states that testing for racial differences in behavior has been much neglected over the past 60 years, and when not subject to neglect, to strongly negative imputations among professionals and politicians alike. According to the author, substantial racial differences do exist and their pattern can only be explained adequately from an evolutionary perspective. He reviews international data and finds a distinct pattern. People from East Asian ancestry and people of African ancestry are at opposite ends of a continuum, with people of European ancestry intermediate, albeit with much variability within each broad grouping. Rushton's gene-based evolutionary models explain ethnocentrism and racial group differences, and may provide a catalyst for understanding individual differences and human nature.
Rushton, J.P. (1997). Race, IQ and the APA Report on The Bell Curve. American Psychologist, 52(1), 69-70.
Rushton states that Neisser et al.'s (February 1996) report is evenhanded on many issues, but on the issue of race, it egregiously erred and concluded that "there is certainly no . . .[empirical] support for a genetic interpretation"(p.97). The author describes being struck by the amount of evidence sidestepped by Neisser et al. Most notably, Rushton's book, Race, evolution and behavior (1995), clearly showed that there are three distinct racial profiles ranging over 60 anatomical and social variables, including brain size, in which East Asians are at one end of the continuum, Africans are at the other, and Europeans regularly fall between the two. The origins of racial differences in IQ obviously need to be considered as fairly from the hereditarian perspective as from the environmentalist perspective.
Sedlacek, W.E. & Prieto, D.O. (1990). Predicting minority students' success in medical school. Academic Medicine, 65(3), 161-166.
Despite recent attention to minority student recruitment and retention, data on predicting the success of minority medical students are scarce. Traditional predictors (college grades and scores on the Medical College Admission Test) have modest correlations with medical school grades and scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination for minority students. Nonetheless, admission committees also consider nontraditional variables when selecting minority students. Measures of nontraditional variables seem to assess types of intelligence not covered by traditional means. A system of organizing nontraditional or noncognitive variables into eight dimensions is proposed. The dimensions are self-concept, realistic, self-appraisal, understanding and dealing with racism, long-range goals, having a strong support person, showing leadership, having community involvement, and nontraditional knowledge acquired. Further, assessment should place more emphasis on recognizing and defining problems and on performance rather than knowledge. Combining traditional and nontraditional methods is best in selecting minority students, and sufficiently well developed measures exist in each area to make this a practical recommendation for any admission program.
Solomon, A. (1992). Clinical diagnosis among diverse populations: A multicultural perspective. Families in Society, 73(6), 371-377.
The author discusses four ways in which clinical diagnosis can be detrimental to minority clients: (1) cultural expressions of symptomatology; (2) unreliable research instruments; (3) clinician bias; and (4) institutional racism. Recommendations to avoid misdiagnosis begin with accurate assessment of a client's history and cultural background.
Stanfield, J.H. & Dennis, R.M. (1993). Race and ethnicity in research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
This book represents a much-needed effort to address seriously the issue of how to improve the methodological basis of research on race and ethnicity. The contributing researchers were selected from three different methodological spheres: qualitative, quantitative, and historical/comparative. Each was asked to lay out the traditional parameters of a methodology used in social science research, to discuss how it has been applied to race and ethnic studies, and to suggest how the methodology could be improved. Each contributor was asked to concentrate as much as possible on the epistemological and theoretical aspects of the methodology he or she discusses.
Samuda, R.J., Kong, S.L., Cummings, J., Pascual-Leone, J., Lewis, J. (1991). Assessment and placement of minority students. Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
The authors endeavor to provide a balanced overview of the issues and problems associated with the appraisal of ethnic, cultural, and linguistic minorities in a culturally diverse society. They address the issues of group and individual differences as well as the consequences of institutionalized racism still dominant in the system of assessment and curriculum programs. Various research studies are cited to pinpoint the need for change in teacher education and the application of psychometrics. The chapter points to the advances being made to develop more equitable methods of dealing with the educational needs of minority students.
Swartz, L. (1991). The politics of Black patients' identity: Ward-rounds on the "Black side" of a South African psychiatric hospital. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 15, 217-244.
While studies have indicated that there is maldistribution of resources by race in South Africa (e.g., South African Institute of Race Relations, 1988), little attention has been given to the negotiation of power in the clinical setting. Data are presented concerning interactions in wards on the Black side of a South African psychiatric hospital. Through analysis of cases, the complexity of interpreting what transpires in such a setting, and the central role that the concept of culture has in debates among staff members are demonstrated. The inadequacy is shown of models that seek to locate the institutional racism of apartheid psychiatry in motives of individual clinicians. Clinicians may simultaneously reproduce and subvert aspects of apartheid practice. A consideration of the social positioning of the clinician both as a South African and as a practitioner of psychiatry is central to the development of psychiatry in a post-apartheid South Africa.
Swartz, L. (1991). The reproduction of racism in South African mental health care. South African Journal of Psychology, 21, 240-246.
To avoid reproducing apartheid ideology, some South African psychologists minimize cultural differences and emphasize universalism. Relativism and universalism, in practice, are closely intertwined, as an analysis of local transcultural psychiatry literature shows. Racist and nonracist mental health care occur together in certain contexts. The development of less racist mental health care in South Africa will depend on a) the rejection of racism and b) the recognition that traditions of racism are woven into the fabric of care.
Takaki, R., Hu-DeHart, E. & Brandt, A.M. (1995). The architecture of race: Racial and ethnic inequality. In D.M. Herman (Ed.) Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life: Readings (pp. 253-279). Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press/Sage Publications.
The authors of this chapter state that, from its inception, the United States has been bitterly divided along racial and ethnic lines. Many people have hailed the educational and economic successes of Asian immigrants as the great American success story. Yet Ronald Takaki suggests in "The Myth of the Model Minority" that the successes of Asian Americans have been exaggerated. These exaggerations may actually be harmful to them in the long run. Evelyn Hu-DeHart describes the debate raging on college campuses today over ethnic studies programs and multicultural curricula. Finally, in "Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study," Allan Brandt describes a vivid historical example of institutional racism.
Vasquez, M.J. & Eldridge, N.S. (1994). Bringing ethics alive: Training practitioners about gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation issues. Women and Therapy, 15, 1-16.
The authors examine ways that the mental health profession can provide appropriate psychological training to meet the needs of the growing number of women, ethnic minorities, and homosexuals both in society and in the profession. History shows that psychology often reflected racism, sexism, and heterosexism, which led to the exclusion of information or the promotion of biased information among students. It is argued that the inclusion of information about gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation in psychological knowledge, theory, and research is an ethical responsibility. Incorporation of sociocultural issues in the study of psychology can be implemented in both graduate and undergraduate levels through curriculum changes. Teachers must also examine teaching methods, styles, and attitudes to meet the needs of all students.
Vontress, C.E. & Naiker, K.S. (1995). Counseling in South Africa: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 23, 149-157.
The authors describe the relationship of the psychotherapeutic enterprise in South Africa to apartheid and indicate how counseling in that country is emerging as a separate helping entity in Black communities. The role of counseling in the new political structure of South Africa it also described. The authors describe three developmental periods for counseling in South Africa: (1) the stage in which psychology aided and abetted apartheid, (2) the stage in which is professed political neutrality, and (3) the current stage, in which psychotherapeutic professionals are actively rebuilding South African society. The importance of counselor educators and the provision of an academic structure for training counselors is described.
Wade, J.C. (1993). Institutional racism: An analysis of the mental health system. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 536-544.
The author provides indicators of possible racial effects of governmental and institutional practices as they pertain to psychiatry and the mental health system. Clinical and community studies are advocated to investigate the extent to which such practices account for differences in admission rates to public mental hospitals, outpatient services, and partial care services, as well as for differences in quality of care, length of stay, and outcome. Data on changes in the patient population and the provision and utilization of mental health services, since deinstitutionalization, are examined. Mental health policy and diagnostic and treatment issues are identified as areas in which institutional racism affects minority groups.
Westbrook, F.D. & Sedlacek, W.E. (1991). Forty years of using labels to communicate about nontraditional students: Does it help or hurt? Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 20-28.
The authors surveyed educational and psychological literature, as cataloged in the Education Index (1950-1989), for labels used in talking about nontraditional students and understandings about problems in interethnic interactions. An analysis of articles in the Education Index shows that, despite increased concern for minorities in the literature, the labels used to describe them may have done much to exacerbate problems. When talking to minority students, M. Bowen's (1978) differentiation concept is recommended to discuss racism and negotiating systems. Recognizing and responding sensitively to interethnic differences can improve the quality of communications.
Williams, O.J. (1992). Ethnically sensitive practice to enhance treatment participation of African American men who batter. Families in Society, 73, 588-595.
The author explores how ethnically sensitive practice enhances the participation of African-American men who batter. A typology of three stages (cultural resistance, color blindness, and cultural sensitivity) describes how practitioners struggle with questions of diversity, self-awareness, and self-evaluation. Majority-culture practitioners who overlook racism or minimize its effect on functioning commit errors that can undermine treatment. Training in many of the helping professions does not focus on ethnocultural considerations that affect client intervention, resistance, or dropout. Outreach efforts must be adapted to the needs and styles of the target communities, and not merely replicate mainstream community programs. Self awareness and ethnic sensitivity on the part of practitioners can reduce stigma and remove barriers impeding community and individual treatment participation.
Wolfendale, S. (1988). Current professional practice for working in a multicultural society: Findings from a national survey of local authority educational psychologists. Educational and Child Psychology, 5, 19-37.
In this study, 14 British educational psychologists completed a questionnaire on ethnic concerns in their practices. The questionnaire addressed areas that included policies on antiracism, involvement in multicultural and antiracism activities, and antiracism training. Findings indicate a significant level of awareness of the issues addressed in the questionnaire. However, there was a disparity between awareness of and involvement with these issues. Findings are discussed in terms of changes in attitudes and practice among educational psychologists. Implications for professional development are addressed.
Wong, L.M. (1994). Di(s)-secting and dis(s)-closing "whiteness": Two tales about psychology. Feminism and Psychology, 4, 133-153.
The author examines the concept of "Whiteness" (by dissecting and disclosing it) to reveal its privileged position within psychological texts. The author discusses the psychologist's abilities to secure a normative "absence" in texts, and the three ways in which Whiteness has surfaced. First, Whiteness is absent. Second, Whiteness is displaced by synonyms that shift its anxieties on the "other." Third, Whiteness is discussed as the predominant epistemological backdrop of psychological texts that erase, make invisible, and token the presence of racial minorities. Two instances of psychological practice ("e-racing" theory and the porno-raced method) are used to discuss how Whiteness has manipulated racial minorities to inform, test, and construct its own meanings. The author raises the need to be aware of practices that perpetuate White dominance and reification of racialized minorities into an "essentialized pornography of coloreds."
Wylie, F.M. (1973). Community psychology: Relevance for minorities. APA Division of Community Psychology Newsletter, 6, 3-4.
The author criticizes many community psychologists for the paternalism, superficiality, and ethnocentrism of their approach to minority groups. Although lip service may be paid to involvement, this seldom means actual contact with the realities of ghetto life. Some positive developments are taking place, including increased demands by more sophisticated minority groups for community sanction, control, and participation in research. It is stressed that the White psychological community has not seriously confronted its own covert racism, and this self-deception must end.
Section III: Psychology of Anti-Racism
Baird, R.M. & Rosenbaum, S.E. (1992). Bigotry, prejudice and hatred: Definitions, causes & solutions. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
The book of essays is divided into five sections. Those in the first section propose accounts of the nature of bigotry and prejudice. The essays in Part Two probe, in various lively ways, actual tensions in the lives of university students, tensions involving conflict between the more conventional account of prejudice and bigotry offered by Kaplan and the more 'revisionist' account offered by Rothenberg. The selections in Part Three express prominent current explanations for the persistence in our lives of prejudice and bigotry. The essays in Part Four are efforts to evince the unreason and immorality of some phenomena of bigotry and prejudice. The essays of Part Five are suggestions about how we might overcome our bigotry and prejudice and work toward a solution of the social problems that arise from them.
Baron, A. (1992). Valuing ethnic diversity: A day-long workshop for university personnel. Journal of College Student Development, 33, 179-181.
The author describes a workshop on ethnic diversity for university employees based on the following principles: the activities should establish a climate of safety, respect, and support; developing empathy for persons who are discriminated against is crucial; and opportunities to explore individual and institutional racism should be provided. Participants should be encouraged to commit to a personal action plan, and ongoing support for attitudinal and behavioral change should be provided after the conclusion of the workshop.
Blanchard, F.A., Lilly, T. & Vaughn, L.A. (1991). Reducing the expression of racial prejudice. Psychological Science, 2, 101-105.
The authors conducted two experiments (with 72 White female undergraduates) that were designed to evaluate the effects of normative influence (NI) on reactions to racism. The current problem of racism on college campuses provided the context for these studies. Exposure to strong antiracist NI induced the expression of stronger antiracist opinions, regardless of the number of influencing agents and regardless of whether Ss expressed their opinions publicly or privately. In contrast exposure to NI reflecting strong acceptance of racism led Ss to express antiracist opinions less strongly than when no influence was exerted.
Booker, R., Hart, M., Moreland, D. & Powell, J. (1989). Struggling towards better practice: A psychological service team and anti-racism. Educational Psychology in Practice, 5, 123-129.
The authors present views of educational psychologists (EPs) regarding an antiracist strategy in the UK, which developed from the framework of a policy that addressed issues of pupil achievement in relation to race, sex, and class. At a divisional team meeting, EPs decided to commit to change, focusing on a) communication with Black and ethnic minority communities and b) assessment and referral processes. Results of the commitment to antiracist work include a bilingualism information exchange, the creation of a service-wide antiracist support group, and the writing of a code of practice with reference to the antiracist strategy.
Boushel, M. (1994). The protective environment of children: Towards a framework for anti-oppressive, cross-cultural and cross-national understanding. British Journal of Social Work, 24, 173-190.
The author explores the strengths and limitations of existing cross-cultural, cross-national, and antidiscriminatory theory and research in the child protection field. The way in which structural, cultural, personal, and interpersonal factors combine to create the child's protective environment is analyzed and a framework for an integrated approach to antioppressive understanding and practice is suggested. The framework identifies four factors whose impact at national, community, and family levels needs particular consideration. These factors are the value attached to children, the status of women and caregivers, the social interconnectedness of children and caregivers, and the extent and quality of the protective safety nets available. It is argued that child protection theory and practice in the UK needs to take more account of collective and community-based approaches if antioppressive and user-empowering practice is to be achieved.
Brunton, L. & Welch, M. (1983). White agency, Black community. Adoption and Fostering, 7, 16-18.
The authors discuss a project by the Adoption and Fostering Unit, London Borough of Wandsworth Social Services Department, in which methods were devised of reaching the Black community and encouraging them to apply and stay with the agency's assessment process for adopting Black children. The agency adopted role-playing techniques to deal with the racism within the agency. This led to the creation of racism awareness training workshops for the staff. It must be recognized that in different cultures a child's needs may be met in different but equally valid ways.
Bullara, D.T. (1993). Classroom management strategies to reduce racially-biased treatment of students. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 4, 357-368.
The author discusses reasons why minority students are more likely to be referred for disciplinary problems, to get suspended, and to receive longer repeated suspensions than are White students who share cultural similarities with their teachers. Factors that sometimes lead to the mistreatment of minority children are described, and strategies to assist teachers in creating positive learning environments for all students are recommended. Also presented are some of the effects of punitive procedures typically used in classrooms, followed by a model of intervention aimed at reducing the negative side effects of punishment. Finally, suggestions are made for counselors and administrators who want to assist teachers in responding to the needs of all students.
Carrington, B. & Short, G. (1993). Probing children's prejudice: A consideration of the ethical and methodological issues raised by research and curriculum development. Educational Studies, 19, 163-179.
The authors discuss ethical issues raised by research into initiatives in the UK in White areas to counter racism and ethnocentrism at the primary school level. It is asserted that some studies of children's prejudice can be criticized for the unwitting reinforcement of stereotypes. In a study with 125, 8-9 year old and 110, 10-11 year old children, the issue of anti-Semitism was raised tangentially toward the end of an interview. The ethical dilemmas addressed during the course of the research included issues around stereotypes and indoctrination. The curriculum development work in anti-racist and multicultural education in all White schools is also discussed.
Cohen, P. (1989). Reason, racism and the popular monster. In B. Richards (Ed.), Crises of the self: Further essays on psychoanalysis and politics (pp. 245-257). London: Free Association Books.
In the account given here of a particular kind of anti-racism work, Cohen illustrates how a psychoanalytic understanding of the 'racist imagination' prescribes a very different sort of approach to education from that taken by the more didactic confrontational approaches recently popular. The starting-point of this work is an appreciation of the function of racist images of the alien in containing hated parts of the self, and a recognition that psychologically real progress towards a reduction of racist feeling can be achieved only on the basis of some recovery of those parts.
Colca, C., Lowen, D., Colca, L.A. & Lord, S.A. (1982). Combating racism in the schools: A group work pilot project. Social Work in Education, 5, 5-16.
The authors describe a pilot program designed to reduce racial prejudices and increase positive interactions between Black and White students at a desegregated school. Approximately forty, fourth and fifth graders participated in the program and forty others served as controls. Evaluation research indicated that the project was successful in bringing about cognitive change in Ss' a) acceptance of members of another race, b) racial preconceptions, and c) willingness to consider reducing the social distance between themselves and members of another race.
Corvin, S.A. & Wiggins, F. (1989). An antiracism training model for White professionals. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 17, 105-114.
This study suggests that as a part of counselor preparation programs, it is essential that the White trainee explore a) his/her White identity and b) how racism is demonstrated in his/her personal and professional life. The proposed stage model is a diagnostic tool for assessing where an individual is in White identity development and where that individual must yet go in combating racist behavior. Training goals have been designed on four developmental stages: acceptance, resistance, redefinition, and internalization. The training process is composed of a sequence of experiential activities designed for each stage of development.
D'Souza, D. (1995). The End of Racism: Principles for a Multicultural Society. New York: The Free Press.
The author argues that racism is a distinctively Western phenomenon, arising at about the time of the first European encounters with non-Western peoples. He chronicles the political, cultural, and intellectual history of racism as well as the twentieth-century liberal crusade against it. He traces the limitations of the civil rights movement to its flawed assumptions about the nature of racism. He argues that the American obsession with race is fueled by a civil rights establishment that has a vested interest in perpetuating Black dependency, and he concludes that the generation that marched with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. may be too committed to the paradigm of racial struggle to see the possibility of progress. This book summons profound historical, moral, and practical arguments against the civil rights orthodoxy which holds that 'race matters' and that therefore we have no choice but to institutionalize race as the basis for identity and public policy.
Enguidanos, G. M. & Adleman, J. (Eds.), (1995). Racism in the lives of women: Testimony, theory, and guides to antiracist practice. (pp. 333-342). New York: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press.
The authors discuss the demands of acculturation experienced by Puerto Rican families in the mainland U.S.. The author argues that it is important for a good therapist to be his/her own theorist, since no single theory of either individual therapy or family therapy can conceptualize the complexity of human experience and how specific groups process those experiences. Her life story provides an example of the need for antiracist, antisexist family therapy. Suggestions are made for working with Hispanic/Latino/Chicano families that can be applied to work with other ethnic minorities.
Fernando, S. (1988). Race and culture in psychiatry. London: Croom Helm.
As psychiatry has developed, it has proved to be susceptible to the influence of contemporary social and political norms. Because its origins were in nineteenth-century Europe, psychiatry evolved as an ethnocentric body of knowledge, the vehicle of implicit and overt racism. This author, however, sees no reason why the contemporary psychiatrist should not challenge this ethnocentricism. He provides a critical account of the development of psychiatry in relation to its cultural context and then examines contemporary practice in the light of this development. Throughout, the book is informed by an awareness of issues of race and culture and their difficult interactions. The author emphasizes both the frequency of racist attitudes and the very real cultural distinctions in our society-distinctions that can be used to mask what are actually racist sentiments. What emerges is not just a plea for an anti-racist, culture sensitive psychiatry, but a blueprint for how this can be brought about. He argues that the shift towards community work and social psychiatry can reorientate the profession by confronting it with its social setting and responsibilities.
Gorman, L. (1977). A White nursing faculty member's experiences in training anti-racism content to masters students in nursing. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 9, 21-23.
The author describes the development of a master's degree core course in nursing that was given to predominantly White students and that was based on the assumption that racism, medical imperialism, and poverty represent three major constraints to the achievement of equitable, effective, and comprehensive health delivery in the U.S. Approximately half of the course focused on such aspects of racism as the effects of political and economic systems and social policy on the development of the Black American, and the overt and covert manifestations of institutional racism in health and human service systems.
Hawley, W.D. & Jackson, A.W. (1995). Toward a common destiny: Improving race and ethnic relations in America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
This book seeks to summarize what is known about the sources of racial and ethnic prejudice in the U.S. and to identify some ways that individuals and organizations can act to reduce intolerance and discrimination.
Henwood, K.L. (1994). Resisting racism and sexism in academic psychology: A personal/political view. Feminism and Psychology, 4, 41-62.
The author discusses resistance to racism and sexism in academic psychology. This discussion includes a chronology of the author's experiences, and statement of a personal/political view. It is pointed out that even critical perspectives in the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination tend to neglect Black people's experiences of racism. The author describes the culturally pervasive problem of new racism, and psychology's commitment to an apolitical professional identity and value-free science. Both are implicated in academic psychology's lack of a clear commitment to anti-racism, as illustrated by an account of the British Psychological Society's handling of the call for an academic boycott of apartheid South Africa. The author suggests various ways of moving forward to an anti-racist psychology. One possibility is to work within a version of feminist epistemology.
Hopps, J.G. (1988). Deja vu or new view? Social Work, 33, 291-292.
The author comments on the occasion on the 200th anniversary of the U.S. Constitution regarding the racial polarization that continues to divide the nation. The present author suggests that to overcome this division, universities and schools of social work should be more vigilant about racial tensions, and agencies must become more involved in helping all staff grapple with diversity, stereotypes, racism, and sexism.
Hoyt, K.B. (1989). The career status of women and minority persons: A 20-year retrospective. Career Development Quarterly, 37, 202-212.
This article discusses a 20-year-old commitment made by the National Career Development Association (then the National Vocational Guidance Association) to extend equity in career development planning and services to women and minorities. Discussed are the extent to which this commitment has been implemented, the effect on labor force participation of sex stereotyping and racism, and priorities for bringing equity of opportunity in career development to all. It is argued that much gender and racial bias exist and that helping poor minority persons in the career development process is a challenge. It is suggested that massive social service efforts will be required, such as preschool programs, day care centers, family services, and a comprehensive educational reform.
Iasenza, S. & Troutt, B.V. (1990). A training program to diminish prejudicial attitudes in student leaders. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 83-84.
The authors describe a training program designed to sensitize 40 college student leaders to issues related to racism, sexism, homophobia, and anti-Semitism. The program consists of a written word association prejudice exercise and a small-group prejudice problem-solving exercise. The word association exercise consisted of six minority group descriptors: gay man, black person, woman, Hispanic person, Jewish person and lesbian. Suggestions were made by the student groups for a review of school curriculum for inclusion of a course on ethnic studies, showing respect for both sexes, providing educational seminars on the effects of homophobia and educating students on religious diversity through workshops with students and faculty.
Jenkins, A.H. (1989). The liberating value of constructionism for minorities. Humanistic Psychologist, 17, 161-168.
The author presents a social constructionist (SOC) perspective of racism in the U.S. that characterizes the capacity to struggle against racist social contexts. It is argued that the SOC perspective should give credence to the contribution of the potentially independent conceptualizing activities of the individual, in addition to its emphasis on social interactions and role performances. A key supplement needed in the SOC framework is the irreducible contribution made by dialectical mental activity.
Kagee, A. & Price, J.L. (1995). Apartheid in South Africa: Toward a model of psychological intervention. Journal of Black Studies, 25, 737-748.
The authors propose a model of psychology that is relevant to the needs of victims of apartheid. J. Moursand's (1990) four variables necessary for a reliable and valid model of psychological counseling are used. These variables include the characteristics of the target population, the role of the clinician, the dynamics of the therapeutic process, and the expected outcomes of counseling. The political and social system of apartheid is approached as an etiological factor in the onset of psychological distress manifested by enforced poverty, state oppression of extraparliamentary opposition, and detention and torture of political activists. The role of the clinician is outlined as necessarily extending beyond helping people merely cope with their environment to assisting them in effecting its transformation.
Katz, J.H. & Torres, C. (1983). Combatting racism in education: A White awareness approach. Early Child Development and Care, 10, 333-344.
The authors propose strategies for eliminating racism in education. 'White awareness training,' which has as its tenet that Whites must take the major responsibility for eliminating racism since racism is a White problem, is proposed for educators. The training enables White people to learn about racism as a process and has been proven successful with those who have experienced it.
Katz, P.A. & Taylor, D.A. (1988). Eliminating racism: Profiles in controversy. New York: Plenum Press.
Extensive civil rights legislation, multiple judicial decisions, and right-wing backlash pressures have escalated the emotional charge and the number of differing opinions in the sociopolitical climate. Among social scientists, there no longer appears to be a consensus on the best possible means of understanding and reducing racism. 'Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy' explores several situations underlying the recent increase in divergent and opposing proposals from social scientists in the field. These proposals represent diverse approaches to the problem of racism rather than different conclusions and goals. The chapters in this volume offer new perspectives on the primary controversial issues involved in the elimination of racism: integration versus pluralism, symbolic versus realistic group conflict, racism toward Blacks, racism and sexism, school desegregation, busing, intergroup contact, and affirmative action.
Kellner, D., Hall, S., Pieterse, J.N., Hooks, B., Rhodes, J., Ehrenreich, B., Lipsitz, G., Bobo, J. & Gross, L. A cultural studies approach to gender, race and class in the media. In G. Dines and J.M. Humez (Eds.), (1991). Gender, race, and class in media: A text-reader (pp. 1-69). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
This book brings issues of gender, race and/or class to the foreground, and introduces major concepts of a cultural studies approach to media literacy. In Douglas Kellner's 'Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism and Media Culture' he discusses the potential contributions of a cultural studies approach to media literacy and points to the importance of better integrating considerations of race and gender as categories of social analysis in cultural studies work in the future.
Kimmel, M.S. (1986). A prejudice against prejudice. Psychology Today, 20, 46-48, 50-52.
The author presents a profile of the social psychologist Thomas Pettigrew. Considering his upbringing in the segregated South, his research questions the role of authoritarian personality as an explanation of prejudice, and places emphasis on the need for institutional change to combat racism. Also discussed are Pettigrew's research in South Africa, his participation in the Civil Rights Movement, his advocacy of school busing to promote integration, and his ideas concerning the evolution and effects of current racial attitudes.
Loo, C.M. & Rolison, G. (1986). Alienation of ethnic minority students at a predominantly White university. Journal of Higher Education, 57, 58-77.
The authors assessed: a) The extent and nature of sociocultural alienation and academic satisfaction among ethnic minority students, b) whether minority and White students differed in these concerns, and c) similarities between the two groups. Open and closed-ended questions were used in interviews of a nonrepresentative sample of 109 minority students (e.g., Chicanos, Blacks, Asian-Americans) and 54 White students of a public university in California. Class background, family income, and parental occupational/educational attainment were examined. Findings indicate that minority Ss felt alienated despite quality curricula and programs and accessible faculty. Minorities' and Whites' perceptions differed regarding university support for minorities but were in agreement regarding the existence of sociocultural difficulties. Recommendations are made concerning the establishment of supportive environments, increased minority representation on campus, student support services, socioeconomic betterment, and the need for countering racism.
Monro, J.U. (1975). The college as agent for social change. New Directions for Higher Education, 5, 1-63.
The author suggests that the considerable attention given to the issue of whether the university is, or should be, an agent of social change has neglected one important area: institutional racism. Although the government has mandated and sponsored civil rights legislation, universities have acted on it because of legal and economic pressure rather than from conviction. It is important for institutions of higher learning to combat institutional racism. Two examples of what can be accomplished are found in Miles College, Alabama and in the open door policy of the City University of New York. Other examples of problems and successes are discussed.
Newlon, B.J. & Arcinega, M. (1983). Respecting cultural uniqueness: An Adlerian approach. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research and Practice, 39, 133-143.
The authors suggest that cultural considerations need to be integrated into the family counselor's approach as a basis for counseling minority families. The process of cultural integration involves the following: (1) confronting and challenging personal stereotypes held about cultural groups; (2) acquiring knowledge and appreciation of the group's culture and the heterogeneous response of the group; (3) understanding the traditional, institutional interaction of the dominant society with minorities and vice versa; (4) understanding the effects of racism and stereotypes; (5) acquiring first-hand experience with the minority group; (6) challenging traditional counselor approaches; and (7) using a culturally pluralistic model in counseling. The basic assumptions of Adlerian psychology provide a framework for understanding minority family dynamics, which assumes that all people are equal and worthy of respect. Equality does not mean sameness; inherent in the concept of equality is a respect for uniqueness. It is concluded that culture should be a major consideration when counseling minority families.
Ng, R. (1993). 'A woman out of control': Deconstructing sexism and racism in the university. Canadian Journal of Education, 18, 189-205.
The author argues that equity measures and attempts at inclusivity in the university, such as harassment policies and prejudice reduction workshops, tend to treat sexism, racism, and other forms of marginalization and exclusion as attitudinal and individualistic properties. Through discussion of a critical incident in which the author was involved, she argues that sexism and racism are systemic; they are power relations that have become normalized courses of action within the university. To make the university more inclusive in fact, and not merely in policy, an anti-sexist/racist approach is proposed, explicitly taking into account the inequalities members of the university embody in their gender, racial, and other historically and ideologically constructed differences.
O'Brian, C. (1990). Family therapy with Black families. Journal of Family Therapy, 12, 3-16.
The author offers personal and professional experiences confronting racism in the UK and provides structured exercises useful in anti-racism training for UK family therapists. It is argued that UK family therapists need to acknowledge and address racism before intervening in the family system, and minimal and positive goals are advocated to promote change. The case of a 15-yr-old male with a drinking problem illustrates guidelines for therapeutic work with Black families.
Prilleltensky, I. & Gonick, L.S. (1994). The discourse of oppression in the social sciences: Past, present, and future. In E.J. Trickett, R.J. Watts and D. Birman, (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 145-177). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
This chapter considers both external sources and internal manifestations of oppression. The argument is made that while students of politics, economics, and sociology are more likely to turn to forms of external-structural analysis, such as imperialism, the market, the balance of power, racism, and patriarchy, those in psychology are more likely to turn to forms of internal-psychosocial analysis. This identifies a matrix of values that guide our inquiry subsumed in the concept of reciprocal empowerment. It defines human diversity and oppression and delineates a historically informed framework for reviewing and understanding the discourse of oppression in the social sciences. It presents a model for enacting emancipatory principles in our disciplines.
Steeh, C. & Schuman, H. (1992). Young White adults: Did racial attitudes change in the 1980s? American Journal of Sociology, 98, 340-367.
The authors examined the hypothesis that racism among young White adults has increased in the 1980s, using 12 racial policy questions from the General Social Surveys and the National Election Studies. Under the assumption that age effects can be treated as negligible, the article evaluates the importance of period and cohort effects in shaping the present racial attitudes of adults who have come of age since 1959. It is concluded that there is no indication of decreasing tolerance among cohorts coming of age in the 1980s. Similarly the period effects are seldom significant over the years from 1984-90 and thus show no consistent decline in racial liberalism.
Tatum, B.D. (1994). Teaching White students about racism: The search for White allies and the restoration of hope.
The author discusses the issue of White allies in the battle against racism from the perspective of an African-American female college professor. White identity development after confrontation with issues of racism is outlined: (1) contact stage, (2) disintegration stage, (3) reintegration stage, (4) pseudo-independent stage, (5) immersion/emersion stage, and (6) autonomy stage. The model of the White ally is presented as an alternative to more negative models of Whiteness (the White supremist model, the what Whiteness? model, and the guilty White model). Educational implications include more awareness of White spokespeople for minority rights.
Tatum, B.D. (1992). Talking about race, learning about racism: The application of racial identity development theory in the classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 62(1), 1-24.
This study on inclusion of race-related content in a college course identified three sources of resistance to learning about racism: race as taboo topic, myth of meritocracy, and denial of personal connection to racism. Strategies for reducing resistance include a safe classroom climate; opportunity for self-generated knowledge; model of racial identity development; and empowering students as change agents.
Torrey, J.W. (1979). Racism and feminism: Is women's liberation for Whites only? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 4, 281-293.
The women's movement is often described as 'White middle-class,' despite the fact that Black women not only are more oppressed than Whites but are more favorable to the goals of the women's movement. Black women, especially those identified with the Black rights movement, fear that feminism will split their ranks and divert public attention. Black women's problems also differ from those of Whites in other ways, mostly related to the fact that their economic position is much worse than that of either White women or Black men. Moreover, Blacks hesitate to join organizations they perceive as White dominated. It is argued that both Black and women's rights movements need each others' support and that Black women cannot achieve equality unless both movements succeed.
Williams, H. (1994). A critique of Hodson's 'In search of a rationale for multicultural science education.' Science Education, 78, 515-519.
The author comments on D. Hodson's views (see PA, Vol 81:15395) that science is presented from a Western cultural perspective that does violence to the beliefs and experiences of ethnic and cultural minority students. Hodson's proposed multicultural science is seen as patronizing minorities, clashing with Western educational goals, and depicting science as a racial enterprise. Many of Hodson's suggestions for antiracist science education appear to reinforce negative attitudes toward science by minority students.
About the Annotated Bibliography
This annotated bibliography was conceived and developed as a core resource for the 1997 APA Public Interest Miniconvention and National Conversation on Psychology and Racism. The annotated bibliography is structured by three themes of the Miniconvention and National Conversation project, i.e., Psychology of Racism, Racism in Psychology, and Psychology of Anti-racism. The bibliography is designed as a resource for psychologists and others interested in understanding and taking action against racism. If focuses primarily on the published psychological literature and to a lesser extent on the published medical literature during 1974 - 1996.
Bertha G. Holliday, PhD
American Psychological Association
Stacey L. Crump
University of Maryland at College Park
Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, American Psychological Association
All rights reserved. This material may be photocopied, linkages may be made to this material on the APA World Wide Web site on the Internet, and copies may be downloaded for personal use without permission, provided that acknowledgement is given to the American Psychological Association and its Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs. The publisher does not permit reprinting, translation, and electronic distribution without prior permission in writing. For permission, contact APA, Rights and Permissions, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.