Helping Skills: The Empirical Foundation

Pages: 463
Item #: 4311222
ISBN: 978-1-55798-817-1
List Price: $39.95
Member/Affiliate Price: $34.95
Copyright: 2001
Format: Softcover
Note: This book is out of print and no longer available for purchase.

Individual chapters of this book are available to purchase online.

Helping Skills: The Empirical Foundation presents an invaluable introduction to relevant research for future practitioners studying the three-stage model of helping. The effectiveness of therapist behaviors and interventions during the Exploration, Insight and Action stages are carefully analyzed in this rich collection. Studies included present a general overview of applicable helping skills research while also demonstrating the importance of key methodological variables.

Intended as a companion reader to Helping Skills: Facilitating Exploration, Insight, and Action, Helping Skills: The Empirical Foundation will provide students intimidated by research with direct links and clear explanations of how research informs practice, while also suggesting directions for future exploration.

Table of Contents



I. The Process of Helping


  1. Primary Therapist Response Modes: Comparison of Six Rating Systems
    —Robert Elliott, Clara E. Hill, William B. Stiles, Myrna L. Friedlander, Alvin R. Mahrer, and Frank R. Margison
  2. Client Behavior in Counseling and Therapy Sessions: Development of a Pantheoretical Measure
    —Clara E. Hill, Maureen M. Corbett, Bettina Kanitz, Peggy Rios, Richard Lightsey, and Maria Gomez
  3. Development of a System for Categorizing Client Reactions to Therapist Interventions
    —Clara E. Hill, Janet E. Helms, Sharon B. Spiegel, and Victoria Tichenor
  4. Effects of Therapist Response Modes in Brief Psychotherapy
    —Clara E. Hill, Janet E. Helms, Victoria Tichenor, Sharon B. Spiegel, Kevin E. O'Grady, and Elgin S. Perry
  5. List of Therapist Intentions Illustrated in a Case Study and With Therapists of Varying Theoretical Orientations
    —Clara E. Hill, and Kevin E. O'Grady
  6. Methodological Examination of Videotape-Assisted Reviews in Brief Therapy: Helpfulness Ratings, Therapist Intentions, Client Reactions, Mood, and Session Evaluation
    —Clara E. Hill, Kevin E. O'Grady, Victoria Balenger, Wilfried Busse, Dana R. Falk, Mary Hill, Peggy Rios, and Rick Taffe
  7. Relation of Nonverbal Behaviors to Client Reactions
    —Clara E. Hill and Alicia Stephany
  8. Beneath the Surface of Long-Term Therapy: Therapist and Client Report of Their Own and Each Other's Covert Processes
    —Clara E. Hill, Barbara J. Thompson, Mary C. Cogar, and Daniel W. Denman III
  9. Helpee Introversion, Novice Counselor Intention Use, and Helpee-Rated Session Impact
    —Dennis M. Kivlighan, Jr., and Edgar O. Angelone

II. Attending and Listening—Nonverbal Behaviors


  1. Postural Movements in a Counseling Dyad
    —Bruce R. Fretz
  2. Nonverbal Communication and Counseling Outcome
    —Clara E. Hill, Larry Siegelman, Barbara R. Gronsky, Frank Sturniolo, and Bruce R. Fretz
  3. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Facilitative Conditions
    —Donald T. Tepper, Jr., and Richard F. Haase

III. Exploration Stage


  1. Effects of Reflection, Restatement, Probe, and Nonverbal Behaviors on Client Affect
    —Clara E. Hill and James Gormally

IV. Insight Stage—Challenge


  1. Enhancing Motivation for Change in Problem Drinking: A Controlled Comparison of Two Therapist Styles
    —William R. Miller, R. Gayle Benefield, and J. Scott Tonigan
  2. Interpretation and Arousal in the Counseling Process
    —Douglas H. Olson and Charles D. Claiborn
  3. Therapist Behavior as a Determinant for Client Noncompliance: A Paradox for the Behavior Modifier
    —G. R. Patterson and M. S. Forgatch

V. Insight Stage—Interpretation


  1. Attributional Interpretations in Counseling: Content Versus Discrepancy
    —Charles D. Claiborn and E. Thomas Dowd
  2. The Accuracy of Therapists' Interpretations and the Outcome of Dynamic Psychotherapy
    —Paul Crits-Christoph, Andrew Cooper, and Lester Luborsky
  3. Comprehensive Process Analysis of Insight Events in Cognitive–Behavioral and Psychodynamic–Interpersonal Psychotherapies
    —Robert Elliott, David A. Shapiro, Jenny Firth-Cozens, William B. Stiles, Gillian E. Hardy, Susan P. Llewelyn, and Frank R. Margison
  4. Concentration and Correspondence of Transference Interpretations in Short-Term Psychotherapy
    —William E. Piper, Anthony S. Joyce, Mary McCallum, and Hassan F. A. Azim
  5. Depth of Interpretation and Verbal Resistance in Psychotherapy
    —Joseph C. Speisman

VI. Insight Stage—Self-Disclosure


  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Client Perceptions of the Effects of Helpful Therapist Self-Disclosure in Long-Term Therapy
    —Sarah Knox, Shirley A. Hess, David A. Petersen, and Clara E. Hill
  2. Differential Effects of Self-Disclosing Versus Self-Involving Counselor Statements
    —Patricia R. McCarthy and Nancy E. Betz

VII. Action Stage


  1. Differential Effects of Two Test-Interpretation Styles in Counseling: A Field Study
    —William E. Hanson, Charles D. Claiborn, and Barbara Kerr
  2. Client Commitment and Resolve to Carry Out Postsession Behaviors
    —Alvin R. Mahrer, Robin Gagnon, David R. Fairweather, Donald B. Boulet, and Colin B. Herring
  3. Client Implementation of Therapist Recommendations Predicted by Client Perception of Fit, Difficulty of Implementation, and Therapist Influence
    —Michael J. Scheel, Scott Seaman, Kenneth Roach, Thomas Mullin, and Karen Blackwell Mahoney
  4. Effects of Including the Action Stage in Dream Interpretation
    —Teresa L. Wonnell and Clara E. Hill

About the Editor

Editor Bio

Clara Hill, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park. She received her PhD in 1974 from Southern Illinois University in Carbondale and has been at the University of Maryland since then. Her major areas of research are the process and outcome of counseling and psychotherapy, training students in how to conduct counseling and psychotherapy, dream interpretation, supervision, and qualitative research.

She is past president of the North American Society for Psychotherapy Research and of the International Society for Psychotherapy Research. She served as an associate editor and then editor of the Journal of Counseling Psychology from 1991 to 1999. She is the author of three books: Therapist Techniques and Client Outcomes: Eight Cases of Brief Psychotherapy (1989), Working With Dreams in Psychotherapy (1996), and Helping Skills: Facilitating Exploration, Insight, and Action (1999, with Karen O'Brien).

Companion Products
  • Helping Skills

    Designed for undergraduate and first-year graduate students in counseling curricula, this textbook presents a 3-stage model of helping: Exploration, Insight, and Action.