The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality
For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
Since the term "glass ceiling" was first coined in 1984, women have made great progress in terms of leadership equality with men in the workplace. Despite this, women are still under-represented in the upper echelons of organizations.
In this volume, leading psychologists from the United States, Canada, and the European Union go beyond social commentary, anecdotal evidence and raw statistics to explain and offer remedies for this continued inequality, based on empirical evidence. Subtle barriers to women's advancement to and success in leadership positions are a major focus, such as women being recruited for upper-level positions that are associated with a high risk of failure or women managers being stereotyped as either competent or warm (but not both). Solutions that can be practically implemented are offered at different levels of analysis, including organizational (e.g., affirmative action), work group (e.g., diversity management), and individual (e.g., cross-cultural networking).
Other obstacles associated with breaking through the glass ceiling include more nuanced forms of gender stereotyping, tokenism, and sexual harassment. The somewhat surprising effects of affirmative action and family friendly policies are also examined. As this volume explores women's current experiences in the workplace, a critical emphasis is making visible what women encounter as their career trajectory ascends and suggesting how they can enhance their career choices and thrive in the hard-won positions they attain.
- Introduction: Is the Glass Ceiling Still Relevant in the 21st Century?
—Manuela Barreto, Michelle K. Ryan, and Michael T. Schmitt
I. Developments in Workplace Gender Equality
- Stereotypes About Women, Men, and Leaders: Have Times Changed?
—Alice H. Eagly and Sabine Sczesny
- Rose-Colored Glasses: How Tokenism and Comparisons With the Past Reduce the Visibility of Gender Inequality
—Michael T. Schmitt, Jennifer R. Spoor, Kelly Danaher, and Nyla R. Branscombe
- Warmth, Competence, and Ambivalent Sexism: Vertical Assault and Collateral Damage
—Mina Cikara and Susan T. Fiske
II. Responses to Subtle Barriers Women Face
- The Self-Fulfilling Effects of Contemporary Sexism: How It Affects Women's Well-Being and Behavior
—Manuela Barreto, Naomi Ellemers, Sezgin Cihangir, and Katherine Stroebe
- The Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Women's Career Choice: Opening the Glass Door
—Shen Zhang, Toni Schmader, and Chad Forbes
III. Gendered Experience in the Workplace
- The Stress of Working on the Edge: Implications of Glass Cliffs for Both Women and Organizations
—Michelle K. Ryan, S. Alexander Haslam, Mette D. Hersby, Clara Kulich, and M. Dana Wilson-Kovacs
- Sexual Harassment and the Glass Ceiling
—Margareth S. Stockdale and Gargi Bhattacharya
- Ceilings and Walls: Work-Life and "Family-Friendly" Policies
—Laura Sabattini and Faye J. Crosby
IV. Solutions: Advancing Women's Equality in the Workplace
- Cross-Cultural Connections: Leveraging Social Networks for Women's Advancement
—Laurie Hunt, Gina LaRoche, Stacy Blake-Beard, Eleanor Chin, Marisol Arroyave, and Maureen Scully
- Increasing the Representation and Status of Women in Employment: The Effectiveness of Affirmative Action
- Managing Diversity in Work Groups: How Identity Processes Affect Diverse Work Groups
—Floor Rink and Naomi Ellemers
About the Editors
Manuela Barreto obtained her PhD in social Psychology from the Free University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Her dissertation, which focused on social identity and strategic processes as motivators of pro-group behavior, earned an honorary mention from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Dr. Barreto was an associate professor in social and organizational psychology at Leiden University, the Netherlands, and is now a research fellow at the Centre for Social Psychology and Intervention of the University of Lisbon, Portugal. She has been awarded several prizes and prestigious research grants. Her research interests and publications focus on the psychology of the disadvantaged, exemplified by her work on identity respect, reactions to prejudice and discrimination, and the psychology of concealed identities.
Michelle K. Ryan obtained her PhD from the Australian National University and is currently a senior research fellow at the University of Exeter. She holds a 5-year academic fellowship from the Research Council of the United Kingdom and a large grant from the Economic and Social Research Council. She is a member of the Centre for Identity, Personality and Self in Society and works within a social identity framework, specializing in research about gender and gender differences. She is a consulting editor for the British Journal of Social Psychology and Social Psychology.
Michael T. Schmitt first became involved in social psychological research on gender and sexism as an undergraduate at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia, working under the supervision of Arnie Kahn and Ginny Andreoli-Mathie. Dr. Schmitt received his PhD from the University of Kansas, where he was mentored by Nyla Branscombe. As a graduate student he received as Fulbright Scholarship to conduct research and study at the University of Amsterdam. Currently, Dr. Schmitt is an assistant professor in the psychology department at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. His research examines how people respond to inequality between groups, such as inequalities based on ethnicity, gender, nationality, or sexuality.