Single-Case Intervention Research: Methodological and Statistical Advances
For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
Thanks to remarkable methodological and statistical advances in recent years, single-case design (SCD) research has become a viable and often essential option for researchers in applied psychology, education, and related fields.
This text is a compendium of information and tools for researchers considering SCD research, a methodology in which one or several participants (or other units) comprise a systematically-controlled experimental intervention study. SCD is a highly flexible method of conducting applied intervention research where it is not feasible or practical to collect data from traditional groups of participants.
Initial chapters lay out the key components of SCDs, from articulating dependent variables to documenting methods for achieving experimental control and selecting an appropriate design model. Subsequent chapters show when and how to implement SCDs in a variety of contexts and how to analyze and interpret results.
Authors emphasize key design and analysis tactics, such as randomization, to help enhance the internal validity and scientific credibility of individual studies. This rich resource also includes in-depth descriptions of large-scale SCD research projects being undertaken at key institutions; practical suggestions from journal editors on how to get SCD research published; and detailed instructions for free, user-friendly, web-based randomization software.
Introduction: An Overview of Single-Case Intervention Research
Thomas R. Kratochwill and Joel R. Levin
I. Methodologies and Analyses
- Constructing Single-Case Research Designs: Logic and Options
Robert H. Horner and Samuel L. Odom
- Enhancing the Scientific Credibility of Single-Case Intervention Research: Randomization to the Rescue
Thomas R. Kratochwill and Joel R. Levin
- Visual Analysis of Single-Case Intervention Research: Conceptual and Methodological Issues
Thomas R. Kratochwill, Joel R. Levin, Robert H. Horner, and Christopher M. Swoboda
- Non-Overlap Analysis for Single-Case Research
Richard I. Parker, Kimberly J. Vannest, and John L. Davis
- Single-Case Permutation and Randomization Statistical Tests: Present Status, Promising New Developments
John M. Ferron and Joel R. Levin
- The Single-Case Data-Analysis ExPRT (Excel Package of Randomization Tests)
Joel R. Levin, Anya S. Evmenova, and Boris S. Gafurov
- Using Multilevel Models to Analyze Single-Case Design Data
David M. Rindskopf and John M. Ferron
- Analyzing Single-Case Designs: d, G, Hierarchical Models, Bayesian Estimators, Generalized Additive Models, and the Hopes and Fears of Researchers About Analyses
William R. Shadish, Larry V. Hedges, James E. Pustejovsky, David M. Rindskopf, Jonathan G. Boyajian, and Kristynn J. Sullivan
- The Role of Single-Case Designs in Supporting Rigorous Intervention Development and Evaluation at the Institute of Education Sciences
Jacquelyn A. Buckley, Deborah L. Speece, and Joan E. McLaughlin
II. Reactions From Leaders in the Field
- Single-Case Designs and Large-N Studies: The Best of Both Worlds
Susan M. Sheridan
- Using Single-Case Research Designs in Programs of Research
Ann P. Kaiser
- Reactions From Journal Editors: Journal of School Psychology
Randy G. Floyd
- Reactions From Journal Editors: School Psychology Quarterly
Randy W. Kamphaus
- Reactions From Journal Editors: School Psychology Review
Matthew K. Burns
About the Editors
Thomas R. Kratochwill, PhD, is Sears Roebuck Foundation–Bascom Professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, director of the School Psychology Program, and a licensed psychologist in Wisconsin.
He is the author of more than 200 journal articles and book chapters. He has written or edited more than 30 books and has made more than 300 professional presentations.
In 1977 he received the Lightner Witmer Award from APA Division 16 (School Psychology). In 1981 he received the Outstanding Research Contributions Award from the Arizona State Psychological Association and in 1995 received an award for Outstanding Contributions to the Advancement of Scientific Knowledge in Psychology from the Wisconsin Psychological Association. Also in 1995, he was the recipient of the Senior Scientist Award from APA Division 16, and the Wisconsin Psychological Association selected his research for its Margaret Bernauer Psychology Research Award.
In 1995, 2001, and 2002 the APA Division 16 journal School Psychology Quarterly selected one of his articles as the best of the year. In 2005 he received the Jack I. Bardon Distinguished Achievement Award from APA Division 16. He was selected as the founding editor of School Psychology Quarterly in 1984 and served as editor of the journal until 1992.
In 2011 Dr. Kratochwill received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology and the Nadine Murphy Lambert Lifetime Achievement Award from APA Division 16.
Dr. Kratochwill is a fellow of APA Divisions 15 (Educational Psychology), 16, and 53 (Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology). He is past president of the Society for the Study of School Psychology and was cochair of the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. He was also a member of the APA Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice for Children and Adolescents and the recipient of the 2007 APA Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training of Psychologists.
He is the recipient of the University of Wisconsin–Madison Van Hise Outreach Teaching Award and a member of the University's teaching academy. Most recently he has chaired the What Works Clearinghouse Panel for the development of Standards for Single-Case Research Design for review of evidence-based interventions.
Joel R. Levin, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin–Madison and University of Arizona. He is internationally renowned for his research and writing on educational research methodology and statistical analysis as well as for his career-long program of research on students' learning strategies and study skills, with more than 400 scholarly publications in those domains. Within APA, he is a Fellow of Division 5 (Evaluation, Measurement and Statistics) and Division 15 (Educational Psychology).
From 1986 to 1988 Dr. Levin was head of the Learning and Instruction division of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), from 1991 to 1996 he was editor of APA's Journal of Educational Psychology, and from 2001 to 2003 he was coeditor of the journal Issues in Education: Contributions From Educational Psychology. During 1994–1995 he served as chair of APA's Council of Editors, and from 1993 to 1995 he was an ex-officio representative on APA's Publications and Communications Board.
Dr. Levin chaired an editors' committee that revised the statistical-reporting guidelines sections for the fourth (1994) edition of the APA Publication Manual, and he served on a similar committee that revised the fifth (2001) and sixth (2010) editions of the manual. From 2003 to 2008 he was APA's chief editorial advisor, a position in which he was responsible for mediating editor–author conflicts, managing ethical violations, and making recommendations bearing on all aspects of the scholarly research and publication process.
Dr. Levin has received two article-of-the-year awards from AERA (1972, with Leonard Marascuilo; 1973, with William Rohwer and Anne Cleary) as well as awards from the University of Wisconsin–Madison for both his teaching and his research (1971 and 1980). In 1992 he was presented with a University of Wisconsin–Madison award for his combined research, teaching, and professional service contributions, followed in 1996 by a prestigious University of Wisconsin–Madison named professorship (Julian C. Stanley Chair).
In 1997 the University of Wisconsin–Madison's School of Education honored Dr. Levin with a distinguished career award, and in 2002 he was accorded APA Division 15's highest research recognition, the E. L. Thorndike Award, for his professional achievements. In 2010 AERA's Educational Statisticians Special Interest Group presented him with an award for exceptional contributions to the field of educational statistics, and most recently, in 2013 the editorial board of the Journal of School Psychology selected his 2012 publication (with John Ferron and Thomas Kratochwill) as the Journal's outstanding article of the year.
Provides valuable information about single case research design for researchers and graduate students, including methodology, statistical analyses, and the opinions of researchers who have been using it.
—Doody's Review Service
This is a welcome addition to the libraries of behavioral researchers interested in knowing more about the lives of children inside and outside of school. Kratochwill and Levin and their contributing authors blend the sometimes esoteric issues of the philosophy of science, experimental design, and statistics with the real-life issues of how to get grant funding and publish research. This volume is useful for new and experienced researchers alike.
—Ilene S. Schwartz, PhD, professor, University of Washington, Seattle, and director, Haring Center for Research on Inclusive Education, Seattle, WA