Many clinicians today are unaware of the implications of psychotherapy research for their practice. Research that can readily be applied is not always easily found in original empirical papers. And while they know where to find details on methods and statistical procedures, today's clinicians may not grasp the larger picture of psychotherapy research from the past 50 years. Bringing Psychotherapy Research To Life attempts to bridge these gaps by highlighting the work of 28 distinguished psychotherapy researchers, showing how their research programs changed the way we think about and practice psychotherapy. While honoring founders and influential members of the Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR), the book illustrates how research has extended such questions as:

  • What types of patients benefit from therapy?
  • How can relationship problems best be handled?
  • Under which circumstances can emotions be deepened?
  • How does the therapist foster insight?
  • How does the therapist facilitate behavioral change?

This book presents scientifically rich and clinically relevant messages embedded in meaningful stories. By contextualizing the work of luminaries in psychotherapy research, it will appeal to students and practitioners alike, including those who want to survey the field as well as those who are looking to its foundations as a resource for fresh research questions. For readers who are primarily associated with a cognitive-behavioral approach, the book will also provide an overview of the constructs investigated and empirical methods used by researchers in the humanistic and psychodynamic traditions.

Table of Contents



  1. A Brief Introduction to Psychotherapy Research
    —J. Christopher Muran, Louis G. Castonguay, and Berhnard Strauss

I. Establishing the Foundation for the Scientific Study of Psychotherapy

  1. Carl Rogers: Idealistic Pragmatist and Psychotherapy Research Pioneer
    —Robert Elliott and Barry A. Farber
  2. Jerome D. Frank: Psychotherapy Researcher and Humanitarian
    —Bruce E. Wampold and Joel Weinberger
  3. Lester Luborsky: A Trailblazer in Empirical Research on Psychoanalytic Therapy
    —Paul Crits-Christoph, Jacques P. Barber, Brin F. S. Grenyer, and Louis Diguer
  4. Hans Strupp: A Founder's Contributions to a Scientific Basis for Psychotherapy Practice
    —Karla Moras, Timothy Anderson, and William E. Piper
  5. Aaron T. Beck: The Cognitive Revolution in Theory and Therapy
    —Steven D. Hollon

II. Does Psychotherapy Work?

  1. Irene Elkin: "The Data Are Always Friendly"
    —Karla Moras and M. Tracie Shea
  2. Kenneth I. Howard: The Best Friend That Psychotherapy Research Ever Had.
    —David E. Orlinsky, Merton S. Krause, Fredrick L. Newman, Robert J. Lueger, and Wolfgang Lutz
  3. Allen E. Bergin: Consummate Scholar and Charter Member of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
    —Michael J. Lambert, Alan S. Gurman, and P. Scott Richards
  4. Klaus Grawe: On a Constant Quest for a Truly Integrative and Research-Based Psychotherapy
    —Franz Caspar and Martin Grosse Holtforth

III. How Does Psychotherapy Work?

A. Therapist Contributions

  1. Marvin R. Goldfried: Pioneering Spirit and Integrative Force
    —Louis G. Castonguay and John C. Norcross
  2. Michael J. Lambert: Building Confidence in Psychotherapy
    —Benjamin M. Ogles and Jeffrey A. Hayes
  3. Clara E. Hill: A Rebel With Several Causes
    —Sarah Knox

B. Client Contributions

  1. Eugene Gendlin: Experiential Philosophy and Psychotherapy
    —David L. Rennie, Arthur C. Bohart, and Alberta E. Pos
  2. Laura Rice: Natural Observer of Psychotherapy Process
    —Jeanne C. Watson and Hadas Wiseman
  3. Leslie Greenberg: Emotional Change Leads to Positive Outcome
    —Rhonda N. Goldman, Lynne Angus, and Jeremy D. Safran

C. Relationship Variables

  1. Edward S. Bordin: Innovative Thinker, Influential Investigator, and Inspiring Teacher
    —Michael J. Constantino, Nicholas Ladany, and Thomas D. Borkovec
  2. Donald J. Kiesler: Interpersonal Manifesto
    —Christopher C. Wagner and Jeremy D. Safran
  3. Lorna Smith Benjamin: Love, Loyalty, and Learning in Close Attachment Relationships
    —Kenneth L. Critchfield
  4. David E. Orlinsky: Developing Psychotherapy Research, Researching Psychotherapist Development
    —Micheal Helge Rønnestad, Ulrike Willutzki, and Margarita Tarragona

D. Integration of Multiple Variables

  1. Horst Kächele: Bringing Research, Practice, and People Together
    —Bernhard Strauss
  2. Enrico Jones: Appreciating Complexity
    —Tai Katzenstein, Peter Fonagy, and J. Stuart Ablon
  3. David A. Shapiro: Psychotherapeutic Investigations
    —Michael Barkham, Glenys Parry, and Gillian E. Hardy
  4. Robert Elliott: Commitment to Experience
    —Rhea Partyka
  5. William B. Stiles: Empathic Reflections, Voices, and Theory-Building
    —Meredith Glick Brinegar and Katerine Osatuke

IV. What Works For Whom?

  1. Sol L. Garfield: A Pioneer in Bringing Science to Clinical Psychology
    —Larry E. Beutler and Anne D. Simons
  2. Larry E. Beutler: A Matter of Principles
    —Paulo P. P. Machado, Héctor Fernández Álvarez, and John F. Clarkin
  3. Sidney J. Blatt: Relatedness, Self-Definition, and Mental Representation
    —John S. Auerbach, Kenneth N. Levy, and Carrie E. Schaffer
  4. William E. Piper: Negotiating the Complexities of Psychotherapy
    —John S. Ogrodniczuk

V. Conclusion

  1. Future Directions: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Psychotherapy Research
    —Lynne Angus, Jeffrey A. Hayes, Timothy Anderson, Nicholas Ladany, Louis G. Castonguay, and J. Christopher Muran


About the Editors

Editor Bios

Louis G. Castonguay, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Penn State University. His work focuses on the process, outcome, and training of psychotherapy, as well as on the development of practice–research networks. He has coedited three books: on psychotherapy integration (with Conrad Lecomte), on principles of therapeutic change (with Larry Beutler), and on insight in psychotherapy (with Clara Hill).

J. Christopher Muran, PhD, is associate dean and professor, Derner Institute, Adelphi University, and director, Brief Psychotherapy Research Program, Beth Israel Medical Center. His research has concentrated on alliance ruptures and resolution processes and has resulted several book collaborations, including Negotiating the Therapeutic Alliance, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process, Dialogues on Difference, and Therapeutic Alliance.

Lynne Angus, PhD, is a professor of psychology at York University in Toronto, Canada. She is the senior editor of the Handbook of Narrative and Psychotherapy (with John McLeod). Her research focuses on the investigation of narrative and emotion processes in psychotherapy, and she has developed the Narrative Processes Coding System (with Heidi Levitt and Karen Hardtke) for application in differing treatment approaches.

Jeffrey A. Hayes, PhD, is a professor of counseling psychology at Penn State University. His scholarship focuses on the psychotherapy relationship, with an emphasis on therapist factors and the integration of spirituality and psychology. He has coauthored two books with Charles Gelso, The Psychotherapy Relationship and Countertransference and the Therapists' Inner Experience: Perils and Possibilities.

Nicholas Ladany, PhD, is a professor of counseling psychology at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. He is the author of three books on supervision and training: Critical Events in Psychotherapy Supervision: An Interpersonal Approach; Counselor Supervision: Principles, Process, and Practice; and Practicing Counseling and Psychotherapy: Insights from Trainees, Clients, and Supervisors.

Timothy Anderson, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at Ohio University in Athens. His current research is on the identification of common therapist factors that predict therapy processes and outcome. He is the recipient of the 2004 Distinguished Early Career Award from the International Society for Psychotherapy Research.