Evocative Images: The Thematic Apperception Test and the Art of Projection
For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
Psychologists have used the Thematic Apperception Test to explore the drives, sentiments, complexes, and conflicts of personality for more than six decades. The TAT is used worldwide in military and industrial settings, for neuropsychological assessment and forensic evaluation, and in creativity and motivation studies. Yet researchers continue to debate its reliability and validity. Despite its wide use and popularity, no consensual scoring system or set of norms exists for the TAT.
In this lively and fascinating book, Gieser and Stein retrace the roots of this vital instrument, along with the circumstances that shaped, and continue to shape, its use. The TAT's rich history, theoretical and empirical grounding, and continued practical value are explored in this volume dedicated to one of psychology's most valued assessment tools.
Foreword: Harry's Compass
—Caroline C. Murray
Part I. Introduction
- An Overview of the Thematic Apperception Test
—Lon Gieser and Morris I. Stein
Part II. Historical Foundations
- The Zeitgeists and Events Surrounding the Birth of the Thematic Apperception Test
—Morris I. Stein and Lon Gieser
- Henry A. Murray and the Creation of the Thematic Apperception Test
—James William Anderson
- Pioneer Experiences in the Clinical Development of the Thematic Apperception Test
Part III. Artistic and Literary Influences
- Look Homeward, Harry: Literary Influence on the Development of the Thematic Apperception Test
—Lon Gieser and Wesley G. Morgan
- The 1943 Images: Their Origin and History
—Wesley G. Morgan
Part IV. Research and Clinical Applications
- The Thematic Apperception Test: A Paradise of Psychodynamics
—Edwin S. Shneidman
- Empiricism and the Thematic Apperception Test: Validity Is the Payoff
—Robert R. Holt
- Linking Personality and "Scientific" Psychology: The Development of Empirically Derived Thematic Apperception Test Measures
—David G. Winter
- A Personological Approach to the Thematic Apperception Test
—Morris I. Stein
- My Perceptions of the Thematic Apperception Test in Psychodiagnosis and Psychotherapy
- Six Decades of the Bellak Scoring System, Among Others
—David M. Abrams
Part V. Contemporary Developments
- How the Test Lives On: Extensions of the Thematic Apperception Test Approach
—David C. McClelland
- Cross-Cultural–Multicultural Use of the Thematic Apperception Test
—Richard H. Dana
- The Tell-Me-A-Story Test: A Multicultural Offspring of the Thematic Apperception Test
—Giuseppe Costantino and Robert G. Malgady
- The Thematic Apperception Test and the Multivoiced Nature of the Self
—Hubert J. M. Hermans
Part VI. Conclusion
- A View to the Future
—Lon Gieser and Morris I. Stein
About the Editors
About the Cover
Lon Gieser, PhD, practices clinical psychology independently in Upper Montclair and Summit, NJ. He received his PhD from the Wright Institute at Berkeley, CA. Dr. Gieser's mentor was Nevitt Sanford, a colleague of Henry A. Murray, who helped develop the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) at the Harvard Psychological Clinic.
Dr. Gieser completed a postdoctoral internship at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, where he subsequently directed the Crisis Intervention Unit Short-Term Psychotherapy Clinic; later he directed adult outpatient psychological services at Fair Oaks Hospital in Summit, NJ.
Dr. Gieser has been an editor for the International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine and has published articles in other psychiatric journals. Dr. Gieser specializes in integrating personality assessment with treatment. His research interests include the history of psychology, authoritarianism, eating disorders, substance abuse, and academic underachievement.
Dr. Gieser supervises psychotherapists, including graduate student interns from Seton Hall, Fairleigh Dickinson, and Montclair State Universities at COPE Counseling Center, Montclair, NJ, where he is a consulting psychologist. He is also a consultant to secondary schools and to Jespy House, Inc., a program for learning disabled adults in South Orange, NJ. In addition, Dr. Gieser is a community speaker and support group leader for the American Anorexia/Bulimia Association.
Morris I. Stein, PhD, is professor emeritus of psychology, New York University. Prior to that, he taught at the University of Chicago. He completed his undergraduate work at the College of the City of New York and earned his doctorate in social relations at Harvard University, where he was Murray's research assistant.
During World War 2, Dr. Stein served in the assessment program of the Office of Strategic Services and has been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He also holds a Career Award from the National Institute of Mental Health. In 1996, he was awarded a Lifetime Career Award by the Creative Education Foundation for his research on creativity. In 1948, he published his first manual on the TAT, which was expanded and revised in 1955 to The Thematic Apperception Test: An Introductory Manual for Its Clinical Use With Adults. Following Murray's emphasis on the anabolic function of personality, Dr. Stein has been for many years involved in research on creativity — a topic on which he has lectured worldwide.
His books on creativity include Creativity and the Individual: Summaries of Selected Writings in the Psychological and Psychiatric Literature (with S. J. Heinze; 1960); Stimulating Creativity, Vol. I: Individual Procedures (1974), and Vol. II: Group Procedures (1975); and Gifted, Talented and Creative Young People: A Guide to Theory, Teaching and Research (1984; all by Mews Press). In 1984, Dr. Stein also published Making the Point: Anecdotes, Poems & Statements About the Creative Process (Winslow Press), which to date has been translated into eight languages.