Empathy Reconsidered: New Directions in Psychotherapy
Those psychologists who have adopted a manualized, technological, or "managed care" approach to their science have tried to downplay empathy as a key element in psychotherapy. Empathy is relegated to a useful background characteristic for building the therapeutic relationship, but it is often not understood as a vital therapeutic ingredient in its own right. Many clinicians do not seem to realize that the subject of empathy has generated novel perspectives and a healthy current research base.
The coeditors of Empathy Reconsidered: New Directions in Psychotherapy have chosen to buck this trend, bringing together a group of respected writers from a variety of perspectives who are making active contributions to the development of our understanding of what empathy is and how it operates in the therapy context. The contributors examine this therapeutic variable in a prism of theoretical perspectives, ranging from self psychology to psychodynamic, client-centered, experiential, feminist, humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, cross-cultural, postmodern, and developmental psychology. Moreover, this volume features heavy representation of the increasingly vital trend toward psychotherapy integration.
Although there are many unanswered questions about the role of empathy in psychotherapy, the present collection brings the reader up to date by comparing different operational definitions and by discussing the varieties of empathy and their hypothesized relationships to therapy process and outcome. Empathy Reconsidered should stand as a watershed in stimulating new research and more conscious use by therapists of empathy in working with their clients, and by providing state-of-the-art knowledge for improved training of therapists.
- Empathy and Psychotherapy: An Introductory Overview
—Arthur C. Bohart and Leslie S. Greenberg
- Empathy: The Formative Years—Implications for Clinical Practice
—Norma Deitch Feshbach
II. Client-Centered Perspectives
- Empathy in Psychotherapy: A Vital Mechanism? Yes. Therapist's Conceit? All Too Often. By Itself Enough? No
- Empathy From the Framework of Client-Centered Theory and the Rogerian Hypothesis
—Jerold D. Bozarth
- The Recovery of Empathy—Toward Others and Self
—Godfrey T. Barrett-Lennard
III. Experiential Perspectives
- Does Empathy Cure? A Theoretical Consideration of Empathy, Processing, and Personal Narrative
—Margaret S. Warner
- Empathic Resonance as a Source of Experience-Enhancing Interventions
- Varieties of Empathic Responding
—Leslie S. Greenberg and Robert Elliott
- Empathy as Therapist–Client Alignment
—Alvin R. Mahrer
IV. Psychoanalytic Perspectives
- Empathy: A Psychoanalytic Perspective
—Morris Eagle and David L. Wolitzky
- Empathy: Heinz Kohut's Contribution
—David S. MacIsaac
- Expanding Attunement: A Contribution to the Experience-Near Mode of Observation
—Crayton E. Rowe, Jr.
- Therapeutic Empathy: An Intersubjective Perspective
—Jeffrey L. Trop and Robert D. Stolorow
V. Other Recent Perspectives
- Relational Empathy: Beyond Modernist Egocentrism to Postmodern Holistic Contextualism
- The Empathic Context in Psychotherapy With People of Color
—Adelbert H. Jenkins
- Relational Development Through Mutual Empathy
—Judith V. Jordan
- Validation and Psychotherapy
—Marsha M. Linehan
- Empathy and the Active Client: An Integrative, Cognitive–Experiential View
—Arthur C. Bohart and Karen Tallman
- Empathy: Where Are We and Where Do We Go From Here?
—Arthur C. Bohart and Leslie S. Greenberg
About the Editors
Arthur C. Bohart is Professor of Psychology at California State University, Dominguez Hills, and is in part-time private practice. He has published articles on psychotherapy integration, experiencing in psychotherapy, empathy, constructivism, couples therapy, and the role of the client as self-healer. He is the coauthor of two textbooks, Foundations of Clinical and Counseling Psychology (with Judith Todd) and Personality (with Seymour Feshbach and Bernard Weiner). Along with Karen Tallman, he is currently writing a book to be published by the American Psychological Association called The Client as Active Self-Healer.
Leslie S. Greenberg is Professor of Psychology at York University in Toronto, where he is Director of the Psychotherapy Research Centre. He also has a part-time private practice. He is coauthor of a number of books, including Emotion in Psychotherapy (with Jeremy Safran), Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (with Susan Johnson), and Facilitating Emotional Change: The Moment-By Moment Process (with Laura Rice and Robert Elliott). He is past president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, and has published extensively on research on the process of change.