APA Databases Methodology Field Values

VALUE DEFINITION
Brain Imaging The use of imaging tools such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography or Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to study brain anatomy and its involvement in neurological and cognitive functions.
Clinical Case Study Case reports that include disorder, diagnosis, and clinical treatment for individuals with mental or medical illnesses.
Empirical Study Study based on facts, systematic observation, or experiment, rather than theory or general philosophical principle.
Experimental Replication Replication of the methods or results of a previous study, as indicated by the author. Studies that include extensions to original research are not considered replications.
Follow-up Study Empirical study which re-examines studies of individuals or groups, comparing the present findings with the original observations or measurements in a previously conducted study.
Longitudinal Study A study that follows the same individuals or groups of subjects over an extended period of time.
Prospective Study Study that analyzes forward over time a condition or characteristic shared by members of a group or cohort.
Retrospective Study Research that examines past experiences or events to study causative factors related to disease or behavior when the outcome is already known.
Field Study Research undertaken outside the laboratory or place of learning ("in the field"), usually in a natural environment using naturalistic observation techniques.
Interview A goal-directed conversation with the objective of obtaining information from an individual.
Focus Group Qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their opinions, perceptions, or experiences on issues, products, or services.
Literature Review Survey of previously published literature on a particular topic to define and clarify a particular problem; summarize previous investigations; identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature; and suggest the next step in solving the problem.
Systematic Review A form of literature review that comprehensively identifies, appraises, and synthesizes all relevant research on a specifically formulated question.
Mathematical Model A mathematical structure, formula, or equation that can be used to describe and study a real situation. This type of methodology is commonly found in, but not limited to, studies of epidemiology, neural networks, artificial intelligence, robotics, human factors, utility theory, and statistics.
Meta Analysis Statistical analysis of previously published empirical data.
Non-clinical Case Study Document consisting of non-clinical or organizational case examples of the concepts being researched or studied. The setting is always non-clinical and does not include treatment-related environments.
Qualitative Study A type of research methodology that produces descriptive data, with little emphasis given to numerical quantitative measures.
Quantitative Study Study that provides numerical representation of observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomenon studied followed by the application of various descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
Scientific Simulation Research technique that reproduces events and/or processes for the purpose of testing or experimentation in any discipline. Use only when the document clearly states that it is a Scientific Simulation.
Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial Empirical evaluations undertaken to assess the results or consequences of treatment and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions. Participants are randomly assigned to separate groups to compare different treatments. It is single-blind when the participants do not know which treatment group they have been assigned to; it is double-blind if neither the researchers nor the participants know which treatment group to which they have been assigned. Used only for human populations.
Twin Study Compares the etiology of genetic and environmental traits of identical and fraternal twins

Updated April 2012

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