Inclusive Cultural Empathy in Practice
In Inclusive Cultural Empathy in Practice, Drs. Paul B. Pedersen and Jon Carlson demonstrate how to use this relationship-centered, empathic framework to enhance and deepen therapy. Empathy, as defined in the Western context, centers on an individualistic interpretation of human desires, pain, and reasons for seeking help. This DVD discusses and demonstrates ways to reach beyond this individualistic perspective toward a relationship-centered context.
In this session, Dr. Pedersen helps clients explore, discover, and leverage those internalized voices of their "culture teachers"—the people that teach them who they are, how to behave, and how to resolve problems or find balance in life.
In the Inclusive Cultural Empathy approach, the therapist begins by asking the client to talk about the problem or event(s) that brought them into counseling, listing their several different identities and relationships as they complement and conflict with one another. The discussion then branches out to explore each identity and relationship to learn how the client's "culture teachers" have guided the client in different directions.
As the therapist and client explore each identity or relationship, the complexity of the presenting problem becomes more apparent. Eventually they would link (a) what the person did or did not do with (b) the expectation or intention the person had in doing or not doing the action and (c) the identity or relationship with the culture teacher(s) who led the client.
As the therapist and client organize these different identities and relationships, they will identify underlying culturally learned assumptions and knowledge gaps in the therapist's own understanding as a provider. As a result, they will have a better understanding of the client's internal dialogue, both the positive and supportive messages and the negative destructive messages (i.e., devil and angel) in the client's thinking.
The therapist starts by focusing on the client and then explores different themes like the differentiated colors that occur when light goes through a glass pyramid, including both formal and nonformal methods and contexts in the process, toward the end goal of including all salient culture teachers the client brings into counseling. The object is to form a temporary means-oriented client–counselor coalition against the problem.
The problem is conceptualized as a third force in counseling, almost like a third complex "presence" with its own will and voice. As the client increases in ability to independently control the problem, the counselor will become less directive and more reflective.
Paul B. Pedersen, PhD, is a visiting professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii. He has taught at the University of Minnesota, Syracuse University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and for 6 years at universities in Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. He was also on the summer school faculty at Harvard University from 1984–1988, and the University of Pittsburgh—Semester at Sea voyage around the world in the spring of 1992.
Dr. Pedersen's international experience includes numerous consulting experiences in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, and Europe, and a senior Fulbright award teaching at National Taiwan University from 1999–2000.
He has authored, coauthored, or edited 45 books, 100 articles, 82 chapters, and 22 monographs on aspects of multicultural counseling and international communication.
He is a fellow in Divisions 9 (Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues), 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology), 45 (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues), and 52 (International Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA).
His research activities include: serving as codirector of research for a 10 day intercultural communication laboratory for 60 Japanese and U.S. intercultural communication experts at Nihonmatsu, Japan, funded by the Lily Foundation; reentry research among LASPAU students from Brazil; director of higher education research on sex-role stereotypes in higher education on an HEW grant; director of a 3-year NIMH mental health training program; National Science Foundation 6-year grant to study the reentry adjustment of engineers returning to Taiwan after study abroad; National Institute of Education grant to develop a measure of cross-cultural counseling skill; State of New York Department of Social Services grant to develop mental health training materials on unaccompanied refugee minors; a 2-year Harvard Institute for International Development project in Indonesia to evaluate and upgrade training at Bank Rakyat Training Centers; and an Asian Foundation grant to coorganize a conference in Penang, Malaysia, on constructive conflict management in a cultural context.
Dr Pedersen's professional activities have included a 3-year presidency of the 1,800 member Society for Intercultural Education Training and Research (SIETAR); senior editor of Multicultural Aspects of Counseling (MAC) series, SAGE Press; advising editor for Education and for Psychology, Greenwood Press book series; board member of "The Micronesian Institute" headquartered in Washington DC; external examiner for Universiti Putra Malaysia, University Kebangsaan, and Universiti Malaysia Sabah in psychology; senior Fulbright scholar teaching at National Taiwan University from 1999–2000; member of the Committee for International Relations in Psychology (CIRP) at APA from 2001–2003; an invitation to give a master lecture, APA, Los Angeles, CA, in August of 1994; senior fellow at the East West Center from 1975–1976 and 1978–1981; senior fulbright award to teach at National Taiwan University from 1999–2000; and election to the Committee for International Relations in Psychology (CIRP) of the APA.
Jon Carlson, PsyD, EdD, ABPP, is distinguished professor, psychology and counseling at Governors State University and a psychologist at the Wellness Clinic in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. Dr. Carlson has served as the editor of several periodicals including the Journal of Individual Psychology and The Family Journal. He holds diplomates in both family psychology and Adlerian psychology. He has authored 150 journal articles and 40 books, including Time for a Better Marriage, Adlerian Therapy, The Mummy at the Dining Room Table, Bad Therapy, The Client Who Changed Me, and Moved by the Spirit. He has created over 200 professional trade video and DVDs with leading professional therapists and educators. In 2004 the American Counseling Association named him a "Living Legend." Recently he syndicated an advice cartoon On The Edge with cartoonist Joe Martin.
- Pedersen, P., Crethar, H., & Carlson, J. (2008). Inclusive cultural empathy: Making relationships central in counseling and psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Pedersen, P. (2004). One hundred and ten experiences for multicultural learning. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ivey, A. E., Pedersen, P., & Ivey, M.B. (2001). Intentional group counseling: A microskills approach, Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole
- Pedersen, P. (2000). Handbook for developing multicultural awareness, Third Edition. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
- Pedersen, P. (2000). Hidden messages in culture-centered counseling: A triad training model. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Pedersen, P., & Ivey, A. (1993). Culture centered counseling skills. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
- Pedersen, P. (2003) Cross-cultural counseling: A culture-centered approach. In F. Leong, G. Bernal, J. Trimble, & K. Burlew (Eds.), Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Pedersen, P. (2001). Triad counseling. In R. Corsini (Ed.), Handbook of innovative therapy, second edition (pp 704–714). New York: John Wiley.
- Pedersen, A., & Pedersen, P. (1985). The cultural grid: A personal cultural orientation. In L. Samovar & R. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural communication: A reader (pp. 50–62). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
- Marsella, A. J., & Pedersen, P. (2004) Internationalizing the counseling psychology curriculum: Toward new values, competencies, and directions. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 17(4), 413–423.
- Pedersen, P. (1999). Internal dialogue as an underutilized psychoeducational resource: Hearing the anticounselor. Asian Journal of Counseling, 6(1), 7–34.
- Pedersen, P. (1999). Training counselors to hear the self-talk of culturally different clients. In Directions in clinical and counseling psychology: National Program of Continuing Education and Certification Maintenance. The Hatherleigh Company.
- Pedersen, P. (1994). Simulating the client's internal dialogue as a counselor training technique. Simulation and Gaming, 25(1), 40–50.
- Pedersen, P., & Pedersen, A. (1989). The cultural grid: A complicated and dynamic approach to multicultural counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 2(2), 133–141.
- Pedersen, P. (1978, April). Four dimensions of cross cultural skill in counselor training. Personnel and Guidance Journal.
- Pedersen, P. (1977, October). The triad model of cross cultural counselor training. Personnel and Guidance Journal.
- Pedersen, P. (1968, September). A proposal: That counseling be viewed as an instance of coalition. Journal of Pastoral Care.
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