In Culturally Oriented Career Counseling, Dr. Nadya A. Fouad demonstrates her approach to vocational counseling. The fundamental assumption of culturally oriented career counseling is that every client is influenced by his or her cultural context. This approach focuses on the role context plays in the choices the client might consider.
In this session, Dr. Fouad works with a young African American woman who is having issues with her supervisor. Dr. Fouad works with the client toward solutions that might empower her to take some action to resolve the situation.
The fundamental assumption underlying culturally oriented vocational counseling is that every client, regardless of race or ethnic background, is influenced by his or her cultural context. Culturally oriented counseling focuses on the client's cultural context, including the client's gender, identity with his or her race, background, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, religion, and/or disability. These factors shape the decisions that clients make. Taking cultural context into account for all clients will help counselors be more effective.
Fouad and Bingham (1995) proposed a seven-step culturally appropriate career counseling model (CACCM) to explicitly outline how therapists can incorporate culture into their counseling. The CACCM includes the following seven steps:
- counselor's establishment of a culturally appropriate relationship with the client
- identification of career issues
- assessment of the impact of cultural factors on identified career issues
- appropriate process and goal-setting
- determination and implementation of culturally appropriate intervention
- culturally appropriate decision-making
- implementation of the client's plans and follow-up
Steps 5 and 6 concentrate on the counselor and client taking specific career counseling strategies to address the client's career concerns.
Nadya A. Fouad, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and training director in Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. She chaired the American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force for Women in Academe and is chair of APA's Board of Educational Affairs. In 2003, she was recipient of the John Holland Award for Outstanding Achievement in Career and Personality Research.
Dr. Fouad was president of APA's Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) from 2000 to 2001, and is currently co-vice president for Communications. She is an immediate past chair of the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs.
She is editor-elect of The Counseling Psychologist, and she serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Career Development Quarterly, and the Journal of Career Assessment. She has published articles and chapters on cross-cultural vocational assessment, career development of women and racial and ethnic minorities, interest measurement, cross-cultural counseling and race and ethnicity. She wrote the 2007 chapter on Work and Vocational Psychology for the Annual Review of Psychology.
She has served as cochair (with Patricia Arredondo) of the writing team for the "Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists," which were approved by the APA in August 2002 and were published in the American Psychologist in May 2003. Drs. Fouad and Arredondo published Becoming Culturally Oriented, which is based on the multicultural guidelines, with APA in 2006.
- Byars-Winston, A., & Fouad, N. A. (2006). Metacognitions and multicultural competence: Expanding the culturally appropriate career counseling model. Career Development Quarterly, 187–201.
- Fouad, N. A. (2006). Culture and careers. In J. Greenhaus & G. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Fouad, N. A. (2007). Work and vocational psychology: Theory, research and applications. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 543–564.
- Fouad, N. A., & Byars, A. M. (2004). Work: Cultural perspectives on career choices and decision-making. In R. T. Carter (Ed.), Handbook of racial/cultural psychology (pp. 232–255). New York: Wiley.
- Fouad, N. A., Helledy, K. I., & Metz, A. J. (2003). Effective strategies for career counseling with women. In M. Kopala & M. Keitel (Eds.), Handbook of counseling women (pp. 131–151). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Helledy, K. I., Fouad, N. A., et al. (2004). The impact of cultural variables on vocational psychology: Examination of the Fouad and Bingham (1995) culturally appropriate career counseling model. In R. T. Carter (Ed.), Handbook of racial/cultural psychology (pp. 262–285). New York: Wiley.
- Swanson, J. L., & Fouad, N. A. (1999). Career theory and practice: Learning through cases. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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