Publication Practices & Responsible Authorship
Although researchers can disseminate their findings through many different avenues, results are most likely to be published in an article in a scholarly journal. Accurate and honest reporting of research methodologies and results are the basis of all scientific publications. Researchers should avoid dividing a project into "least publishable units," which misinforms the public on the importance and value of the research, and wastes time and money. Researchers should also avoid publishing duplicate studies, a practice that also unfairly represents the importance of the research.
Authorship credit should reflect the individual's contribution to the study. An author is considered anyone involved with initial research design, data collection and analysis, manuscript drafting, and final approval. However, the following do not necessarily qualify for authorship: providing funding or resources, mentorship, or contributing research but not helping with the publication itself. The primary author assumes responsibility for the publication, making sure that the data are accurate, that all deserving authors have been credited, that all authors have given their approval to the final draft; and handles responses to inquiries after the manuscript is published.
- Responsible Conduct Regarding Scientific Communication — Society for Neuroscience
- The Responsible Conduct of Research, Including Responsible Authorship and Publication Practices (PDF, 112KB) — Ruth Ellen Bulger)
- Comments on Bulger (above) (PDF, 97KB) — Henk van den Belt
- Publication ethics: rights and wrongs — (Ritter, S. K., 2001)
- On Being a Scientist: Publication and Openness — NAS
- On Being a Scientist: Authorship and the Allocation of Credit — NAS
- Reflections on Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order on Faculty-Student Collaborations (PDF, 808KB) — (Fine & Kurdek, 1993)
- Authorship and Publication — ORI
- Online Ethics Center: Responsible Authorship — Case Western Reserve University
- RCR module on Responsible Authorship and Peer Review — Columbia University
- Resources for Research Ethics Education: Publication