2001: Salaries in Psychology — Report of the APA Salary Survey
Darnell Singleton, Antoinette Tate, Garrett Randall
APA Center for Workforce Studies
The 2001 Salaries in Psychology report represents the twelfth volume in the series and twenty years of effort by the American Psychological Association to gather salary data on psychological personnel. The survey was initiated in 1981, in response to increasing requests for current national salary data. As has been the case in past reports, selected summary statistics are presented for current salaries of APA members who are working full time in a variety of positions and, where there is a sufficient number of responses (N=5), for individual employment settings within a position. For doctoral-level respondents, salary data are presented by position, employment setting, median years since doctorate, and by sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Salary breakdowns for master’s-level respondents are by position, employment setting, and median years since degree only. Master’s-level salary breakdowns are sparser due to an insufficient number of master’s-level respondents, causing the data to be less representative of this group.
The data represent (1) salaries for individuals who are employed full time (at least 35 hours per week in salaried positions), (2) net income after office expenses for self-employed individuals who are working at least 35 hours per week, and (3) net income for individuals with a full-time (at least 32 hours per week) independent practice. Because many psychologists have additional sources of income from multiple work activities and settings, these data may not represent total income.
The 2001 Salary Survey was mailed in June, 2001 to a stratified random sample of 20,000 APA members. Individuals were eligible for inclusion in the study if they had indicated full-time employment in the Membership Directory database, were under 65 years of age, and were U.S. residents.
A two-page questionnaire (see Appendix A) requested the following information: employment setting, type of position, hours per week spent in the position, total years of work experience, total annual earned income, full-time salary or net income, zip code of employment setting, and the extent to which managed care has impacted net income. In order for nonrespondents to be tracked, the survey was not anonymous. A postcard reminder was mailed to nonrespondents in July, 2001. A final reminder letter and survey were mailed late in August, 2001 to those members who had not responded.
A total of 10,082 members responded to the survey. Of that total, 9,116 were employed and provided some data on employment setting, position, and other relevant variables. Surveys were excluded if the respondent failed to provide accurate data on variables (e.g., level of degree, employment status and employment setting) required to conduct specific analyses for data tables and statistics within the salaries report. Seventy-three percent (N=6,694) of the 9,116 eligible respondents were at the doctoral level and were employed full time, while 11% (N=990) were at the master's level and were employed full time.
Organization of the Report
The report is divided into 18 sections. The first 13 of these provide salary data for a specific type of position at the doctoral level. The sections are as follows:
- Faculty Positions
- Educational Administration
- Research Positions
- Administration of Research
- Direct Human Services - Clinical (licensed)
- Direct Human Services - Counseling (licensed)
- Direct Human Services - School (licensed)
- Direct Human Services - Other Psychological Subfields (licensed)
- Administration of Human Services
- Applied Psychology (Industrial/Organizational)
- Applied Psychology (Other Psychological Subfields)
- Administration of Applied Psychology
- Other Administrative Positions
- Master's-level Respondents
- Doctoral-level Salaries by Sex, Race/Ethnicity and Years of Experience
- Doctoral-level Salaries for Selected Positions, Regions, Cities, and States
- Impacts of Managed Care on Net Income Since 2000
- Total Annual Earned Income
Salaries for the three major health service provider subfields (clinical, counseling, and school) are presented separately, in Sections 5, 6, and 7, in addition to Section 8, for respondents involved in the provision of direct human services in "other psychological subfields." Only licensed psychologists are included in these positions. Salaries for "applied psychology positions" are presented separately for industrial/organizational and other subfields of psychology. All data for master's-level respondents are reported in Section 14 of the report only due to the relatively small number of respondents at this level.
For both doctoral- and master's-level respondents, data are presented separately for each position. Salary data for faculty positions (Sections 1 and 14.A) are broken down by academic rank. For all other positions, salaries are reported by years of experience: 0-1; 2-4; 5-9; 10-14; 15-19; 20-24; 25-29; and 30 years or more. In many instances, the number of respondents in the "0-1" category is too small to report detailed information, primarily because many psychologists do not join APA until a year or two after they receive their degree. More extensive information on starting salaries is available in the report of the results of APA's 1999 Doctorate Employment Survey (e.g., Kohout and Wicherski, 2000), which can be found at APA’s Research Office website http://research.apa.org.
Each section begins with a description of the position. The first “figure” in each section gives frequency distributions and summary statistics for salaries of respondents. These summary statistics include percentiles, medians, means and standard deviations. No statistics are reported when the N is less than 5.
Where there were a sufficient number of respondents, salaries are presented for specific employment settings for a particular position. Appendix A contains a complete listing of these settings in the survey instrument. In these cases, each section presents summary statistics for doctoral-level respondents employed in specific settings, broken down by academic rank or years of work experience. Medians, means, quartiles, and standard deviations are reported.
Respondents provided 11-12-month salaries for most positions, and they are reported in this manner. The exception to this is "Faculty Positions" in Section 1 and 14.A, where salaries are reported on a 9-10-month basis.
Readers should be aware of the possible sources of error when using the information from this report. Eligibility for inclusion was based partially on data provided by APA members in 2000. There may have been changes between the collection of membership data and the selection of the sample for the Salary Survey from these data one year later. Furthermore, some members were excluded because they did not report employment data or reported inaccurate employment data.
A 50% response rate was obtained for the 2001 Salary Survey. The Salary Survey was originally anonymous but this was changed in 1989 to allow follow-up mailings to nonrespondents in an effort to boost the response rate. Appendix C contains a summary of the characteristics of the population from which the sample was drawn, and of respondents and nonrespondents. This table provides some idea of the degree of non-respondent bias (i.e., whether those who responded differed greatly from those who did not) and how representative the sample is of the population from which it was drawn.
Data in Appendix C indicate that respondents and nonrespondents were quite similar with respect to major field, highest degree earned, licensure/certification status, gender, and distribution by region. Differences, where they existed, were not substantive. The population is overwhelmingly doctoral level, but attempts were made to augment the representation of respondents at the master's level by deliberately including all eligible master's-level APA members in the sample. This effort was successful in that 14% of the survey respondents were at the master's level compared to just over 7% representation among the eligible membership.
The number of respondents in some categories is very small and the statistics reported should be viewed with caution. This is particularly the case for the salaries of master's-level respondents. In addition, the number of respondents reported in the summary statistics may differ from the number of respondents reported in the figures because in some instances, respondents may have failed to provide complete information on all variables. For example, Figure 2 presents information on 176 respondents while the accompanying text reports on 184. This is because ‘years since doctorate’ information was not available for eight of the respondents.
Salary data in this report are based on a nationwide sample. For locations where the cost of living differs significantly from the national average, salaries would be expected to vary accordingly. Tables 16.A through 16.D present information on salaries by region, selected cities, and for selected states.
As is typically the case, doctoral-level respondents in faculty positions comprised one of the largest groups of respondents to this survey (N=1,939). Incumbents in these positions primarily were involved in university settings (68%), specifically university psychology departments (44%), university education departments (12%), university business departments (4%), and other academic departments in universities (8%). Thirteen percent were employed in four-year college settings, while eleven percent were employed in medical school settings. Two-year colleges and professional schools (free standing and other professional schools) were represented at 2% each.
The largest single proportion of doctoral faculty in 2001 was in clinical psychology (19%), followed by social psychology and developmental psychology, each at 12%. These were followed by counseling psychology at 11%. Six percent claimed industrial/organizational, while 5% each claimed experimental psychology, cognitive psychology or school psychology as their sub-field in psychology, respectfully. Four percent claimed educational psychology. Health psychology was represented at 3%, while two percent or less of the remaining doctoral faculty reported other subfields such as neuroscience, physiology/ psychobiology, and community psychology.
Frequency distributions and summary statistics are presented for doctoral-level faculty in Figure 1. The data are reported by academic rank: full professor, associate professor, assistant professor, lecturer/instructor, and other faculty positions.
Table 1 contains salary information in specific employment settings by rank. Faculty salaries typically are reported on a 9-10-month basis and the salaries reported in Table 1 reflect this academic schedule. Conversely, faculty in research centers or institutes or medical and professional schools are often paid on an 11-12-month basis. The 9-10-month salaries can be converted to their 11-12-month equivalents by multiplying the reported salaries by 11/9.
The overall median 9-10-month faculty salary was $55,000 in 2001. Graduate faculty salaries are examined in more detail in the report, 2001-2002 Faculty Salaries in Graduate Departments of Psychology (Wicherski, Randall, and Kohout, 2002). In addition, medical school faculty salaries are described at length in the report, 1997 Employment Characteristics and Salaries of Medical School Psychologists (Williams, Wicherski, and Kohout, 1998). Both reports include salary breakdowns by years of experience, academic rank, geographic region, and other categories, and can be found at APA’s Research Office website http://research.apa.org.
Educational administration refers to administrative positions in college or university settings (e.g., president, provost, or dean). These individuals may also hold a faculty appointment. Department chairs, however, are excluded from this category; their salaries are reported by academic rank in Section 1. The category also includes school superintendents or other administrative positions related to education.
The 184 doctoral-level respondents in this category were most likely to be employed in university administrative offices (32%), while 16% were in school system district offices. Seven percent could be found in four-year administrative offices, while 6% were in university psychology departments. University/college counseling centers, professional schools of psychology and other educational settings were reported at 5% each, while other university settings were represent at 4%. Three percent could be found in university education departments, other types of university academic departments or medical schools. Two percent or less of the remaining educational administration doctoral respondents reported other settings such as university research centers, two-year colleges and elementary/secondary schools as their primary employment setting.
Figure 2 presents the summary statistics and frequency distributions for the doctoral-level respondents in this category. Table 2 presents 11-12-month salaries by years of experience and employment setting.
The largest single proportion of educational administrators claimed counseling psychology as their major subfield (19%), followed by school psychology (15%), clinical psychology (14%), and educational, developmental and social psychology at 7% each.
Doctoral-level respondents in educational administration reported a median 11-12-month salary of $90,000 in 2001.
There were 242 respondents who worked full time in research positions in the 2001 Salary Survey. Activities associated with research positions include basic or applied research, such as non-faculty positions in academic settings, employment as an investigator in a laboratory or a research institute, and research positions in private industry.
The highest single proportion of respondents was employed in private research organizations (17%). This was followed by government research organizations (14%) and university research centers (12%). Seven percent of the respondents in this category were found in other nonprofit organizations.
The most frequently reported subfields were clinical (15%), social psychology (13%), developmental psychology (9%), and health psychology (8%). Experimental psychology, counseling, educational psychology, industrial/organization psychology and child clinical were each represented at 5%.
The summary statistics and frequency distributions for research positions are presented in Figure 3. Summary statistics for 11-12-month salaries by years of work experience and employment setting are presented in Table 3.
The overall median 11-12-month salary in 2001 for doctoral-level respondents in research positions was $65,000.
Administration of Research
There were 115 full-time, doctoral-level research administrators who responded to the 2001 Salary Survey. These positions involve the management or administration of a research organization or program. Although individuals employed in these positions also may be involved in other aspects of the research process (e.g., design, data collection and analyses), their primary responsibility is managing research, including the supervision of research personnel. Summary statistics and frequency distributions are presented in Table 4 and Figure 4, respectively.
The largest proportion of respondents in this category reported working as administrators in government research organizations and private research organizations at 17% each. This was followed by business/industry (13%), university research centers (11%), consulting firms (6%) and other non-profit organizations (5%). Medical school psychiatry departments and federal government settings were represented at 4% each.
The most frequently reported subfields were industrial/organizational (12%), clinical (11%) and social psychology (10%). Experimental, quantitative, developmental and educational were represented at 6% each. These were followed by counseling, psychopharmacology and child clinical represented at 5% each.
The overall 11-12-month median salary in 2001 for doctoral respondents in research administration was $85,000.
Direct Human Services - Clinical (licensed)
Eleven hundred-four doctoral-level respondents were licensed, claimed clinical psychology as their major field, and were involved in the direct delivery of health and mental health services to clients in 2001.
The majority of these respondents was employed in independent practices (65%), comprising 46% in individual private practices and 19% in group private practices. Approximately 14% and 5% of these licensed, doctoral-level respondents reported that they worked in hospitals and clinics (e.g., CMHCs, HMOs, outpatient clinics), respectively. Three percent of the respondents reported elementary/secondary schools, while 2% or less of the remaining respondents claimed other settings such as university student counseling centers, criminal justice system, rehabilitation facilities or other human services settings.
The overall 11-12-month median salary for licensed doctoral-level clinical psychologists was $72,000 in 2001. Figure 5 and Table 5 contain frequency distributions and summary statistics, respectively.
Direct Human Services - School (licensed)
One hundred twenty-three respondents fit this category. As expected, the largest single proportion of school psychologists (70%) was employed in a pre-college educational setting. Specifically, 56% could be found in elementary and secondary schools and 14% reported that they worked in school system district offices. The next largest proportion of respondents (16%) was primarily located in independent practices, (9% in individual private practices and 7% in group private practices). Nine percent reported other educational settings (vocational school or special education) as their primary place of employment. Less than one percent each claimed university student counseling/service centers, hospitals or other direct human services as their primary setting.
The overall 11-12-month salary for licensed doctoral-level respondents providing school psychology services was $77,000 in 2001. School psychologist salaries are examined in more detail in the report, School Psychology 2000: Average Salary Data (Thomas, 2002). This publication is on the internet at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq286salary.htm
Three hundred forty-three respondents were licensed and indicated that they were involved in the delivery of human services at the doctoral level in counseling psychology.
The majority of respondents were located in a private practice setting (50%), comprising individual private practitioners at 30% and group practitioners at 20%. Twenty-seven percent of the responding psychologists in this category were located in clinics, community mental health centers (CMHCs), and various other human service settings (e.g., university/college counseling centers, rehabilitation facilities, specialized health services). Eleven percent could be found in hospital settings. Four percent were employed in an academic setting, and 3% claimed government agencies and criminal justice system, as their primary employment settings.
The overall 11-12-month median salary in 2001 for licensed doctoral-level counseling psychologists was $66,500. Frequency distributions and summary statistics can be found in Figure 6 and Table 6, respectively.
Direct Human Services - Other Psychological Subfields (licensed)
There were 205 respondents in this category. The respondents were licensed, and were involved in the delivery of health/mental health services to client populations but were not in one of the three standard health service provider subfields (i.e., clinical, counseling, or school psychology). The largest single proportion of these respondents identified health psychology as their major subfield (14%). This was followed by educational psychology (12%) , developmental psychology, and neuroscience at 8%, each. Six percent each identified behavioral medicine, community, rehabilitation. Five percent of the respondents claimed general/methods and systems, while 4% claimed counseling. Less than 2% of these respondents were from other subfields such as business/management, experimental psychology, personality psychology, and cognitive psychology.
Fifty percent were employed in independent private practices (34% in individual practices and 16% in group practices). Eighteen percent were located in hospitals. Outpatient clinics, CMHCs, and HMOs collectively employed about 6% of the respondents in this group. Eleven percent were employed in other human service settings such as rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, and special health services. Primary or secondary schools and school district offices employed about 8% of the respondents in this category. Data for these psychologists are presented in Figure 8 and Table 8.
The overall median 11-12-month salary in 2001 for licensed doctoral-level respondents in this category was $71,000 in 2001.
Administration of Human Services
Section 9 contains salary information for positions involving the administration of human services, that is, positions that involve managing or directing a program of human services. Although these individuals may be involved in the delivery of services, their primary responsibility is the administration of such activities, including the supervision of personnel. Salaries for the 577 respondents in this position are reported in Figure 9 and Table 9.
As we might expect, most of the psychologists in the administration of human services were employed in organized settings. Twenty-three percent were employed in hospitals and 22% were employed in either clinics, community mental health centers (CMHC)s, or HMOs. Eleven percent were located in university or college counseling centers, while other human services settings and criminal justices system were reported at 7% each. This was followed by specialized health service (substance abuse/mental retardation) and government agencies (e.g., federal, state, local), which were reported at 5% each. Four percent were employed in other non-profit organizations or rehabilitation facilities.
The largest single proportion of respondents (47%) claimed clinical psychology as a major field in 2001, followed by counseling psychology (27%). Child clinical psychology was represented at 6%, while school psychology was represented at 3%. Community, developmental, rehabilitation and health psychology were reported at 2% each.
The overall median 11-12-month salary in 2001 for health service administrators at the doctoral level was $67,000.
This section presents the salaries of those respondents whose positions may be called applied psychology (e.g., personnel selection, assessment, systems or equipment design, organizational consultation, analysis or training) and whose current major field is industrial/ organizational psychology. Salaries for the 178 doctoral-level respondents are described in Table 10.
Forty-three percent of the respondents in these positions were employed in consulting firms. Thirty percent were in business and industry, while 15% were self-employed. Six percent worked in government agencies.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level industrial/organizational psychologists in 2001 was $96,000. Salaries of doctoral-level industrial/organizational psychologists also are examined by degree, age, gender, and salary change across years in the salary report by the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychologists (SIOP) entitled, Income and Employment of SIOP Members in 2000 (Katkowski and Medsker, 2001). This publication is on the internet at http://siop.org/tip/backissues/tipjul01/websalarysurvey.pdf.
Applied Psychology (Other Psychological Subfields)
Individuals whose positions may best be described as applied psychology and whose current major field is one other than industrial/organizational psychology are included in this section. Typically, these individuals are engaged in organizational consultation, marketing research, systems/equipment design, or other applied psychology activities. There were 123 doctoral-level respondents in these positions in 2001 and their salaries are reported in Table 11.
The largest single proportion of respondents was employed in consulting firms (31%), followed by 19% who were employed in business/industry settings. Fifteen percent were self- employed in settings other than independent practices, while 7% were in the criminal justice system and other government (federal, state, and local) agencies. Five percent had individual or group practices, and 4% were employed in non-profit organizations.
With 24% of the respondents, clinical psychology was the single most often mentioned field for this group. Seventeen percent indicated that they were in counseling psychology. Experimental psychology, educational psychology, and quantitative psychology were reported at 7% each. Social psychology and business/management were report at 4% each.
The overall 11-12-month median salary in 2001 for doctoral-level psychologists in these positions was $79,000.
Administration of Applied Psychology
There were 101 respondents in these administrative positions. Administration of applied psychology includes the management of an organization or program in applied psychology, such as a firm specializing in market research or in industrial/organizational psychology. The primary responsibility of individuals in these positions is the administration of such programs, including the supervision of personnel. Figure 12 and Table 12 contain salary data on these respondents.
The largest single proportion of these respondents was located in consulting firms (38%), followed by 14% in business and industry settings. About 7% were employed in a variety of organized health care settings (e.g., CMHCs, HMOs, clinics, guidance centers) or independent practices. Government agencies (e.g., state, local, federal), criminal justice system and other non-profit organizations were represented at 6% each.
The largest group of respondents in this position specialized in industrial/organizational psychology (38%), followed by clinical psychology (21%) and counseling (9%). Developmental, social, and school were reported at 3% each.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level respondents was $100,000 in 2001. The standard deviation ($78,387) is large for this group, indicating substantial variation around the mean of $119,990. Salaries of doctoral-level psychologists (particularly industrial/ organizational psychologists) involved in the administration of applied psychology may also be found in the salary report by the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology (SIOP) entitled, Income and Employment of SIOP Members in 2000 (Katkowski and Medsker, 2001). This publication is on the internet at http://siop.org/tip/backissues/tipjul01/websalarysurvey.pdf.
Other Administrative Positions
These positions involve managerial responsibilities in a business, government agency, or nonprofit association that cannot be described as the direct administration of educational, research, human services, or other applied psychology activities. These positions may be related to psychology, such as administration of government programs related to research funding, management of programs concerned with psychological issues in a nonprofit association, and personnel administration. There were 181 respondents at the doctoral level in 2001.
The largest single proportion was employed in government agencies (25%), followed by other non-profit organizations (23%). Nineteen percent of respondents in this category were employed in business/industry settings, and 12% could be found in health care settings. Although scattered across a variety of settings, most of these respondents could be found outside academia.
Clinical psychology was the subfield of 25% of the respondents, followed by industrial/organizational psychology (13%). Counseling psychologists were represented at 12%. Social, school and business/management psychology were reported at 4% each.
The overall 11-12-month median salary for doctoral-level respondents in other administrative positions was $85,500 in 2001. Not surprisingly for a catch-all category, the range of salaries was quite large with salaries exceeding $500,000. Figure 13 and Table 13 show salary data for these respondents.
This section contains salary information on master’s-level respondents, broken out by position and by years of experience when there are sufficient numbers of respondents (N=5). Figures and tables for this section follow the text. Some figures have been omitted because of a low number of responses. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the data reported for master’s-level positions with a small N size.
There were 64 master’s-level respondents in the 2001 Salary Survey who were employed full time in faculty positions. Thirty-nine percent of respondents were employed in two-year college settings while slightly more than one fifth were employed at the university level (primarily in psychology departments, followed by education, and business) and almost 16% were located in four-year college settings. About 9% were employed in medical settings and the percentage of master’s-level faculty reporting employment in the elementary and secondary school settings approximately doubled that which was reported in the 1999 Salary Survey, to almost 7%.
Three subfields were each reported by 14% of the master’s-level respondents: clinical, developmental, and counseling psychology. General/methods and systems and education/teaching were each indicated by about 9% of respondents as their subfield. School, educational, and industrial/organizational were each mentioned by approximately 6% of respondents, followed by cognitive at 5%. All other subfields were reported by less than 5% of respondents.
The overall median 9-10-month faculty salary was $42,000 for master’s-level respondents.
There were only 21 master’s-level respondents in this position. Of these, 43% were employed in school system districts and 24% in elementary or secondary schools. Fourteen percent were employed in university/college counseling centers, and another 10% indicated employment in other educational settings, such as vocational or special education. The remaining respondents were employed in two- and four-year college settings.
Master’s-level educational administrators most often reported school as their subfield at 38%. Clinical was reported by 19% of respondents, followed by counseling psychology at 14%. About 10% of respondents indicated educational and child clinical each; and counseling and public administration were each reported by 5% of respondents.
The overall median 11-12-month salary at the master’s level was $66,000 for those employed full time in educational administration.
Twenty-six master’s-level respondents were in research positions in 2001. Fully one-third of this group indicated employment within some type of academic research setting, including 15% at university research centers and 7% in medical school settings. Fifteen percent were employed at private research organizations, while 11% indicated employment at non-profit organizations. The settings of public general hospital, self-employed/not private practice, and business/industry (other than consulting firm) were each reported by 8% of respondents. Remaining respondents were employed in HMO and consulting firm settings.
Almost a fifth of master’s-level respondents employed in research positions indicated social psychology as their subfield. Fifteen percent indicated general/methods and systems, followed by counseling psychology and quantitative/math/statistics with 12% each. Clinical, health, and computer science were each reported by 8% of respondents. All other subfields were indicated by less than 5% of respondents.
The overall median 11-12-month salary in research positions at the master’s level was $47,000.
Administration of Research
Only 9 respondents were in this type of position at the master’s level in 2001. The largest proportion of respondents was employed in public general hospital settings (33%). Twenty-two percent of respondents were located in private research organizations. Eleven percent (N=1) identified one of each of the following employment settings: university administration office, university research center, criminal justice system, and federal government agency.
Twenty percent (N=2) of the respondents in this category indicated counseling psychology as their subfield. The remaining responses were divided across subfields, including general/methods and systems, clinical, industrial/organizational, health, quantitative/math/statistics and child clinical.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for master’s-level respondents in administration of research positions was $70,000. It is important to remember that this is based on a small N and should be interpreted with caution.
Direct Human Services
Clinical. Two hundred five respondents indicated that they were providing services in clinical psychology at the master’s level. The largest single proportion of respondents indicated that they were employed in individual or group practices (37%). Fourteen percent each were employed in hospitals and clinics. Specifically, individuals employed in hospital settings were most often employed in public psychiatric hospitals (7%), while the majority of respondents within clinics worked at community mental health centers (8%). Twelve percent of the respondents were employed with the government, of which the largest proportion claimed they worked within the criminal justice system (10%). Twenty-two percent of master’s-level clinical psychologists were employed in positions related to education, such as university/college counseling centers and school system districts, with the largest proportion indicating positions at the elementary and secondary school level (4%). Slightly more than 8% of the respondents worked in other human service settings such as nursing homes, non-university affiliated guidance centers, and rehabilitation facilities.
The overall median 11-12-month salary was $46,000 for direct human service providers at the master’s level who indicated clinical psychology as a major subfield.
Counseling. There were 107 respondents employed in counseling psychology positions at the master’s level in 2001. Thirty-one percent were employed in individual or group practices. Sixteen percent of respondents were employed by clinics, followed by 12% employed in hospital settings. Eleven percent of respondents in this category were located in other human service settings, such as nursing homes or rehabilitation facilities. Eight percent indicated employment in government settings, with the majority in the criminal justice system (4%), and another 8% were employed in elementary and secondary school settings. Finally, 4% percent of the respondents in this category were in business related settings, such as consulting.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for a master’s-level position within counseling psychology was $42,000.
School. Not surprisingly, the majority of the 88 respondents in this category were employed in educational settings (96%), including 59% in elementary/secondary school settings, 24% in school system district offices, and 11% in other educational settings (e.g. special, or vocational education). The remaining master’s-level respondents indicated employment in individual private practice (3%) and clinic settings (1%).
The overall median 11-12-month salary for master’s-level individuals providing school psychology services was $61,000.
Other Psychological Subfields. Eighty-seven master’s-level respondents were involved in direct human services and were in a subfield other than clinical, counseling psychology or school psychology. The greatest single proportion of these respondents (17%) identified counseling as their subfield, followed by educational (15%), and general/systems and methods (12%). Nine percent of respondents claimed community as their subfield, while rehabilitation and social work represented 7% and 5% of respondents, respectively. Other subfields were each identified by fewer than 5% of the respondents.
Twenty-six percent of these respondents were employed in individual or group practices, and 17% were employed in other human service provider settings such as nursing homes, rehabilitation facilities, specialized health services, guidance centers, and student counseling centers. Nineteen percent were located in various academic settings, primarily elementary/secondary school settings (13%). Hospitals and government settings were each reported by 11% of respondents in this category, and 10% claimed employment in clinics.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for respondents in this category was $48,500.
Administration of Human Services
There were 101 respondents who identified themselves as employed in this position in 2001. Slightly more than one quarter of these respondents were employed in clinics (27%), with the majority in community mental health centers, followed by outpatient clinics, and counseling centers. Twenty-six percent were employed in other human service provider settings, such as specialized health services and rehabilitation facilities, and 12% reported working within various hospital settings. Thirteen percent were employed in educational settings, including 7% employed at the university level, and 3% employed in school system district office settings. Eleven percent were employed in government positions, of which the greatest proportion of respondents claimed positions within the criminal justice system (7%).
The largest proportion of respondents in this position reported clinical psychology as their major subfield (41%), followed by counseling psychology (16%). Seven percent claimed community while 6% identified school psychology as their subfields.
The overall 11-12-month median salary for master’s-level respondents working as human service administrators was $55,000.
Administration of Applied Psychology
Nineteen respondents were employed in this position, the majority of whom were located in consulting firms (40%). Fifteen percent were located in non-profit organizations and 10% each were employed in government organizations and community mental health centers. All other employment settings were represented at less than 8% each.
As expected, the majority of respondents in this category were industrial/organizational psychologists (55%). Fifteen percent claimed counseling psychology as their subfield, and all other subfields were represented at 5% or less.
The overall median 11-12-month salary was $67,000 for master’s-level respondents in administration of applied psychology. Salaries of master’s-level respondents (particularly industrial/organizational psychologists) involved in the administration of applied psychology may also be found in the salary report by SIOP entitled, Income and Employment of SIOP Members in 2000 (Katkowski and Medsker, 2001).
Other Administrative Positions
Fifty-nine respondents indicated employment in other administrative positions (e.g. budgeting, personnel administration). Thirty-one percent were located in government settings, followed by 27% in business/industry settings (other than consulting and research). Fourteen percent were employed by non-profit organizations, and 9% were employed in clinics, including CMHCs and HMOs. Other human service settings represented approximately 7% of the respondents, and the remaining settings were represented at less than 5% each.
The largest single proportion of respondents (36%) claimed industrial/organizational psychology as their subfield. Clinical and social psychology were each identified by 12% and 5% of respondents, respectively. All other subfields were represented at less than 5%.
The overall 11-12-month median salary for these master’s-level respondents was $62,000.
Applied Psychology Positions (Industrial/Organizational Psychology)
Seventy respondents were located in applied psychology and identified industrial/organizational psychology as their major subfield. The majority of these respondents were employed outside educational and human service provider settings. More specifically, 44% percent were employed in business/industry settings and 27% were employed in consulting firms. Sixteen percent could be found in government settings, with the greatest proportion of these respondents at the local level of government (10%), and 4% claimed to be employed as independent consultants.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for master’s-level respondents in applied (I/O) positions was $63,000. Salaries of master’s-level respondents (particularly industrial/organizational psychologists) involved in applied psychology may also be found in the salary report by SIOP entitled, Income and Employment of SIOP Members in 2000 (Katkowski and Medsker, 2001).
Applied Psychology Positions (Other Psychological Subfields)
There were 29 respondents identified in this position at the master’s level. Slightly less than 28% percent were employed in consulting firms, while 17% were employed in business/industry settings. Ten percent identified themselves as self-employed, and an additional 14% were employed in independent practice settings, including individual private practice, group psychological practice, and independent consulting. Last, 10% were employed in government settings.
The largest single proportion of respondents identified counseling psychology (32%), followed by clinical psychology (24%). Twelve percent claimed the subfield quantitative/math/statistics, and 8% claimed business/management. Four percent each reported general/methods and systems, community, educational, and computer science as a subfield.
The overall median 11-12-month salary for master’s-level applied psychology positions in subfields other than industrial/organizational psychology was $63,000.
Doctoral-level Salaries by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Years Of Work Experience
This section presents doctoral-level salaries broken down by gender, race/ethnicity, and years of experience. Where possible (given sufficient Ns) the data also have been analyzed by type of position. Some of the categories have been left blank because there are too few responses on which to base summary statistics.
Table 15.A presents salary data by years of work experience and gender. In general, the median salaries of men are substantially higher than those reported by women. However, the disparities are less pronounced for men and women with less than 10 years of work experience. These smaller differences among "newer" psychologists have been observed in other survey results (Wicherski, Randall, and Kohout, 2002). The largest gender discrepancy in favor of men is evidenced in the 20-24 years and 30+ years of work experience categories.
Table 15.B contains salary data by sex, years of experience, and employment position. Similarly, with few exceptions, the salaries of men exceed those reported by women.
In Table 15.C, salaries are reported by years of experience and race/ethnicity. Differences among the median salaries do exist, although they do not appear to be substantive.
Salary data are displayed by years of experience and minority status in Table 15.D. Median salaries for minority and white psychologists do not differ greatly.
Doctoral-level Salaries for Selected Positions, Regions, Cities, and States
The previous sections have presented national data on the salaries/net incomes of doctoral-level and master's-level respondents who report full-time employment. This section provides geographic breakdowns of doctoral-level salaries.
Table 16.A presents data on median salaries and median years since the doctorate by geographic region and position. All full-time respondents were categorized into regions on the basis of zip code. Numbers are less than the totals for each region because respondents may be missing data on salary, position, or employment setting.
The category of "independent practice" includes licensed psychologists who are involved in individual, group, or medical-psychological group practices. Faculty positions in universities are limited to those who identify their primary employment setting as psychology departments, education departments, business departments or schools, or other academic units located in universities. "Faculty in other settings" includes those in other academic settings such as research centers, four- and two-year colleges, and medical schools. Medical school faculty typically are paid on an 11-12-month basis. The academic-year (9-10-month) medians given in Table 16.A can be converted to their calendar-year equivalents by multiplying by 11/9.
The data in this table should not be applied to an individual salary or setting but should be used only in making very general comparisons among the different regions and positions. This is because the median salaries may be affected by factors such as gender, year of degree, years of experience, employment setting, subfield of degree, and cost of living in a specific area. To illustrate one of these factors, years of experience has been provided for each category and region.
Table 16.B and Table 16.C present data on the median salaries of doctoral-level faculty in university settings and for licensed doctoral-level psychologists involved in the delivery of direct human services in independent practice settings. Salaries for these two tables are presented by selected metropolitan areas. Inclusion of a city in Table 16.B first hinged on its availability in the Inter-City Cost of Living Index report produced by the American Chamber of Commerce Researcher’s Association (ACCRA) and then on a sufficient number of responses from that city. Both adjusted median salary and actual salary are reported, as is the size of the group on which the salary is based. The adjusted salary data for this table were based on urban area index data from the second quarter of 2001. This index measures and reports prices for consumer goods and services for cities that supply this information. Table 16.C includes those metropolitan areas for which the cost of living indices were unavailable but had a sufficient number of responses from each city. Therefore, given that the salaries in Table 16.C are not adjusted for regional differences in cost of living, caution should be exercised when interpreting these salaries.
Similarly, Table 16.D provides data on the median salaries of doctoral-level university faculty and for licensed doctoral-level independent practitioners involved in direct human service by state. Those states with fewer than 10 respondents were excluded. This table also does not account for regional differences in cost of living. Hence, state-by-state comparisons should be made with this in mind.
Impacts of Managed Care On Net Income Since 2000
This section addresses the impact that managed care and other changes in the health care system have had on net income in 2000-2001 for doctoral-level, independent practitioners. “Independent practitioners,” in this case, primarily refers to licensed clinical, counseling, and school psychologists who are involved in full-time individual, group, or medical-psychological group practices.
Table 17.A illustrates, by years of experience, the percentage of independent practitioners who have experienced a salary increase or decrease as a result of managed care, and those who have not experienced any noticeable flux in income. The single largest proportion of independent practitioners reported no impact (46%) in salary due to changes in the health care system in 2001. Roughly 8% of independent practitioners reported an increase in salary, while approximately 45% claimed their salary decreased as a result of the changes in the health care system. This represents a slight departure from the reported impact that managed care had on salaries in 1999. The majority (53%) of independent practitioners in 1999 reported that managed care impacted their salaries negatively. The percent of psychologists reporting negative impacts from managed care has declined 8%, down from 53% in 1999 to 45% in 2001. In general, those practitioners with more experience were more apt to report negative impacts due to managed care. Nearly half of those practitioners who had over 10 years of experience in 2001 reported a decrease in income in 2001, whereas just over a third of practitioners with 5-10 years of experience revealed that they were earning considerably less than the previous year.
Table 17.B presents the actual percentage of change in net income as a result of managed care. The reported percentage change decrease in net income is greater for independent practitioners with more years of experience. The percentage change decrease in net income has widened from 4% reported in 1999 to 15% in 2001 for independent practitioners with more experience. Overall, independent practitioners underwent a median decrease or a median increase in net income of 15% and 10%, respectively.
In comparison, the impacts of changes in the health care system on salary since 2000-2001 are fairly similar to the changes reported for previous years. The only marked difference is that the negative impact of managed care on salaries appears to be declining. Furthermore, for the most part, the percentage change in income since 2000-2001 was also comparable to those reported in previous years, with the exception of percentage change decrease in net income for independent practitioners with more experience. The slight differences that exist between 2000-2001 and previous years do not appear to be substantive.
Total Annual Earned Income
The information in the preceding sections of this report was based on net income from respondents’ primary employment positions after office expenses. Respondents were also asked to report information on their total gross annual earned income from all professional activities, including full-time and part-time positions, summer teaching or research, and other supplementary income. Eighty-two percent of respondents provided data for this item. Analyses excluded those respondents who indicated they were not currently employed, were over 65 years of age, or were not currently U.S. residents.
The overall median annual earned income for all doctoral-level respondents in 2001 was $72,000. For all master’s-level respondents, the overall median annual earned income was $55,000 in 2001.
Table 18.A and 18.B summarize the data for respondents by primary position type and years of work experience. No data are reported when N is less than 10. Table 18.A summarizes the data for full-time doctoral-level respondents. Respondents working in Applied positions reported the highest overall median earned income at $112,000, followed by respondents working in Applied positions who identified industrial/organizational psychology as their major subfield ($100,000).
Table 18.B summarizes the data in this category for master’s-level respondents. There were several positions where there were too few respondents to generate statistics when the positions were examined by years of work experience. Overall, respondents working in Educational positions reported the greatest overall median earned income at $75,000.
Table 18.C summarizes the data in this category by employment pattern, highest degree earned, and years of work experience. The overall median annual earned income for master’s-level respondents and doctoral-level respondents working in single full-time positions in 2001 was $58,000 and $74,000, respectively. The second pattern, “independent practice” included anyone working full time in individual private practice, group psychological practice, and medical/psychological group practice, or independent consulting. The overall median annual earned income for this group at the master’s level was $73,000, and $100,000 at the doctoral level. Respondents who identified themselves as self-employed, working full time but not in private practice reported an overall median annual earned income of $94,000 at the master’s level and $100,000 at the doctoral level in 2001. Respondents were defined as working part time based on the number of hours per week spent working in one’s primary position. Master’s-level respondents working in part-time positions reported an overall median annual earned income of $44,500, and part-time, doctoral-level respondents reported an overall median annual earned income of $60,000.
Lastly, Table 18.D provides an overview of the data on total annual earned income for respondents engaged in all professional activities by highest degree earned and years of work experience.
ACCRA. (2001). Cost of living index, second quarter, 2001. (ISSN 0740-7130). Alexandria, VA: ACCRA.
Katkowski, D.A. & Medsker, G.J. (2000). Income and Employment of SIOP members in 2001. The Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, 36, 19-30.
Kohout, J. & Wicherski, M. (In press). 1999 Doctorate employment survey. Washington, DC. American Psychological Association.
Thomas, A. (2002). School Psychology 2000: Average Salary Data. Communiqué, 28, #6. Bethesda, MD. National Association of School Psychologists.
Wicherski, M., Randall, G., & Kohout, J.L. (2002). 2001-2002 Faculty salaries in graduate departments of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Williams, S., Wicherski, M., & Kohout, J. (1998). 1997 Employment Characteristics and Salaries of Medical School Psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Doctoral-level Salaries by Gender and Race/Ethnicity
Doctoral-level Salaries by Geographic Region
|Table 16.A||Median Salaries and Median Years Since the Doctoral Degree for Psychologists by Region and Position: 2001 (PDF, 13KB)|
|Table 16.B||Median Salaries Adjusted for Cost of Living in Selected Metropolitan Areas: 2001 (PDF, 8KB)|
|Table 16.C||Median Salaries for Other Selected Metropolitan Areas: 2001 (PDF, 8KB)|
|Table 16.D||Median Salaries for Selected States: 2001 (PDF, 11KB)|
Impacts of Managed Care on Doctoral-level Salaries
|Figure 14.A||Faculty Positions - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
|Figure 14.C||Research Positions - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
|Figure 14.E||Direct Human Services - Clinical Psychology - Master's-level: 2001 (PDF, 9KB)|
|Figure 14.F||Direct Human Services - Counseling Psychology - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, KB)|
|Figure 14.G||Direct Human Services - School Psychology - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
|Figure 14.H||Direct Human Services - Other Psychological Subfields - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 9KB)|
|Figure 14.I||Administration of Human Services - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
|Figure 14.J||Applied Psychology (Industrial/Organizational) - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
|Figure 14.K||Applied Psychology (Other Psychological Subfields) - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
|Figure 14.M||Other Administrative Positions - Master’s-level: 2001 (PDF, 7KB)|
This report is produced by the Research Office in the Central Programs of the American Psychological Association (APA). We are grateful for the support of Norman B. Anderson, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer of the APA and L. Michael Honaker, Ph.D., Deputy CEO.
Most importantly, we would like to thank those members of the Association who took the time to respond to the survey as well as for their many comments on the survey itself and on their own employment experiences. These comments help us to revise and update the survey as needed and keep us aware of changes occurring in the employment of psychological personnel. The APA's ability to provide current national data on the salaries of psychologists hinges on this participation.