1995: Report of the APA Salary Survey

Marlene Wicherski, Kate Woerheide, Jessica Kohout
APA Center for Workforce Studies
November 1996
Report Text

Introduction

The 1995 Salaries in Psychology report represents the ninth volume in the series and fourteen years of effort by the American Psychological Association to gather salary data on psychological personnel. The survey was initiated in 1981, in response to increasing requests for current national salary data. As has been the case in past reports, selected summary statistics are presented for current salaries of APA members who are working full time in a variety of positions and, where there is a sufficient number of responses (N=5), for individual employment settings within a position. For doctoral-level respondents, salary data are presented by sex and race/ethnicity, and by position, region and median years since the degree.

The data represent (1) salaries for individuals who are employed full time (at least 35 hours per week in salaried positions), (2) net income after office expenses for self-employed individuals who are working at least 35 hours per week, and (3) net income for individuals with a full-time (at least 32 hours per week) independent practice. Because many psychologists have additional sources of income from multiple work activities and settings, these data may not represent total income.

Method

The 1995 Salary Survey was mailed in May, 1995 to a stratified random sample of 20,000 APA members. Individuals were eligible for inclusion in the study if they had indicated full-time employment in the Membership Directory database, were under 65 years of age and were U.S. residents. The Directory Survey is conducted every four years and is designed to gather biographical and other information on APA members.

A one-page questionnaire (see Appendix A) requested the following information: employment setting, type of position, hours per week spent in the position, total years of work experience, total annual earned income, full-time salary or net income, and zip code of employment setting. A new question this year asked respondents to report any impact on their income that resulted directly from changes in the health care system. The survey was not anonymous and one followup mailing to nonrespondents was conducted in July, 1995.

A total of 10,966 members returned useable surveys, indicating that they were employed full time, and provided some data on employment setting and position, as well as on other relevant variables. Surveys were excluded from analyses if the respondent was working on a part-time basis or failed to provide data on the other variables. Eighty-four percent of the respondents were at the doctoral level and were employed full time while 15.6% of the respondents were at the master's level and were employed full time.

Organization of the report

The report is divided into 16 sections. The first 13 of these provide salary data for a specific type of position at the doctoral level. The sections are as follows:

1. Faculty Positions 2. Educational Administration 3. Research Positions 4. Research Administration 5. Direct Human Services - Clinical 6. Direct Human Services - Counseling 7. Direct Human Services - School 8. Direct Human Services - Other Psychological Subfields 9. Administration of Human Services 10. Applied Psychology (Industrial/Organizational) 11. Applied Psychology (Other Psychology) 12. Administration of Applied Psychology 13. Other Administrative Positions 14. Master's-level Positions 15. Doctoral-level Salaries by Sex, Race/Ethnicity and Years of Experience 16. Doctoral-level Salaries for Selected Positions, Regions and Cities

Salaries for the three major health service provider subfields (clinical, counseling and school) are presented separately, in Sections 5, 6, and 7, in addition to Section 8, for respondents involved in the provision of direct human services in "other psychological subfields". Only licensed psychologists are included in these positions. Salaries for "applied psychology positions" are presented separately for industrial/organizational and other subfields of psychology. All data for master's-level respondents are reported in one section of the report due to the relatively small number of respondents at this level.

For both doctoral- and master's-level respondents, data are presented separately for each position. Salary data for faculty positions (Sections 1 and 14.A) are broken down by academic rank. For all other positions, salaries are reported by years of experience: 0-1; 2-4; 5-9; 10-14; 15-19; 20-24; 25-29; and 30 years or more. In many instances, the number of respondents in the "0-1" category is too small to report detailed information, primarily because many psychologists do not join APA until a year or two after they receive their degree. More extensive information on starting salaries is available in APA's Doctorate Employment Survey (e.g., Wicherski and Kohout, 1995).

Each section begins with a description of the position. The first figure in each section gives frequency distributions and summary statistics for salaries of respondents. These summary statistics include percentiles, medians, means and standard deviations. No statistics are reported when the N is less than 5.

Where there were a sufficient number of respondents, salaries are presented for specific employment settings for a particular position. (Appendix A contains a complete listing of these settings in the survey instrument.) In these cases, each section presents summary statistics for doctoral-level respondents employed in specific settings, broken down by academic rank or years of work experience. Medians, means, quartiles, and standard deviations are reported.

Respondents provided 11-12-month salaries for most positions, and they are reported in this manner. The exception to this is "Faculty Positions" in Section 1 and 14.A, where salaries are reported on a 9-10-month basis.

Caveats

Readers should be aware of the possible sources of error when using the information from this report. Eligibility for inclusion was based partially on data provided by APA members in 1993. There may have been changes between the collection of membership data and the selection of the sample for the Salary Survey from these data two years later. Furthermore, not all members reported employment data and thus were excluded. Thus, some degree of sampling bias may exist.

In its early years, the Salary Survey was anonymous. This was changed in 1989 to allow followup mailings to nonrespondents in order to boost response rates. Appendix C contains a summary of the characteristics of the population from which the sample was drawn, and of respondents and nonrespondents. This table provides some idea of the degree of non-respondent bias (i.e., whether those who responded differed greatly from those who did not) and how representative the sample is of the population from which it was drawn.

Data in Appendix C indicate that respondents and nonrespondents were quite similar with respect to major field, licensure/certification status, gender, and distribution by region. Differences, where they existed, were not substantive. The population is overwhelmingly doctoral, but attempts were made to augment the representation of respondents at the master's level by including all eligible master's-level APA members. This was successful in that fully 15.6% of the respondents were at the master's level compared to just over 7% representation among the eligible membership. Some 46% of both respondents and nonrespondents were women.

The number of respondents in some categories is very small and the statistics reported should be viewed with caution. This is particularly the case for the salaries of master's-level respondents.

Salary data in this report are based on a nationwide sample. For locations where the cost of living differs significantly from the national average, salaries would be expected to vary accordingly. Section 16 presents information on salaries by region and for selected cities.

1. Faculty Positions
As is typically the case, respondents in doctoral-level faculty positions comprised one of the largest groups of respondents to the 1995 Salary Survey (N=1,944). Incumbents in these positions primarily were involved in university settings (59%), specifically university psychology departments (37%), university education departments (7%), almost 5% were in business departments in universities and 7% were in other academic departments in universities. Ten percent were employed in four-year college settings and almost 2% were in two-year colleges. Twenty-seven percent were working in medical school settings and 2% reported professional schools (university affiliated and free standing).

The largest percentage of doctoral faculty was in clinical psychology in 1995 (29%). Nine percent each claimed social/personality and developmental as their subfield in psychology. Eight percent were industrial/organizational psychologists and 7% were counseling psychologists. Four percent listed experimental as their major subfield. Three percent or less of the remaining doctoral faculty reported any of the other subfields such as school, educational, comparative, cognitive or health.

Frequency distributions and summary statistics are presented for doctoral-level faculty in Figure 1. The data are reported by academic rank: full, associate, assistant professor, lecturer/instructor and other faculty positions.

Table 1 contains salary information in specific employment settings by rank. Faculty salaries typically are reported on a 9-10-month basis and the salaries reported in Table 1 reflect this. Faculty in research centers or institutes or medical and professional schools are often paid on an 11-12-month basis. The 9-10-month salaries can be converted to their 11-12-month equivalents by multiplying the reported salaries by 11/9.

The overall median faculty salary was $47,000 in 1995. Graduate faculty salaries are examined in more detail, including breakdowns by years in rank, type of institution (e.g., public or private), and geographic region, in the report, 1995-96 Faculty Salaries in Graduate Departments of Psychology (Wicherski and Kohout, 1996).

2. Educational Administration
Educational administration refers to administrative positions in college or university settings (e.g., president, provost or dean). These individuals may also hold a faculty appointment. Department chairs, however, are excluded from this category; their salaries are reported by academic rank in Section 1. The category also includes school superintendents or other administrative positions related to education.

The 244 doctoral-level respondents in this category were most likely to be employed in university administrative offices (30%), while 13% were in school system district offices, 9% in four-year college administrative offices, 6% in free-standing schools of professional psychology, 4% in medical schools, and 3% in elementary or secondary schools.

Figure 2 presents the summary statistics and frequency distributions for the doctoral-level respondents in this category. Table 2 presents 11-12-month salaries by years of experience and employment setting.

The largest single proportion of educational administrators claimed clinical (18%), followed by counseling (15%), educational and school at 11% each, developmental (7%), and industrial/organizational (5%).

Doctoral-level respondents in educational administration reported a median 11-12-month salary of $76,500.

3. Research Positions
There were 292 respondents who worked full time in research positions in the 1995 Salary Survey. Activities associated with research positions include basic or applied research, such as non-faculty positions in academic settings, employment as an investigator in a laboratory or a research institute, and research positions in private industry.

Most of the respondents were employed in either private or government research organizations (19% and 18% respectively). These were followed by those in university research centers (13%). Combined medical school settings claimed 7% of the researchers. Business and industry settings and consulting firms employed 4% of respondents each.

The summary statistics and frequency distributions for research positions are presented in Figure 3. Summary statistics for 11-12-month salaries by years of work experience and employment setting are presented in Table 3.

The most frequently reported subfields were clinical (15%), social/personality (13%), experimental (9%), developmental (8%), industrial/organizational (7%), health (6%), quantitative/ mathematical/psychometrics/statistics (5%), and cognitive and educational at 3% each.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level respondents in research positions was $57,000.

4. Administration Of Research
One hundred and seventy-seven doctoral-level research administrators responded to the 1995 Salary Survey. These positions involve the management or administration of a research organization or program. Although individuals employed in these positions also may be involved in other aspects of the research process (e.g., design, data collection and analyses), their primary responsibility is managing research, including the supervision of research personnel. Summary statistics are presented in Table 4.

The largest proportions of respondents were working as administrators in government research organizations (24%) and private research firms (14%). These were followed by university research centers and business/industry at 11% each.

The most frequently reported subfields were clinical (14%), social/personality (10%), and industrial/organizational (9%). Experimental and developmental were claimed by 8% each, and quantitative/mathematical/psychometrics/statistics and psychopharmacology were reported by approximately 5% each.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for doctoral respondents in research administration was $73,000.

5. Direct Human Services - Clinical Licensed
There were 1,285 doctoral-level respondents who claimed clinical psychology as their major field, were licensed and who were involved in the direct delivery of health and mental health services to clients.

The largest single proportion of respondents was located in individual private practice (30%) with 50% in any private practice setting (individual or group). Eighteen percent could be found in hospital settings. Just under 20% were located in community mental health centers, HMOs and other health service settings. Six percent of respondents were located in government settings, 5% were in a university or college setting, and just over 3% were employed in the criminal justice system. Only about one percent was self employed, consulting, or employed in business/industry.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for licensed doctoral-level clinical psychologists was $56,000. Figure 5 and Table 5 contain frequency distributions and summary statistics.

6. Direct Human Services - Counseling Licensed
Three hundred and twenty-six respondents were licensed and indicated that they were involved in the delivery of human services at the doctoral level in counseling psychology. The largest single proportion was employed in individual private practice (26%) and overall, 43% were employed in private practice settings (individual or group). The next largest group was working in university counseling centers (21%), with just over one fourth in any educational setting. Thirteen percent were working in hospitals, while just over 12% could be found in clinics, HMOs and other service settings. Eight percent claimed business/industry, criminal justice systems or government.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for licensed doctoral-level counseling psychologists was $50,000. Frequency distributions and summary statistics can be found in Figure 6 and Table 6.

7. Direct Human Services - School Licensed
Ninety-seven respondents fit this category. Sixty-four percent of these school psychologists were employed in elementary and secondary schools, school system district offices or other educational settings. Twenty-one percent were working in individual or group private practices. Just under 9% were employed in other health service settings such as clinics or HMOs. Three percent of respondents were employed in hospital settings.

The median salary for licensed doctoral-level respondents providing school psychology services was $59,000 in 1995.

8. Direct Human Services - Other Psychological Subfields Licensed
There were 263 respondents in this category. The respondents are licensed, and are involved in the delivery of health/mental health services to client populations but are not in one of the three standard subfields (clinical, counseling or school psychology). Instead, they identified a variety of fields, including educational psychology and rehabilitation with 8% each, developmental and health psychology, with 7% each, and general psychology and counseling, each at 6%.

Forty-three percent were employed in individual or group private practices. Twenty percent were working in IPAs, PPOs, nursing homes, clinics, HMOs and other health service settings. Almost 15% reported working in hospital settings. Eleven percent were employed in academic settings, and just over 6% worked in government settings. Three percent each were self-employed or consulting. Data for these psychologists are presented in Figure 8 and Table 8.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for licensed doctoral-level respondents in this category was $56,000 in 1995.

9. Administration Of Human Services
Section 9 contains salary information for positions involving the administration of human services, i.e., positions that involve managing or directing a program of human services. Although these individuals may be involved in the delivery of services, their primary responsibility is the administration of such activities, including the supervision of personnel. Salaries for the 933 respondents in this position are reported in Figure 9 and Table 9.

As we might expect, most of the psychologists in administration of human services were employed in organized settings. Twenty-seven percent were employed in clinics, CMHCs, HMOs, guidance centers and specialized health service settings. Twenty-eight percent reported being in hospitals and eight percent were located in university or college counseling centers. Two percent worked in group practices.

Most respondents (61%) claimed clinical psychology as a major field in 1995. Counseling psychology was indicated by almost 15%, followed by school and community with about 2% each. There were fewer than 2% each in developmental, educational, and rehabilitation.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for health service administrators at the doctoral level was $60,000.

10. Applied Psychology Positions (Industrial/Organizational Psychology)
In this section, we present the salaries of those respondents whose positions may be called applied psychology (e.g., personnel selection, assessment, systems or equipment design, and organizational consultation, analysis or training) and whose current major field is industrial/ organizational psychology. Salaries for the 261 doctoral-level respondents are described in Figure 10 and Table 10.

Just over 41% of respondents in these positions were employed in consulting firms. Twenty-eight percent were in business and industry while 14% were self employed. Approximately 9% were working in government agencies and criminal justice systems.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level industrial-organizational psychologists in 1995 was $78,000.

11. Applied Psychology Positions (Other Psychology)
Individuals whose positions may best be described as applied psychology and whose current major field is one other than industrial/organizational psychology are included in this section. Typically, these individuals are engaged in organizational consultation, marketing research, systems/equipment design or other applied psychology activities. There were 178 doctoral-level respondents in these positions in 1995 and their salaries are reported in Figure 11 and Table 11.

The largest single proportion of respondents was employed in consulting firms (41%), followed by those who were self employed (17%), business or industry (15%) and the federal government (6%).

With 26% of the respondents, clinical was the most often mentioned field for this group. Ten percent indicated that they were in counseling and 6% were social/personality psychologists. Seven percent claimed experimental psychology.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for doctoral-level psychologists in these positions was $84,000.

12. Administration Of Applied Psychology
There were 154 respondents in these administrative positions. Administration of applied psychology includes the management of an organization or program in applied psychology, such as a firm specializing in market research or in industrial/organizational psychology. The primary responsibility of individuals in these positions is the administration of such programs, including the supervision of personnel. Figure 12 and Table 12 contain salary data on these respondents.

Only a small proportion (7%) were employed in organized health care settings or independent practices. The largest single proportion was located in consulting firms (31%), followed by 28% in business and industry settings.

The largest group of respondents in this position specialize in industrial/organizational psychology (47%), followed by clinical at 16% and counseling at 10%.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level respondents was $96,500 in 1995. The standard deviation (77,277) is large for this group, indicating substantial variation around the mean of $125,727.

13. Other Administrative Positions
These positions often involve managerial responsibilities in a business, government or nonprofit association that cannot be described as the direct administration of educational, research or human services or other applied psychology activities. These positions may be related to psychology, such as administration of government programs related to research funding, management of programs concerned with psychological issues in a nonprofit association and personnel administration. There were 186 respondents at the doctoral level in 1995.

The largest single proportion was employed in government settings (38%), followed by other nonprofit associations (19%), and business and industry (18%). Fourteen percent of respondents were employed in health care settings. Although scattered across a variety of settings, most of these respondents could be found outside academia.

Clinical psychology was the subfield of 30% of the respondents. Ten percent reported industrial/organizational psychology as their major field and 7% reported developmental. Approximately 5% each were in social/personality psychology, counseling psychology, and business or management.

The overall 11-12-month salary for doctoral-level respondents in other administrative positions was $77,000. Not surprisingly for a catch-all category, the range of salaries was quite large. The mean of $92,235 and standard deviation of $83,475 indicates that the range of reported salaries extended from the mid-thirties to well over $100,000.

14. Master's - Level Respondents
This section contains salary information broken out by position for master's-level respondents, and by years of experience when there are sufficient numbers of respondents (N=5).

Faculty Positions

The subfield reported most often by the 81 master's-level faculty was clinical (16%) followed by developmental (13%), counseling and general/methods and systems at 10% each. Industrial/organizational was mentioned by 9%. Finally, educational psychology and education/ teaching each were reported by 6% of the respondents.

Thirty-eight percent of the respondents were employed in two-year college settings, 34% were located in university settings, mostly departments of psychology, and almost 18% were working in four-year college settings. Less than 8% were found in medical school settings. The overall median 9-10-month faculty salary was $36,500 for master's-level respondents. Figure 14.A Table 14.A

Educational Administration
Of the 23 respondents in this position, 44% were school psychologists, 13% were educational psychologists, and 13% were clinical. One respondent each chose developmental, counseling, counselor education, psychiatry, computer science, industrial relations, and special education.

Almost half (48%) of the respondents were employed in school system district offices (48%), followed by "other" educational setting (17%), elementary and secondary schools (13%), and two-year colleges (9%). Four percent each were employed in university education departments, medical schools, and state government.

The overall 11-12-month median salary at the master's level was $60,000 for those employed full time in educational administration. Figure 14.B Table 14.B

Research Positions
There were 34 respondents in research positions in 1995. The largest single proportion reported that industrial/organizational psychology was their major field (26%). Six percent (N=2) chose one of each of the following fields, general/methods and systems, physiological/ psychobiology, developmental, clinical, quantitative/mathematics/psychometrics/statistics, and educational. One each reported experimental, community, counseling, public health, and statistics as a major field.

Private research organizations employed 26% of the 34 respondents. Government research organizations and business and industry each employed 16%. Fifteen percent were in government research organizations and just under 9% each were in business/industry, state government, or "other" nonprofit associations. Six percent each were working in university settings, public general hospitals, and consulting firms.

The overall median salary for 11-12-months in research positions at the master's level was $41,500. Figure 14.C Table 14.C

Research Administration
Only 19 people responded in this position at the master's level in 1995. Thirty-seven percent were employed in private research organizations or consulting firms. Sixteen percent reported working in hospital settings, while 11% each were working in the military and business/industry. Respondents did not cluster in one subfield or another but were scattered among personality, counseling, educational, industrial/organizational, developmental, community, health, psychopharmacology, business or management, statistics and the social/behavioral sciences. Industrial/organizational was reported most frequently (16%) by respondents.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for master's-level respondents in research administration was $65,000. It is important to remember that this is based on a small N and should be interpreted with caution. Figure 14.D

Direct Human Services
Clinical. Two hundred and forty-five respondents indicated that they were providing services in clinical psychology at the master's level. The largest single proportion of respondents was employed in individual or group practices (37%). That was followed by 32% in CMHCs, clinics, HMOs, and other health service settings, and 16% in hospital settings. Just over 2% chose any university or college settings. With the exception of the criminal justice system, few respondents were employed in other settings such as government, business or industry and nonprofit organizations.

The overall median 11-12-month salary was $43,000 for master's-level respondents who indicated clinical as a major field and who are involved in the delivery of direct human services. Figure 14.E Table 14.E

Counseling. The largest single proportion of the 98 respondents was employed in individual or group practices (31%). Clinics, community mental health clinics, and HMOs claimed 14%. Another 14% were located in hospitals. Approximately 5% were in other settings such as government settings, business and industry, criminal justice system settings, rehabilitation facilities, and nonprofit organizations.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for a master's-level position providing counseling psychology services was $38,000. Figure 14.F Table 14.F

School. There were 111 respondents in this category. Just under half of these respondents were in elementary and secondary school settings while another 11% could be found in other educational settings. Twenty-nine percent were employed in school system district offices. Less than 2% each were in independent practice, clinics, HMOs, or specialized health service settings. Approximately 5% were working in other settings outside academia or health services, such as government and the criminal justice system.

The overall median 11-12-month salary for master's-level individuals providing school psychology services was $60,000 in 1995. Figure 14.G Table 14.G

Other Psychological Subfields. Two hundred and five master's-level individuals were involved in direct human services and were in a field other than clinical, counseling and school psychology. For the most part, respondents identified counseling as their major field. Almost one quarter of the respondents were in individual or group practices, less than 2% were in university/college settings and approximately 5% were in elementary or secondary school settings. About 15% could be found in clinics, CMHCs and similar settings and 13% were employed in hospital settings. Eighteen percent were located in other settings such as government, the criminal justice system, or nonprofit associations. Figure 14.H Table 14.H

The overall median 11-12-month salary for respondents in this category was $38,000.

Administration of Human Services
There were one hundred and seventy-two respondents in this position in 1995. More than one third of the respondents (34%) were employed in community mental health centers, specialized health services, and other human service settings. Twenty-four percent were scattered across a number of settings such as business and industry, criminal justice system, governments and nonprofit organizations. Hospitals claimed just over 19%, and educational settings of any kind employed very few respondents (less than 6%).

The largest proportion of respondents reported clinical as their major field (30%). Seven percent reported counseling, while 16% claimed counseling psychology. Eight percent of the respondents were in community psychology, and 5% were in school psychology.

The overall 11-12-month median salary was $44,000 for master's-level respondents working as human service administrators. Figure 14.I Table 14.I

Other Administrative Positions
There were 35 respondents who indicated that they were employed in this position. Thirty-two percent were in local, state and federal government settings and twenty-one percent each were employed in business/industry and nonprofit organizations. Just under one fourth of respondents were working in health service provider settings. In general, respondents in this position were employed outside educational settings.

Respondents were in a variety of subfields. Fifteen percent identified themselves as business or management, 9% each claimed clinical and educational psychology. Six percent each were general/methods and systems, community, counseling, and industrial/organizational psychology. The remaining respondents were scattered across a number of subfields.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for those at the master's level in administrative positions was $66,000.

Applied Positions (Industrial/Organizational Psychology)
Forty-nine respondents were located in applied psychology positions and were in industrial/organizational psychology. None of the respondents in this category was employed in educational settings at any level or in any of the service provider settings. Forty-three percent were employed in business or industry and 37% could be found in consulting firms. Just over 10% were employed in government and 8% were self employed.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for master's-level respondents in applied (I/O) positions was $55,000. Figure 14.J Table 14.J

Applied Positions (Other Psychological Subfields)
Only 23 respondents were identified in this position at the master's level. Twenty percent were located in consulting firms, while 8% were in government settings. Six percent could be found in business/industry, while 4% were working in other nonprofit organizations.

Five of the respondents were in one of the health service provider subfields, either clinical, counseling or school psychology (22%). Four were in quantitative/mathematical/ psychometrics/statistics and two respondents indicated business/management.

The overall 11-12-month median salary for master's-level applied psychology positions in fields other than I/O was $55,000. Figure 14.K

15. Salaries By Sex, Race And Years Of Work Experience

This section presents doctoral-level salaries broken down by gender, race/ethnicity and years of experience. Where possible (given sufficient Ns) the data also have been analyzed by type of position.

Table 15.A. presents salary data by years of work experience and gender. In general, the median salaries of men are substantially higher than those reported by women. However, the disparities are less pronounced for men and women with only 0-1 or 2-4 years of work experience. We have observed these smaller differences among "newer" psychologists in other survey results and speculate that they may be due to efforts among employers to render salaries paid to women and men more equitable.

Table 15.B. contains salary data by sex, years of experience and employment position. As is obvious, some of the categories have been left blank because there are too few responses on which to base summary statistics. With few exceptions, the salaries of men are greater than those reported by women.

In Table 15.C., salaries are reported by years of experience and race/ethnicity. Differences among the median salaries do exist although they may not be substantive. The one minority group whose median salaries were most often lower than those reported by any other group was comprised of Asian psychologists. Hispanic psychologists most often showed the highest median salary of any group.

Salary data are displayed by years of experience and minority status in Table 15.D. Medians for minority and white psychologists do not differ greatly, but where differences do exist, they are in the expected direction. The two sets of salaries are more equitable among those with 2-4 years, 5-9 years, and 10-14 years of experience. At fifteen years and above, we find greater differences between the white and minority salaries such that the mean salaries reported by minorities are lower and the associated ranges are narrower, indicating that the salary distributions for minority psychologists may be skewed to the lower end of the scale to a greater degree than would be the case for white psychologists.

16. Doctoral-Level Salaries For Selected Positions, Regions And Cities

The previous sections have presented national data on the salaries/net incomes of doctoral-level and master's-level respondents who report full-time employment. This section provides geographic breakdowns of doctoral-level salaries.

Table 16.A presents data on median salaries and median years since the doctorate by geographic region and position. All full-time-employed respondents were coded into regions on the basis of zip code. Numbers are less than the totals for each region because respondents may be missing data on salary, position or employment setting.

The category of "independent practice" includes licensed psychologists who are involved in individual, group, or medical-psychological group practices. Faculty positions in universities are limited to those who identify their primary employment setting as psychology departments, education departments, business departments or schools, or other academic units located in universities. "Faculty in other settings" includes those in other academic settings such as research centers, four- and two-year colleges, and medical schools. Medical school faculty typically are paid on an 11-12-month basis. The academic-year (9-10-month) medians given in Table 16.A. can be converted to their calendar-year equivalents by multiplying by 11/9.

The figures in this table should not be applied to an individual salary or setting but should be used only in making very general comparisons among the different regions and positions. This is because the median salaries may be affected by factors such as gender, year of degree, years of experience, employment setting, field of degree and cost of living in a specific area. To illustrate one of these factors, years of experience has been provided for each category and region.

Table 16.B presents data on the median salaries of doctoral-level faculty in university settings and for licensed doctoral-level psychologists involved in the delivery of direct services in independent practice settings adjusted for the actual cost of living in selected cities. Inclusion of a city in this table hinged on its inclusion in the ACCRA report described below and a sufficient number of responses from that city. Both adjusted median salary and actual salary are reported, as is the size of the group on which the salary is based. Cost of living index information is from the American Chamber of Commerce Researcher's Association's Inter-City Cost of Living Index for 322 urban areas from the third quarter of 1995, the period during which the survey was mailed to a sample of APA members. This index measures and reports prices for consumer goods and services for cities that supply this information.

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Acknowledgements