Friday, March 12, 1999
2:15 pm - 3:30 pm
Arousal to Darkness and Type A Behavior in Professional Drivers
Reza Emdad, Ph.D., National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institute
Background and aims: There has been at least forty empirical investigations concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) among professional drivers (PD). Standard cardiac risk factor status does not consistently distinguish PD from other lower risk groups. PD have shown more than twice the overall exposure to stressful work factors compared to referents. There is a lack of published studies of the effect of darkness on electrocortical responses in professional drivers (PD). Aim: Assessing relations between electroencephalographic (EEG) reactions to enforced darkness reminiscent of night driving, and untoward behavioral response patterns, notably Type A behavior.
Methods: PD: 13 with ischemic heart disease, 12 hypertensives (HTN), 10 borderline hypertensives and 34 normotensives, and 23 non-PD controls. Five minutes of electroencephalographic recording with eyes closed, and subsequently 3 minutes exposure to darkness. EEG parameters were: alpha abundance, amplitude and frequency. Type A behavior (TAB) was assessed by observation and by questionnaire.
Main Results: Alpha abundance diminished significantly for darkness compared to spontaneous recording for all groups. No between-group differences were found for EEG. There were no significant differences in EEG between drivers with IHD or HTN taking versus not taking centrally-active b -blockers. Drivers with IHD were the only group to show significant increase in dominant a frequency at darkness. The IHD group also had the highest TAB questionnaire scores and the heaviest exposure to professional driving. Type A scores were significantly correlated with dominant alpha frequency during darkness. Low availability of attachment and special driving hazards best predicted TAB scores in drivers. There was a significant between group difference with respect to Symbolic Aversiveness at the work place comparing each driver group with the non-PD control group.
Conclusions: Exposure to darkness reminiscent of night driving can elicit central arousal, in conflict with circadian rhythm, and in combination with other driving hazards which contribute to symbolic aversiveness, the essence of driving and low availability of social attachment, could contribute to sustained arousal and in turn to the development of Type A behavior in professional drivers.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Reza Emdad, Ph.D., The Division for Psychosocial Factors and Health at the Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and the National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Box 230 S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Personal and Work-Related Predictors of Consistent Cortisol Responding
Simone Grebner*, Dipl. Psych., Achim Elfering, Dr. and Norbert K. Semmer, Dr., University of Berne, Switzerland
A sample of N = 35 male instructors served as subjects in a longitudinal field study (three waves, time lag 6 weeks). The aim of the study was to assess a) frequency and content of stressful experiences at work, b) their relation with working conditions, and c) the relationship between work stress and resources with well-being and stress responses.
Methods include: (1) stress-related work analysis (self-report and observer rating), (2) assessment of daily stressful experiences; (3) daily well-being; (4) general well-being, work satisfaction, social support, and (4) blood pressure, heart rate, urinary epinephrine and cortisol (saliva) on a working day and a day off (12:00 a.m., 05:15 p.m., 09:00 p.m.).
Analyses concentrate on the differences in level of cortisol on working and resting days, using the midday measurements. As expected, cortisol levels were significantly higher on working days. Behind these mean differences, however, large individual differences are found. We therefore classified subjects whose cortisol levels on working days were at least 2.5 nmol/l above their day off measure as �responders" (Kirschbaum, 1991). Since �responders" in one wave were not necessarily �responders" in the other two waves as well, we further classified subjects according to their consistency in showing a cortisol response (Index of consistency: 0 = no response in any wave to 2 = responses in two or three waves). Subjects higher on the index of consistent responding report more social support by their marital partners, and they have lower values of �work related resignation". Furthermore, they have a tendency to report better recovery, based on measures of emotional spillover, and well-being in the evening. In a multiple regression analysis, 39 per cent of the variance in the index of consistency could be explained. Work related resignation and social support of spouses were both significant predictors (p < .05). Analyzing responders vs. non-responders by wave, non-responding subjects showed higher absolute values of cortisol on resting days.
Results are interpreted in terms of Frankenhaeuser�s model of �good coping". It postulates that �good copers" are characterized by a strong response to stress and challenge and by a quick recovery after the stressful or challenging period. Since the �responders" in our study, compared to the �non-responders", show higher levels of cortisol on work days but lower levels on Sundays, they conform to Frankenhaeuser�s pattern of �good copers". And since they show better values on indicators of well-being and social support, the model is supported in that they do seem to be better off than the non-responders who show a pattern of sustained activation and insufficient recovery. Our results deviate from the model, however, in that they apply to cortisol rather than to adrenaline. This challenges the often-cited notion that adrenaline reflects general activation, or effort, while cortisol is a purer measure of emotional stress and helplessness.
Differential Impact of Stressors on Self-Esteem, Somatic Complaints and Immunoglobulin A
Premarajan. R.K., XLRI, Jamshedpur, India
Organizational and clinical researchers alike have cautioned against the over-reliance of stress researchers on self-reported measurement of variables. There is also a general agreement that further investigation of objective measures of stress such as the physiological effects could lead to a more complete understanding of the impact stress on health. While physiological indicators of stress have met with encouraging response, more research is needed before one can safely conclude that neurohormonal measures hold promise as objective indicators of the stress response. Researchers need stress markers that are reliable, easy to collect and measure, and that would not be very short lasting. The immunological responses represented a much slower and long lasting psychological stress that have been studied traditionally. The contention is that though the effect of psychological stress on the immune process could be indirect it is possible that the amount of Immunoglobulin itself could be affected.
The present study on 240 managers from three large manufacturing organizations was undertaken to see the relation between the traditionally measured stress variables with Immunoglobulin as well as with psychological strain measures. It is an attempt in identifying the differential impact of organizational as well as individual levels stressors like Role Ambiguity, Work Overload, Role Conflict, Type A Behavior, and Lack of Participation in Decision Making on strain measures such as Loss of work-related self-esteem, Somatic Complaints, and Immunoglobulin A. The moderating effect of Type A Behavior as well as Participation in Decision making on the relationship between Role Ambiguity, Work Overload, and Role Conflict on the dependent variables were also examined.
Moderated multiple regression analysis showed that for the dependent variable work-related self-esteem, role ambiguity, work overload, role conflict, type A behavior, and participation in decision-making produced significant relationship. In the case of somatic complaints, work overload, role conflict, were the only variables that showed significant relationships. As for the physiological measure Immunoglobulin A, work overload, type A behavior and participation in decision making were found to be significantly related with the dependent variable. Similarly while in the case of self-esteem, the interaction effect of participation in decision making with role ambiguity as well as with role conflict produced significant effects, for somatic complaints, the only interaction effect that produced significant effect was work overload and type A behavior. In the case of Immunoglobulin A no interaction effect was found to be significant.
Association of Job Stressors with Sleep Quality in Japanese Factory Workers
Akinori Nakata1, DMSc., Takashi Haratani1, Ph.D., Norito Kawakami2 , MD., Akiko Miki3, MSc., Lumie Kurabayashi1, MD., Fumio Kobayashi4, M.D., Shunichi Araki5, M.D., Hiroyuki Shimizu2, M.D.
1Division of Work Stress Control, National Institute of Industrial Health, Japan.
2Department of Public Health, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.
3Department of Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.
4Department of Health and Psychosocial Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Japan.
5Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.
To clarify the association of job stressors with sleep habits and symptoms, a cross-sectional study was conducted of 974 male Japanese white-collar day workers in an electric equipment manufacturer company (aged 20 to 59, mean 37 years). Perceived job stressors, i.e., psychological job demand, job control, worksite social support and job strain (demand/ control), were assessed using the Japanese version of the JCQ. The questionnaire of sleep comprises 11 questions of sleep habits (daily sleeping hours, time to fall asleep, awakening during sleep, early morning awakening, sleep well at night, sufficiency of sleep, dozing or napping in daytime, excessive daytime sleepiness at work, be absent or late from work for oversleeping, use of medication to help sleep, and sought medical help for sleep problem) and 4 questions of sleep symptoms (difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, early final awakening, and excessive sleep). The partial correlation coefficients were calculated between job stressors and sleep variables adjusted for age, smoking and drinking habits, caffeine consumption, and physical exercises; only the results statistically significant (p<0.05) was listed. Job strain was positively correlated with early morning awakening, excessive daytime sleepiness at work, and early final awakening; in contrast, daily sleeping hours, sleep well at night, and sleep sufficiency were inversely correlated. Job control was inversely correlated with time to fall asleep, awakening during sleep and early morning awakening and positively correlated with sleep well at night. Job demand was inversely correlated with daily sleeping hours, time to fall asleep, and sleep sufficiency. Worksite social support was positively correlated with sleep well at night and dozing or napping in daytime. The results suggest that job stressors are closely associated with sleep habits and symptoms of male factory workers. Effective strategies should be carried out to raise job control and worksite social support, and reduce job demand and job strain.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Akinori Nakata, DMSc., National Institute of Industrial Health, 21-1, Nagao 6-chome, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8585, JAPAN
The SWS-International Survey of Work Stress and Mental Health: Symposium
Co-Chairs: Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., School of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, and Rodolfo E. Gutierrez, Ph.D., National University of Mexico; Introduction: Eugene R. Brody, M.D., Secretary General, World Federation for Mental Health; Presenters: Rodolfo E. Gutierrez, Ph.D., National University of Mexico; Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., Robert Chell, Ph.D., and George Ellis, MA, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Tayyab Rashid, MSc., and Afroze Anjum, MSc., Government College, Lahore, Pakistan; Diane J. Ostermann, RN, C.O.P.E. Services Council; Discussant: Charles D. Spielberger, Ph.D., University of South Florida.
With World Federation for Mental Health sponsorship and assistance from the World Heath Organization's Coordinating Centers for Occupational Health, a network of occupational health specialists (N = 765) in twenty country groups in Asia, East and West Europe, North and South America translated and validated native language versions of the SWS--Survey of Stress and Mental Health-pf(©). The SWS--Network includes physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, university professors, human resource specialists, and specialists from national ministries of health and labor.
This symposium organized to present the conceptual and experimental development of the SWS--Survey© covers these topics:
I. The SWS--Model, a multidimensional concept for study of occupational health.
II. Development and validation of the SWS--Survey©
III. Significant gender differences and cross-cultural comparisons
IV. Distinct factorial components of mental health at different levels of organizational hierarchy
The SWS--Survey© can, in several countries, especially in developing countries where validated, native language instruments are rare, satisfactorily assess stress and support variables and related symptoms of mental health. It is sensitive to cultural similarities and differences and to gender variations in different cultures. It can serve as an instrument for research both nationally and cross-culturally and for the monitoring of occupational health where no such instruments yet exist.
This project should be of interest to multinational companies and international agencies which assist developing countries and monitor the quality of life of workers.
This symposium is intended to inform professionals about this project, share some important research findings and invite professionals to extend this world wide project to their own countries.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., School of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1000 River Road, Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA
The SWS Stress / Support Model
Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., School of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University
Two problems were identified by an international study of the World Health Organization in 1989, which found that in developing countries there was little research regarding stress despite the fact that rapid industrialization was producing many of the stress factors already common in the developed countries. This W.H.O. study also found that, where research did exist, the studies did not focus sufficiently on the psychosocial and mental health characteristics and implications.
Other critical reviews of research have noted that there were almost no multidimensional models of stress. Measures of occupational stress did not, at the same time, consider stress factors brought to work from one's home situation or those created at work by one's stress prone attitude. Studies, which assessed stress, did not, at the same time, assess support factors, which could offset the effect of stress.
The SWS--International Study of Stress and Mental Health began in 1991 with two objectives: 1) to develop a multidimensional model for occupational health including mental health and 2) to resolve the difficulties of cross-cultural research, especially in the developing countries. To develop a multidimensional model, relevant stress variables were abstracted from the research of others and sorted into three domains, namely: those relating to WORK, life SITUATION (other than work) and SELF, one's attitude and life style. The variables in each domain were further sorted as indicators of either stress or support. A fourth domain included the common indicators of both good and poor mental health.
The basic concept of the SWS�Model is that an individual's condition under any circumstances is the net total of the interaction of stress (negative) and support (positive) factors of situation, work, and self.
The SWS--Model was given form as the SWS--Survey©, a questionnaire of 200 items, 25 in each of 8 scales, representative of the common variables abstracted from the research. It assess the net stress measure of subjects, the relative weight of stress and support variables, the interconnection between stress and support variables from the different domains and the relationship between both stress and support and mental health (both negative and positive indicators).
In clinical practice, the SWS�Survey© can be both diagnostic and prescriptive by assessing both the presence of stress and absence support variables.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., School of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1000 River Road, Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA
Significant Gender Differences and Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Stress and Mental Health in Twenty Countries
Tayyab Rashid, MSc., Afroze Anjum, MSc., Government College, Lahore, Pakistan, Robert Chell, Ph.D., Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D.,George Ellis, MA, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Rodolfo E. Gutierrez, Ph.D., National University of Mexico, and Diane J. Ostermann, RN, C. O.P.E. Services Council.
Validation of the SWS--Survey© found few differences among the participating country groups with respect to the acceptance of items, but these differences do provide insight into distinctions of culture and gender.
Cross-cultural Comparisons: Based on item validation data were classified as "accepted", "rejected" or "undetermined". For each domain of 25 items, those that met acceptance criteria in 17-20 of the participating countries were considered "universal". The number of "universal" items for each domain was as follows: Situational Stress (21), Situational Support (20), Work Stress (20), Work Support (21), Self Stress (14), Self Support (23), Poor Mental Health (7), and Good Mental Health (18). Most items for most domains are common worldwide, but for Poor Mental Health and Self Stress there is considerable variability, remarkably, the least accepted in developing countries.
The twenty participating countries were arranged in six distinct geo/cultural groups and, by comparison, items were culturally classified as relevant, rejected, neutral or ambiguous depending on the consistency of pattern within the geo/cultural group. Results in Latin America, Industrial Asia and Europe generally parallel United States. In China (mainland) and Romania, more items, which are generally accepted elsewhere, are rejected. Cultural differences appear least often for the items of Situational Stress, Work Stress and Support and Self Support, more often for Situational Support, Self Stress and the mental health domains.
Gender Differences: Gender differences were determined by the significance of the difference between mean item-ratings "for use with men" and "for use with women". Overall there were few significant gender differences and remarkable similar polarity of each gender paired item-ratings. In only six instances was the mean item-rating for one gender accepted but rejected for the other gender. However, overall there was greater frequency of significantly higher mean-item ratings for use with men in Work Support, Self Support and Good Mental Health and for use with women in Social Stress, Work Stress, and Poor Mental Health.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., School of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1000 River Road, Teaneck, NJ 07666 USA
Conceptualizations of Good and Poor Mental Health: Distinct Components Within Organizational Levels
Rodolfo E. Gutierrez, Ph.D., National University of Mexico and Robert F. Ostermann, Ph.D., School of Psychology, Fairleigh Dickinson University
One unique feature of the SWS�Survey of Stress and Mental Health© is the inclusion of two scales to assess mental health � a traditional scale for Poor Mental Health (PMH) and a new scale, Good Mental Health (GMH). In earlier studies of Mexican workers (Gutierrez, et al., 1994, 1995) it was found that PMH scores correlated significantly with scores for Situational Stress, Work Stress and Self Stress, and GMH scores with scores for Situational Support, Work Support and Self Support.
This study explored the dimensions of GMH and PMH at three organizational levels where there are obvious differences in personal and situational stressors. From four work settings in Mexico, workers (N = 832), divided into three distinct organizational levels, completed the SWS�Survey of Mental Health© - just the fifty mental health items of the SWS--Survey©. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed in an exploratory manner (via principal components with verimax rotation) within the mental health construct.
At all three organizational levels, confirmatory factorial analysis showed two dimensions involved � the first oriented toward PMH, the second toward GMH. Alpha range was 78.03% to 87.11%.
At the level of manual workers, exploratory analysis showed that six sub-factors explain a total variance of 39.4%; two composed of items of GMH, four of, PMH. At the technical and administrative level, eight sub-factors explain a total variance of 44%; three composed of items of GMH, five of PMH. At the professional level, six sub-factors explain a total variance of 39.4%; five composed of items of GMH, one of PMH.
At each level, intercorrelations of these six factors showed consistently positive correlations among the factors composed of GMH items and among the factors composed of PMH items. Correlations between PMH factors and GMH factors were consistently negative or near zero.
That stress is associated with poor mental health and support with good mental health is not surprising; what is surprising is that components of mental health are different for workers at different organizational. Perhaps the preponderance of stress or the greater availability of support at organizational levels may explain these results.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Rodolfo E. Gutierrez, Ph.D., National University of Mexico, Fortin 38, Col. San Jeronimo, Mexico City, DF, 10400 MEXICO
Participation and Health Promotion Teams for Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment
Anna-Liisa Elo, Ph.D. and Anneli Leppänen, Ph.D., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Health promotion and stress reduction programs have been organized by giving the responsibility for the program to an external consultant, occupational health professionals, management, or a representative group. However, maintaining health promotion as a continuous activity in an organization is difficult.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a participative model to involve 773 employees of a metal factory in a three year health promotion program. A representative health promotion team was established in all 12 departments to plan and carry out the program. Questionnaires were applied to evaluate repetedly the internal effectiveness of the health promotion teams, the activities organized by the teams, and perceived changes by the entire personnel.
The teams planned and organized activities in cooperation with the personnel on the basis of a survey feedback. The majority of the personnel participatied in the activities and were satisfied with them. The social climate was assessed as having improved as a result of the common activities. During the project the health promotion teams improved their effectiveness and planned new activities. However, active solving of psychosocial problems was difficult despite the participative structure of the program. Physical activities were given more emphasis than development of the work or stress reduction.
The possibilities of a representative group to act are dependent on many external and internal factors. The definition of the task and the empowerment of the team creates the basis for its action. To act effectively, a team needs skills, expertice and knowledge in problem solving, decision making and communication. Representativeness and participatory action model are necessary, but they are not sufficient for solving psychosocial problems within a workplace.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Anna-Liisa Elo, Ph.D., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Psychology, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa, FINLAND
Process and Outcome in Two Worksite Stress Management Interventions
Frank W. Bond, Ph.D.* and David J. Bunce, Ph.D., Goldsmiths College, University of London
This study sought to identify the mechanisms underpinning change in mental health and work-related variables as a function of two contrasting occupational stress management interventions (SMIs). Ninety volunteers in a media organization were randomly allocated to either an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, n=30) group which sought to enhance the individual�s ability to cope with work-related strain, an Innovation Promotion Program (IPP, n=30) which helped individuals to identify and then innovatively change causes of occupational strain, or a waitlist control group (n=30). Both interventions were delivered using a modification of the "2+1" format, where two sessions were delivered on consecutive weeks, with a third three months later. Participants were last assessed three months after the final session. Improvements in mental health and work-related variables were found following both interventions. Consistent with our research hypotheses, changes in outcome variables in the ACT condition were mediated by the acceptance of dysfunctional thoughts and feelings, rather than change in those thoughts and feelings per se, or attempts to modify stressful aspects of the workplace. In contrast, in the IPP condition, outcome change was mediated by attempts to modify stressors, but not by changes in dysfunctional thoughts, or the acceptance thereof. Discussion emphasises the need for future SMI research to examine mediators of change, in order to increase our understanding of how people improve, not only if people improve. Such knowledge would appear necessary, in order to design interventions that can achieve maximum effectiveness.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Frank W. Bond, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths College, University of London, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, UK.
The Impact of a Participatory Organizational Intervention on Job Stress in Community Health Care Institutions
Aslaug Mikkelsen,* Ph.D., Rogaland Research and Per Øystein Saksvik, Ph.D., University of Trondheim
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short term participatory organizational intervention in health care institutions in Norway on job characteristics, job stress, subjective health and job satisfaction.
Successful interventions were expected to work in two main ways: 1) by modifying objective stressful conditions in the social and/or technical environment; and 2) by the active learning workers experienced in direct participation and successfully affecting positive change. "Local theories" based on the employees own perceptions of main problems, were seen as the key drivers for organizational improvement and increased control on the task and office level in the work situation.
The study was part of a nation-wide intervention research program in Norway called "Health in Working life" funded by the Norwegian Research Council and carried out in 1996 and 1997. A quasi experimental design with an intervention (n = 64) and a control group (n = 71) was used. The intervention was carried out during a 12 weeks period. A standardized questionnaire with international tested instruments was used in one pre-test and two post-tests.
The first step in the intervention was a consultant assisted search conference. Here the employees identified the most important factors for good working conditions in their organizational unit. For each of the selected topics a work-group was established. Written reports from the group discussions containing action plans and suggestions were sent to the steering committee that had a meeting every week. A dialogue was established between management and representatives for the employees both within the steering committee and between the steering committee and the work groups. A written report from the steering committee was sent back to each participant taking part in the intervention.
The short time effects of the intervention were significant. Job stress was reduced and improvements in work characteristics as job demands, decision authority, social support and role harmony were obtained. There were also improvements in learning climate and management style. The intervention thus seemed to have started a good change process. Many targeted activities were suggested on the action plan and followed up in the project period. The commitment to the intervention did not, however, expand the project period, and the response rate at post II measurement was too low to permit use of the data.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Aslaug Mikkelsen, Rogaland Research, Prof. Olav Hanssensvei 15, P.O.Box 2503 Ullandhaug, N-4004 Stavanger, Norway
New Management Concepts for New Types of Work Organization
Armin Windel and Bernhard Zimolong
Faculty of Psychology. Ruhr University of Bochum
D - 44 780 Bochum
1. New organizational developments
The past two decades have witnessed a dramatic transformation in how firms are structured. Large organizations with many management levels have flattened. Competitors that have adopted a �horizontal", or �modular" organizational structure have gained market shares. Lean management, the integration of managerial tasks as well as cross-functional tasks into work groups, and greater autonomy at work are some of the most important developments. They are part of a remarkable cost-cutting program in industry and public service. The closure of companies and staff reduction in almost every sector, contingent pay and peer pressure generated by teams have emerged as substitutes for both managerial influence and internalized member commitment. Additionally, they have contributed to an increase in psycho-social problems. Work-environmental problems in the industrialized countries are the most common ones now, according to an European survey in which over 10.000 employees participated.
2. Empirical findings: Benefits and psycho-social demands in group work
The introduction of team work may offer to some extent greater task variety, process- and product responsibility, additional managerial tasks, higher qualification demands and social support for some or even for all of the team members. Representative surveys in the German mechanical engineering industry conducted annually between 1991 and 1997 have shown major increases in particular forms of group work. They range from conservative forms of work organization to innovative forms, such as semi-autonomous and qualified work groups. Conservative forms, i.e. group work in a spatial compound with no additional increase in autonomy, dominate in the survey, innovative forms are rather rare. It is not clear from literature if the usually reported economical benefits result from the introduction of group work, from the technological change or from overall re-engineering measures. Our results derived from two studies in industry indicate a gain in economical benefit and an increase in psycho-social demands. They result from higher work load, more managerial tasks to be performed, and from incompatible organizational, technical and social requirements. Social conflicts emerging in groups have been studied in a longitudinal study, with the second point of measurement six months after the first. In innovative forms of teamwork, fewer conflicts and different kinds of conflicts have been found, compared to conservative work groups. It seems that the investment of management into innovative types of group work has paid off in the end. Results of the study emphasize the requirement to develop and implement specific types of Health and Safety Management (HSM) for new types of work organization.