Thursday, March 11, 1999
4:45 pm - 6:00 pm
Outsourcing & Stress: Physiological Effects on Bus Drivers
Bo Netterstrøm , M.D. M.Sci, Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Hillerød Hospital & Aase Marie Hansen, Ph.D, Danish National Institute of Occupational Health, Denmark.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the physiological effects of changes in work organization due to the outsourcing of bus routes.
Twenty bus drivers served as the study group. They were voluntarily transferred to work for another bus company after this company had won a tender from their former employer. Twenty drivers from the former employer served as the control group. At baseline, at the month for change of employer, all were monitored for two days regarding measurements of blood pressure every 2 hours while awake. In the first day urine samples detecting adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol and blood samples for lipids, glycated hemoglobine (HbA1c), fibrinogen, dehydroepiandrosteronsulfat ( DHEA-S) and prolactin were collected. In addition, all participants filled out a questionnaire on health and work related items. Eight and 12 months later, a similar data collection took place in the study group.
During the follow-up period, 7 drivers in the study group left their job due to dissatisfaction with the working conditions and the remaining 13 drivers changed their attitude to the work place. In accordance with this, the drivers scored worse on questions regarding job satisfaction . After 12 months the following changes in physiological measures were detected: Increase in HbA1C (4.4-4.7 % (p<0.001)), urinary cortisol ( 7.3-12.1 nmol/mmol creatinine (p=0.04)) and systolic blood pressure at work (129.4-134 mmHg)( p=0.04)). In addition a decrease in DHEA -S (8.8-7.6 nmol/l (p=0.06)) was observed. The changes in systolic blood pressure and DHEA-S were even higher after eight months.
The physiological changes were, as expected, in agreement with the assumption that metabolism turns into a catabolic direction during a period of perceived stress.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Bo Netterstrøm, Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Hillerød Hospital, 3400 DK-Hillerød
Employment Security, Employability and Executive Commitment: An Empirical Investigation
Elizabeth A. Craig, Ph.D. Candidate, John R. Kimberly, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, and Hamid Bouchikhi, Ph.D., ESSEC
The employment security model of employment relations involves the exchange of employee loyalty to the organization for long-term job security. However, many employers are now eliminating long-term commitments to employees, substituting promises to provide skills and experience that will ensure continued employability for job security. This study examines the relationship between perceptions of an employer's relative commitment to providing long-term employment security and executives' expectations for continued employment with that organization. Using an interactionist perspective, we model expectations to remain as a function of both the individual and the situation.
Data for this study come from an ongoing survey of over 500 mid-level executives in companies located around the world. We hypothesized that relatively stronger firm commitment to employment security would be positively related to executives' expectations to remain. A firm-orientation, or relatively stronger individual commitment to the goals of the current firm than to professional goals, was also predicted to be positively related to individuals' expectations to remain. A firm-orientation, or relatively stronger individual commitment to the goals of the current firm than to professional goals, was also predicted to be positively related to individuals' expectations to remain. Moreover, an executive's goal orientation was predicted to moderate the relationship between employment context and expectations to remain, such that high job security contexts will be associated with significantly greater expectations to remain for firm-oriented executives than for professionally-oriented executives.
Results indicate that, contrary to our prediction, greater employer commitment to job security is associated with lower expectations to remain. The hypothesis that firm-oriented executives have higher expectations than professionally-oriented executives was supported. In addition, weak support was found for individual goal orientation as a moderator. These preliminary findings suggest that the consequences of the new employment contract are complex. We discuss the research and managerial implications of these findings and the possibilities for future research in this area.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Elizabeth A. Craig, Ph.D. Candidate, Management Department, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2059 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Underemployment: Consequences for the Health and Well-Being Of Workers
David Dooley, Ph.D. and JoAnn Prause, Ph.D. University of California, Irvine
Research on economic stress has concentrated on the social costs of job loss or unemployment in contrast to employment. Surprisingly, the current low unemployment rates in the U.S. have been accompanied by high levels of concern by workers about their jobs. Perhaps these workers worry that their jobs are not secure or have noticed that the recent recovery has produced little or no gain in real earnings of low-income workers. These observations call our attention to underemployment, but little is known about the social consequences of underemployment. The goal of this paper is to assess the human impact of this "disguised unemployment". The analyses are based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative panel with annual reinterviews from 1979 to 1994. Impact measures include depression, self-esteem, and alcohol abuse. Employment status measures followed the Current Population Survey permitting categorization of each respondent as out of the labor force, adequately employed, unemployed (including discouraged workers), and underemployed. The underemployed category includes involuntary part time and poverty wage workers following Sullivan (1978) and Clogg (1979). Controlling for self-esteem while still in high school in 1980 and compared to those who became stably and adequately employed, self-esteem was lower in 1987 in those who were unemployed, working involuntarily part time, working at poverty level wages, or working but with recent unemployment experiences. For workers in their mid-20s who were adequately employed in 1984 and controlling for alcohol abuse then, those who became underemployed (poverty level wages or involuntary part time) or unemployed a year later evidenced increased alcohol abuse. For workers in their late 20s and early 30s, there are adverse effects of underemployment as well as unemployment on 1994 depression controlling for 1992 depression. Similar analyses are ongoing for especially vulnerable subgroups such as AFDC recipients who, if they are able to leave welfare, are at high risk to enter underemployment. These findings emphasize the need for researchers in the occupational health and economic stress areas to include underemployment in their studies. These findings also make a case for reporting underemployment in routine labor statistics.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: David Dooley, Ph.D. Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine 92697-7085
Underemployment: Consequences for The Health And Well-Being Of Workers
Daniel S. Friedland, University of Michigan
Though there is a large body of literature in the social sciences that links work and working conditions to the health of workers, very few studies have explicitly addressed the relationship between underemployment and health and well-being. The small literature that does exist suffers from a number of limitations, the most important of which are: (1) inconclusive findings; (2) unresolved questions regarding the direction of causality; and (3) unspecified causal explanations for why underemployment is related to health and well-being.
Most social science researchers view underemployment as a lower quality of employment relative to some standard of comparison. Existing definitions vary in both the aspects of employment that are examined and the standards of comparison that are chosen. I adopt a conceptual definition of underemployment from the Labor Utilization Framework (LUF) (Sullivan, 1978). The framework uses a societally defined minimally adequate level of employment as the standard of comparison for determining underemployment. According to the LUF there are three types of underemployment: involuntary part-time work, low income work, and skill mismatch.
In this presentation, I will discuss the results of a longitudinal panel design study of underemployment and health and well-being. The study focused on two core questions: (1) Is there a relationship between underemployment and health and well-being?; and (2) what is the direction of causality in that relationship? In addressing the first question, I explored the relationship between multiple types of underemployment and multiple indicators of health and well-being. In addressing the second question, I explored whether underemployment was the cause or consequence of an individual’s health and well-being.
The research was conducted using two waves of data from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study (House, 1997). The data were collected over a three year period, with Wave 1 in 1986 and Wave 2 in 1989. The study population for the ACL is defined to include all the United States household population age 25 years and older who live in the 48 contiguous states and do not live on military bases, in group quarters, or institutions. Blacks and persons aged 60 or over were sampled at twice the rate of non-blacks and persons under age 60, respectively. The analyses described in this presentation were based on a subsample (N=1,706) that was employed for pay during at least one wave of data collection.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Daniel S. Friedland, University of Michigan, Department of Psychology, 525 E. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1109, USA
Gender, Work and Health: Contemporary Issues
Chair: Debra L. Nelson, Ph.D., Oklahoma State University
Presenters: Ronald J. Burke, Ph.D., Rekha Karambayya, Ph.D., York University; James Campbell Quick, Ph.D., University of Texas at Arlington; Jeffrey H. Greenhaus, Ph.D.,; Saroj Parasuraman, Ph.D., Drexel University
As the workforce grows more diverse, we need to know more about managing different types of people. Gender constitutes one of these areas of differenceCan important one. We need to learn to live with and manage issues involving gender as opposed to sweeping them off the table. If interventions are to be developed to ensure the health and safety of workers, we need to increase our knowledge of gender as an individual difference that affects all aspects of the relationship between work and well-being.
The symposium will present leading-edge research on gender, work and health. Rather than focusing on the traditional research streams that examine gender differences in stress and coping, this symposium features contributors who are working in novel and provocative areas. Each of the presentations represents an effort to break new ground in gender differences research.
Ron Burke's research focuses on masculinity in organizations. He will describe this relatively new area of research, concentrating on masculine role stress and the effects of corporate masculinity on men=s health and performance at work.
Rehka Karambayya will present the results of a qualitative study of women's experiences of organizational restructuring. Her findings highlight the stressful nature of restructuring and the complexity of studying individual's reactions to such changes. Her study also shows that women may face special conflicts within organizations that require further study.
Jim Quick and his colleagues define sexual harassment as a chronic psycho-social problem in the workplace. They designed an innovative preventive management model for this chronic problem through the application of concepts from public health. They propose that early warning signs and precursors for harassment can be identified and interventions developed to prevent harassment from occurring or, at minimum, to reduce the adverse effects from sexual harassment.
Jeff Greenhaus and Saroj Parasuraman will present the results of their study, a unique look at investment in work and family roles. They investigated the relative influence of spouse or partner characteristics on individuals' time devoted to work and family roles. In addition, they studied gender differences in these investments. Their study makes an important contribution to our knowledge of the dynamics of dual-earner relationships.
In summary, the symposium will focus on the contemporary themes that have begun to emerge in research on gender, work and health. By presenting new research on masculinity in organizations, women's experience of downsizing, prevention of sexual harassment in organizations, and investment in work/family roles, we hope to generate a creative dialogue with attendees.
Masculinity In Organizations
Ronald J. Burke, York University
Why a presentation on men in organizations? Interestingly enough, although organizations have historically been managed almost exclusively by men, the experiences of men as men have been virtually ignored. This is timely since some recent writing have suggested considerable confusion about men's roles. This presentation will review the following material.
What is Masculinity? The social construction of gender, Masculinity in multiple forms
The Gendered Nature of Organization: Dimensions of corporate masculinity; Masculinity and management; Masculinity, femininity, and androgyny
Implications for Men, Women, and Children: Gender role strain; Male privilege; Costs of corporate masculinity; The type A experience; Workaholics/corporate bigamists; Work and the experience of children; The power-motivated man and his relationship with women
Men and Success: Career success and personal failure; Antecedents of career success and personal failure
Conclusions: You've come a long way, babies! We've still got a long way to go.
Several issues warrant research attention. Some of them are: work-family conflict among corporate men, successful marital and family relationships, the changing definition of masculinity, and corporate men's feelings of self-worth independent of their organizational roles.
Pursuing this research agenda with both qualitative and quantitative approaches would help portray men as whole people. All too often men seem narrowly focused on work. Although corporate men are generally positive about their lives, this satisfaction is thin, and many seem to lack inner contentment. It is crucial to break the link between job and career success and individual positive regard. Corporate men may even participate in their organizations at levels of optimum performance once a healthy work and family balance is achieved. Moving away from norms of corporate masculinity may have several benefits for both corporate men and women. Men may become more effective managers, more available partners and fathers, and less achievement addicted.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Ronald J. Burke, Schulich School of Business, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3.
Rethinking Careers: Women Managers and Corporate Restructuring
Rekha Karambayya, York University
Corporate downsizing attempts have used one of three strategies to achieve workforce reductions: plan/location closure, layoff and voluntary separation. The research reported here explores how and why employees voluntarily leave the organization during restructuring. It attempts to revisit the decision of some senior women managers to leave a large corporation, and examines these decisions in the context of each woman's life and career goals.
Two broad sets of findings emerged from the study: one relating to restructuring and its effects on all employees, and another relating to the special challenges that women faced during restructuring. All of the respondents reported that the restructuring was extremely stressful, chaotic, and disorienting. They clearly saw it as a major event in their careers, and it triggered a reevaluation of their careers and lives. Most of these women reported that the restructuring required them to pay an enormous personal price to stay with the corporation, without offering any indication of future benefits. The organization was consistently perceived to have become more ruthless and intolerant toward employees. The atmosphere had become intensely competitive, pitting employees against each other at a time when they should have been pulling together.
Meanwhile, women faced a special set of challenges during the restructuring. They were over-represented in support functions that were the targets of cost-cutting. They were the most recent entrants into senior management and did not have personal and professional support networks. They were also faced with backlash against Employment Equity, and forced to justify their organizational positions by over-achieving.
This study makes two types of contributions to research on careers. First, it challenges the notion that voluntary separation from an organization is relatively painless for employees, showing that it is a complex and stressful choice often driven by a need to take control over ones career, rather than a downshifting of career commitments. Second, it suggests that women may face unique and irreconcilable conflicts within a restructuring organization, that have nothing to do with work-family conflict.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Rekha Karambayya, Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3
Conceptual Framework: Integrating a Public Health Model with Sexual Harassment as a Chronic Psycho-Social Problem
Cynthia S. Cycyota, Myrtle Bell, Ph.D., and James Campbell Quick, Ph.D. University of Texas at Arlington
Recent research focuses on both the impact of sexual harassment on the health of individual employees and the health of the workplace in general. Issues relating to the health of individual employees have centered on the negative psychological, physical, and motivation related outcomes. Much of the research regarding the psychological impacts of sexual harassment indicates it has a direct relationship with reductions in job satisfaction, and increases in health care costs often associated with stress. This research also suggests that the presence of sexual harassment has secondary impacts on the workers who were not direct targets of the harassing behavior. In short, the presence of sexual harassment in the workplace creates a negative and unproductive environment for the harassed and for other workers.
We argue that sexual harassment is a chronic psycho-social problem to which a preventive management, data-based approach can be applied. Such an approach would help identify precursors and early warning signs for sexual harassment in organizations. These signs could then be used to prevent the occurrence of sexual harassment and/or reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of its adverse affects.
Our model proposes three levels of sexual harassment intensity for actions that may occur in organizations. We propose primary, secondary, and tertiary strategies for the preventive management of sexual harassment at each level of intensity. This preventive model is intended to address the problem of sexual harassment in organizations. In order to have a truly healthy work environment, sexual harassment must be controlled or eliminated.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Cynthia S. Cycyota, Department of Management, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019.
The Allocation Of Time To Work And Family Roles: Do Spouses Matter?
Saroj Parasuraman and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus, Drexel University.
Survey data gathered from a matched sample of men and women in dual-earner relationships were used to examine the impact of each partner's work and family role orientations and involvement on the allocation of time to work and family roles. Viewing the couple as a social system, the study recognizes that not only are each partner's work and family roles interrelated, but there are also inter-dependencies between the role orientations and involvement of the two partners, and the time they allocate to their work and family roles. The study also investigates the effect of partners' investment of time in work and family roles on their work attitudes, family outcomes, and level of life stress.
Preliminary correlation analysis shows that there are similarities as well as interesting differences in the pattern of relationships of self and partner work and family variables with time allocated to work and family roles. The results show that time devoted to the work role is primarily influenced by the self rated importance of work, job involvement, and career priority among both dual-earner men and women. Self and partner family orientations have virtually no effect on the time allocated to the work role by dual-earner men, whereas dual-earner women's time allocation to work is inversely related to their spouse's career priority, their job involvement, and their rated importance of family.
These findings indicate the presence of gender asymmetry in the impact of partner work and family variables on the investment of time in the workplace. The results suggest that spouses do matter! Women's career outcomes appear to be constrained by their husbands' work and family orientations. Dual-earner women seem to subordinate their investment of time in the work role to their husbands' career priority and work and family importance. Multiple regression analysis will be conducted to assess the relative contribution of self and partner work and family variables to the allocation of time to work and family roles. Implications of the findings and directions for future research will be discussed.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Saroj Parasuraman, Department of Management, Drexel University, 321 Academic Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Development of Graduate-Level Curricula in Occupational Health Psychology: Symposium
Chairs: Steven L. Sauter, Ph.D., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Heather Roberts Fox, Ph.D., American Psychological Association; Presenters: Heather Roberts Fox, Ph.D., Christine R. Hartel, Ph.D., American Psychological Association; Carlla Smith, Ph.D., Bowling Green State University; Leon Rappoport, Ph.D., Kansas State University; Amy Iwan, University of Minnesota; Discussants: Tom Cox, Ph.D., University of Nottingham; Michael L. Colligan, Ph.D., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Rapidly changing conditions of work and employment have brought the topic of "work organization and health" to the forefront of concern in occupational safety and health. New initiatives by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the American Psychological Association have helped advance a new field of study – called "occupational health psychology – that focuses on the topic of work organization and health.
In 1997, the APA Science Directorate was awarded a 5-year cooperative agreement with NIOSH to fund the development and implementation of graduate-level training programs in university settings in the area of occupational health psychology. Vehicles for this training could include new courses or clusters of courses, graduate minor or masters/doctoral degree programs, or practica or internship experiences at the predoctoral level.
Three universities, Bowling Green State University, Kansas State University, and the University of Minnesota, received the first awards from APA in 1998. This symposium will feature an overview of APA’s role in OHP training programs, followed by three presentations from the university faculty representatives responsible for the curriculum development. Program participants will describe the development and implementation of their graduate-level model curricula. Audience discussion of the curricula will be encouraged.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Heather Roberts Fox, Ph.D., American Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, USA
An Overview of APA’s Role in Occupational Health Psychology Training Programs
Heather Roberts Fox, Ph.D., Christine R. Hartel, Ph.D., American Psychological Association
Despite a growing recognition of the need for research on prevalent workplace health issues, limited training is available for psychology students in the area of worker health and safety. To increase the number of graduate-level students trained with these skills, APA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are working together to promote the discipline of "occupational health psychology’ (OHP). In the broadest of terms, occupational health psychologist concerns the application of psychology to protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers, and to improving the quality of worklife. The primary focus of occupational health psychology is on organizational and job design factors that contribute to injury and illness at work including stress-related disorders.
In 1997, the APA Science Directorate was awarded a 5-year cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to fund the development and implementation of graduate-level training programs in university settings in the area of work organization, stress, and health. Universities may propose the development of a new survey course or clusters of courses, graduate minor or masters/doctoral degree programs, or practica or internship experiences at the predoctoral level.
This presentation will describe the development of model-curricula and the types of university-based activities that will be funded. For example, appropriate training activities under this program may include, but are not limited to (1) expansion of curricula in organizational psychology to provide a focus on organizational risk factors for stress, illness, and injury at work and on intervention strategies; (2) expansion of curricula and practica in clinical psychology to improve the recognition of job stress and its organizational sources; (3) expansion of curricula in human factors engineering to provide more of an exclusive focus on occupational safety and health; and (4) increased exposure of behavioral scientists to the research methods and practice in public health and epidemiology. Suggestions for how universities might plan this curriculum will be discussed.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Heather Roberts Fox, Ph.D., American Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, USA
Occupational Health Psychology at Bowling Green State University: Development of Graduate Minors
Carlla S. Smith, Ph.D., William H. O'Brien, Ph.D., Bowling Green State University
The graduate-level minor in Occupational Health Psychology (OHP) allows graduate students in both our Industrial-Organizational (I-O) Program and our APA-Approved Clinical Psychology Program to pursue a minor concentration within their Ph.D. specialization. Our approach is to provide broad training in OHP through graduate-level seminars, research projects, and applied practica. To implement the proposed curriculum, we are drawing upon the expertise of our colleagues in the Health College (an epidemiologist, industrial hygienist, and environmental chemist) at Bowling Green State University and in regional health care facilities and industrial settings.
The minor in OHP is founded on the scientist-practitioner model of training, which posits that in an emerging discipline there should be a minglement of scientific discovery and systematic application of research findings. The OHP students must first be formally accepted into our I-O or clinical graduate programs. Consistent with the goals of these programs, the students must obtain broad training in psychology and focused training in either I-O or Clinical Psychology. This training is provided by graduate faculty in the Psychology Department. Drs. Smith and O'Brien will provide formal OHP course work in their areas of specialization (occupational stress and health psychology, respectively). Interdisciplinary academic training in the work environment and epidemiology will be provided by faculty in the Health College.
Our OHP students are expected to obtain a variety of applied experiences in the real world. We anticipate that adjunct faculty employed at several regional health-related facilities, such as a local rehabilitation hospital and a regional assessment and treatment facility, will coordinate and supervise aspects of the students' applied training. In addition, we will attempt to secure applied experiences at local industrial settings, especially those which have corporate medical facilities or strong occupational safety and health departments. These applied experiences can take the form of applied research, practica, and internships.
Directed research is also a major component of our OHP Program. Students in the OHP minor are required to participate in a formal OHP Research Group (coordinated by Drs. Smith and O’Brien) for at least one year. The research projects may take the form of laboratory studies investigating basic problems in occupational health or field studies examining how worker behavior impacts their health and well-being.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Carlla S. Smith, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA
Kansas State University: Development of an OHP Curriculum
Leon Rappoport, Ph.D., Clive Fullagar, Ph.D., Ronald Downey, Ph.D., Kansas State University
In collaboration with faculty members from relevant areas concerned with health (Sociology, Family Studies, Foods and Nutrition, and Counseling), our department has developed a sequence of four interdisciplinary graduate courses aimed at covering all major aspects of occupational health. Designated as the OHP concentration, the courses will be taught and/or coordinated by psychology faculty in the Industrial-Organizational and Personality-Social specialty areas.
Our plan is to offer the four courses in a progressive cycle spanning four semesters, beginning Fall '99 with an introductory review/survey of the field. This will involve a series of lectures from each of the collaborating faculty indicating how their respective areas of expertise bear on occupational health and safety issues. It will be followed by a class on OHP research methods, emphasizing qualitative as well as quantitative techniques. Third will be a seminar providing in-depth discussion of individual and organizational health maintenance, improvement, and coping behaviors. The concentration will conclude with a practicum in which students will conduct supervised individual projects at local business and government sites.
Information about the OHP concentration has been placed in the psychology department home page on the internet and has attracted a number of inquiries. The course descriptions are also being circulated to graduate school applicants and current students in psychology and other social science degree programs. As a means of enhancing their range of teaching/research skills and qualifications for applied positions in government and industry, we are encouraging students to make these courses part of their degree programs.
Two extramural consultants from the fields of health and I-O psychology respectively, have reviewed and approved our course descriptions. The consultants will be making personal visits to the psychology department prior to the Fall '99 semester to offer suggestions about specific syllabus materials and to participate in the development of procedures for follow-on evaluations of the OHP concentration.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Leon Rappoport, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Kansas State University, Bluemont Hall, Manhattan KS., 66506-5302, USA
University Of Minnesota: Development of an OHP Curriculum
Amy L. Iwan and Jo-Ida C. Hansen, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
The tradition of the Counseling Psychology and I/O Psychology Programs at the University of Minnesota is consistent with the emergence of Occupational Health Psychology (OHP) as a discipline within the field of psychology. Emphases on individual differences, work, and applied psychology, as well as a dedication to empirical and quantitative methodologies and research, provide a solid foundation for an interdisciplinary Supporting Program/Minor developed using resources from the APA/NIOSH OHP training grant. The curriculum will be designed to train students to become research scientists and applied practitioners who have strong backgrounds and identities in psychology, specialized knowledge in counseling and I/O psychology, interdisciplinary knowledge relevant to occupational health, and research and applied experience relevant to OHP.
The OHP Supporting Program/Minor provides an ideal vehicle for organizing an inter-departmental occupational health curriculum that already is offered throughout the University of Minnesota but has never had an integrated focus. Occupational Health Psychology Survey and Research Seminars will be offered through the Department of Psychology and will be integrated into the curriculum for the OHP Supporting Program/Minor. Faculty from the Department of Psychology and related disciplines will contribute to these courses, and enrollment will be open to graduate students and undergraduate honors students in the Department of Psychology as well as to graduate students from other departments.
Students electing to complete the OHP Supporting Program/Minor will have opportunities for field experiences that will augment the scholarly and research skills acquired through academic training. For example, the Department of Psychology’s Vocational Assessment Clinic (VAC) provides an opportunity to develop applied assessment and counseling skills. VAC counselors use results of comprehensive testing to help clients identify the work environments that best fit their skills, interests, values, and personalities. In addition to the in-house VAC, the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul offer a plethora of corporate, industrial, and I/O consulting firms with which we are developing additional field opportunities. These practica will acquaint students with practice and practice issues relevant to employee training, employee assistance programs, wellness programming, and career counseling.
The Department of Psychology’s graduate programs strive to train students who are poised to make contributions to basic research, applied research, and professional practice. We anticipate that the graduate students electing to complete an OHP Supporting Program/Minor will have this same mix of science and practice aspirations and will make significant contributions to this growing field.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Amy L. Iwan, N218 Elliott Hall, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455