Race has a long and complicated history in the United States. According to research by psychologists and others, prejudice and discrimination are still problems in American society. Even people who think they’re not racist may have unconscious thoughts that lead to subtle discriminatory behaviors. Fortunately, the research also shows that contact between people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds can reduce stereotyping and prejudice.

Adapted from APA's amicus brief on Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger.

Understanding Racism

  • 'Not much has changed'

    One of the Little Rock Nine, psychologist Terrence Roberts shares his thoughts on the state of racial equality in psychology and the country.

  • Segregation Ruled Unequal, and Therefore Unconstitutional

    Psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark Ph.d demonstrated that segregation harmed Black children's self-images. Their testimony before the Supreme Court contributed to the landmark Supreme Court case that desegregated American public schools: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS.

Getting Help


Monitor on Psychology Articles


APA Offices and Programs